Classification of knee dislocation

  • Descriptive
    • Kennedy classification: based on the direction of displacement of the tibia
      • anterior (30-50%)
        • most common 
        • due to hyperextension injury
        • usually involves tear of PCL
        • an arterial injury is generally an intimal tear due to traction
      • posterior (30-40%)
        • 2nd most common 
        • due to axial load to the flexed knee (dashboard injury)
        • the highest rate of vascular injury (25%) based on Kennedy classification
        • the highest rate of a complete tear of the popliteal artery
      • lateral (13%)
        • due to a varus or valgus force
        • usually involves tears of both ACL and PCL
        • the highest rate of peroneal nerve injury
      • medial (3%)
        • varus or valgus force
        • usually disrupted PLC and PCL
      • rotational (4%)
        • posterolateral is most common rotational dislocation
        • usually irreducible
        • buttonholing of femoral condyle through the capsule
    • Schenck classification: based on a pattern of multiligamentous injury of knee dislocation (KD)
      • KD I: involvement of the ACL or PCL
      • KD II: Injury to ACL and PCL only (2 ligaments)
      • KD III: Injury to ACL, PCL, and PMC or PLC (3 ligaments)
        • KDIIIM (ACL, PCL, MCL) 
        • KDIIIL (ACL, PCL, PLC, LCL)
      • KD IV: Injury to ACL, PCL, PMC, and PLC (4 ligaments) 
        • it has the highest rate of vascular injury (5~15%)  
      • KD V: multiligamentous injury with periarticular fracture
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Article information

rID: 65783
Tag: cases, refs
Synonyms or Alternate Spellings:
  • Knee dislocation classification

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