Brain stones, also known as cerebral calculi, refers to large intracranial calcifications that may be solitary or multiple.
If symptomatic, patients most commonly present with seizures.
Localization of brain stones can help narrow the underlying etiology but the causes are numerous 1:
- calcifying tumors, e.g. oligodendrogliomas
- vascular, e.g. cavernous malformations, arteriovenous malformations, aneurysms
- infectious, e.g. congenital TORCH infections, tuberculosis, neurocysticercosis
- congenital, e.g. Sturge-Weber syndrome, tuberous sclerosis, intracranial lipomas
- metabolic, e.g. Fahr disease, hyper/hypoparathyroidism, pseudohypoparathyroidism
- intra- or extra-axial
- 1. Celzo FG, Venstermans C, De Belder F et-al. Brain stones revisited-between a rock and a hard place. Insights Imaging. 2013;4 (5): . doi:10.1007/s13244-013-0279-z - Free text at pubmed - Pubmed citation
- 2. Pryse-Phillips W. Companion to Clinical Neurology. Oxford University Press, USA. ISBN:B005OKZM9K. Read it at Google Books - Find it at Amazon