The American Association for the Surgery of Trauma (AAST) injury scoring scales are the most widely accepted and used system of classifying and categorizing traumatic injuries. Injury grade reflects severity, guides management, and aids in prognosis. Currently (early 2019), 32 different injury scores are available.
The most commonly used injury scoring grades are for the solid viscera:
Injury is classified according to either imaging, operative, or pathologic criteria - the highest classification is assigned the final AAST grade 2. Grading of spleen, liver, and kidney injuries has been validated, with increasing grades of injury correlating with increasing mortality, operative rate, and hospitalisation cost 3.
Other scales are less commonly used, including:
- cervical vascular injury
- chest wall
- thoracic vascular injury
- extrahepatic biliary tree
- small bowel
- abdominal vascular injury
- fallopian tube
- peripheral vascular organ injury
History and etymology
Early efforts to create an organized system for describing and grading traumatic organ injuries included 4:
- Abbreviated Injury Scale - developed in 1971 in collaboration with the automotive industry to improve vehicle safety, as well as the
- Injury Severity Score - developed in 1974, first to predict survival
- Abdominal Trauma Index - developed in 1981, updated for blunt trauma in 1990, organ-specific injury grading, estimating morbidity/mortality
In the last 1980s, the AAST formed an Organ Injury Scale (OIS) committee comprising trauma, orthopedic surgery, urology, and neurosurgery specialists in order to create a more comprehensive classification.
The first AAST OIS guidelines published in 1989 classified injuries of spleen, liver, and kidney 5.
- 1. The American Association for the Surgery of Trauma Injury scoring scales [website]
- 2. Organ injury scaling 2018 update. (2018) Journal of Trauma and Acute Care Surgery. 85 (6): 1119. doi:10.1097/TA.0000000000002058 - Pubmed
- 3. Tinkoff G, Esposito TJ, Reed J et-al. American Association for the Surgery of Trauma Organ Injury Scale I: spleen, liver, and kidney, validation based on the National Trauma Data Bank. J. Am. Coll. Surg. 2008;207 (5): 646-55. doi:10.1016/j.jamcollsurg.2008.06.342 - Pubmed citation
- 4. American Association for the Surgery of Trauma Organ Injury Scaling: 50th Anniversary Review Article of the Journal of Trauma. (2010) The Journal of Trauma: Injury, Infection, and Critical Care. 69 (6): 1600. doi:10.1097/TA.0b013e318201124e - Pubmed
- 5. Moore EE, Shackford SR, Pachter HL, McAninch JW, Browner BD, Champion HR, Flint LM, Gennarelli TA, Malangoni MA, Ramenofsky ML. Organ injury scaling: spleen, liver, and kidney. (1989) The Journal of trauma. 29 (12): 1664-6. Pubmed