Revision 7 for 'Fecal calprotectin'

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Fecal calprotectin

Fecal calprotectin is a polymeric protein which is a marker of inflammation of the gut used as a diagnostic tool and marker of disease activity for Crohn disease and ulcerative colitis.

Biochemistry

Calprotectin is a protein complex from the S-100 family, which is formed of three polypeptide chains, two heavy and one light 3. It was first purified in 1980 and called L1 protein by the group that discovered it, although like many proteins has had multiple names 3.

Distribution

It is found in especially heavy concentrations in neutrophils and monocytes, and more generally within skin cells, with an organ distribution including the lungs, gastrointestinal tract, oral and cervical mucosae and associated body fluids/secretions.

Assay

There are many commercially-available testing kits for calprotectin, many using ELISA (enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay) techniques. 

Clinical

Fecal calprotectin is primarily employed in two scenarios:

  1. distinguish inflammatory bowel disease from irritable bowel syndrome
  2. assay disease activity in inflammatory bowel disease

 

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