Acute mastoiditis refers to a suppurative infection of the mastoid air cells. It is the most common complication of acute otitis media.
In acute otitis media, an inflammatory middle ear effusion is present that can freely move into the mastoid air cells. Consequently, some authors comment that a mild mastoiditis is technically present in nearly all cases of acute otitis media 6. The mere presence of mastoid fluid on imaging, however, does not change the management of otherwise uncomplicated acute otitis media. Thus, many clinicians reserve the diagnosis for when there are clinical signs or symptoms of inflammation involving the mastoid. When mastoiditis and acute otitis media occur concurrently, sometimes the term acute otomastoiditis is used.
When there is clinical evidence of acute mastoiditis, the initial stage is referred to as acute mastoiditis with periostitis, incipient mastoiditis, or mild mastoiditis 6,7. When mucoperiosteal involvement evolves into resorption of mastoid bony septae, this stage is referred to as coalescent mastoiditis. Coalescent mastoiditis is a radiologic diagnosis.
Acute mastoiditis, like acute otitis media, is largely a disease of childhood.
Acute mastoiditis characteristically presents with the postauricular tenderness, erythema, and swelling causing protrusion of the auricle. Common nonspecific findings include otalgia and fever. Abscess may present with fluctuance or palpable mass.
- subperiosteal abscess
- Bezold abscess
- Citelli abscess
- petrous apicitis: extension of infection into a pneumatised petrous apex; ~30% of the population has pneumatised petrous apex 2
- intracranial extension
- facial nerve dysfunction
- thrombosis of mastoid emissary vein ("Griesinger's sign")
Acute mastoiditis with periostitis is pathologically characterized by spread of infection through the mastoid emissary veins into the periostium. Acute coalescent mastoiditis is characterized by infiltration and destruction of the bone, essentially osteomyelitis.
H. influenzae, although less common, is the more aggressive agent, more frequently resulting in complications, especially meningitis.
- Streptococcus pneumoniae: most common
- Haemophilus influenzae: common and more aggressive than pneumococcus
- Aspergillus: aggressive; seen in older patients; frequently associated with facial nerve dysfunction
- tuberculous otomastoiditis: increasing frequency due to greater immunocompromised population
CT is the initial investigation of choice. Post-contrast imaging is helpful in assessing for associated soft tissue or intracranial complications.
- partial-to-complete opacification of the mastoid air cells, which is nonspecific but supportive of incipient mastoiditis in the appropriate clinical setting
- erosion of mastoid air cell bony septae, which establishes the diagnosis of coalescent mastoiditis
- erosion of the lateral wall of the mastoid, suggestive of subperiosteal abscess, or of the sigmoid plate, suggestive of epidural abscess
- mass with surrounding fat stranding or rim-enhancing collection deep to the sternocleidomastoid muscle, suggestive of Bezold abscess, or within the digastric triangle, suggestive of Citelli abscess
- erosion indicating osteomyelitis of the petrous apex (petrous apicitis, petrositis) or occipital bone (confusingly also known as Citelli abscess)
- cerebral abscess
- dural venous sinus thrombosis
- partial-to-complete opacification of the mastoid air cells +/- middle ear cleft
- fluid signal intensity in the mastoid should not be interpreted as mastoiditis without other evidence, such as mucosal contrast enhancement and/or diffusion restriction 5
Typical findings in mastoiditis include 4,5:
- T1: low signal
- T2: high signal
- DWI/ADC: diffusion restriction may be present
- T1 C+: mucosal contrast enhancement is present in the majority
Treatment and prognosis
Usually, antibiotics are all that is required for treatment.
- 1. Swartz JD, Harnsberger HR. Imaging of the temporal bone. Thieme Publishing Group. ISBN:3136884035. Read it at Google Books - Find it at Amazon
- 2. Mafee MF, Singleton EL, Valvassori GE et-al. Acute otomastoiditis and its complications: role of CT. Radiology. 1985;155 (2): 391-7. Pubmed citation
- 3. Vazquez E, Castellote A, Piqueras J, Mauleon S, Creixell S, Pumarola F, Figueras C, Carreño JC, Lucaya J. Imaging of complications of acute mastoiditis in children. (2003) Radiographics : a review publication of the Radiological Society of North America, Inc. 23 (2): 359-72. doi:10.1148/rg.232025076 - Pubmed
- 4. Saat R, Laulajainen-Hongisto AH, Mahmood G et-al. MR imaging features of acute mastoiditis and their clinical relevance. AJNR Am J Neuroradiol. 2014;36 (2): 361-7. doi:10.3174/ajnr.A4120 - Pubmed citation
- 5. Platzek I, Kitzler HH, Gudziol V et-al. Magnetic resonance imaging in acute mastoiditis. Acta Radiol Short Rep. 2014;3 (2): 2047981614523415. doi:10.1177/2047981614523415 - Free text at pubmed - Pubmed citation
- 6. McDonald MH, Hoffman MR, Gentry LR. When is fluid in the mastoid cells a worrisome finding?. (2013) Journal of the American Board of Family Medicine : JABFM. 26 (2): 218-20. doi:10.3122/jabfm.2013.02.120190 - Pubmed
- 7. Vazquez E, Castellote A, Piqueras J, Mauleon S, Creixell S, Pumarola F, Figueras C, Carreño JC, Lucaya J. Imaging of complications of acute mastoiditis in children. (2003) Radiographics : a review publication of the Radiological Society of North America, Inc. 23 (2): 359-72. doi:10.1148/rg.232025076 - Pubmed