Gastro-esophageal reflux disease (GERD) is a spectrum of disease that occurs when gastric acid refluxes from the stomach into the lower end of the esophagus across the lower esophageal sphincter (LES).
Common clinical features in adults include epigastric and retrosternal burning sensations (heartburn or pyrosis), regurgitation leaving an acidic taste in the mouth, waterbrash (increased salivation), enamel erosions, and a chronic dry cough 1. Symptoms are particularly pronounced during the night 1.
In pediatrics, the presentation is often non-specific, with vomiting, upper and lower respiratory symptoms, irritability, aversion to food, and failure to thrive 2. A minority of pediatric patients with GERD (<1%) will additionally have spasmodic torticollis and dystonia, a constellation of symptoms known as Sandifer syndrome 3.
Minor reflux disease
In most patients with reflux disease, reflux is initiated by transient collapses of LES pressure. This results in the lower end of the esophagus being bathed in gastric acid for longer than normal. Patients may be symptomatic without developing endoscopic appearances of esophagitis (40% of cases). These patients will also have no detectable abnormality on a barium swallow.
Loss of appropriate LES function gives rise to symptoms of reflux and globus symptoms, e.g. sensation of a lump at the back of the throat. It is affected by anatomical and physiological abnormalities:
- prolonged fundal distension
- sphincter shortening
- repetitive transient LES pressure collapse
In normal patients, the intra-abdominal esophagus improves LES function. However, in patients with hiatus hernia, the amount of intra-abdominal esophagus is reduced and increases in intra-abdominal pressure are more likely to overcome the LES pressure and cause reflux.
Advanced reflux disease
In patients with a permanently low LES pressure, symptoms are generally more severe and there is evidence of disease in endoscopic or barium studies. Abnormalities that are radiologically detectable include:
- free reflux
- impaired primary peristalsis and poor clearance
- abnormal esophageal contractions
- esophagitis with scarring
- strictures, Barrett esophagus and aspiration
- sacculations and intramural pseudodiverticula
Theoretical response to acid
Traditional theories hold that GERD invokes a linear response of severity dependent on exposure to acid. Mild esophagitis progresses severe ulcerated esophagitis. This then progresses to Barrett esophagus and then, in a proportion of patients, dysplasia and eventually cancer develop.
Modern theory suggests that there is no such linear response to acid exposure in the lower osesophagus. Instead, the esophagus, under the stimulus of excess acid exposure, undergoes change in one of three ways:
- columnal lined esophagus (metaplastic): short-segment; long-segment; cancer
- reflux esophagitis (inflammatory): low grade; high grade; peptic stricture
- endoscopically negative GERD: little visible response but have significant symptoms
Treatment and prognosis
- medical treatment in minor cases
- surgery for advanced and resistant cases; fundoplication is the operation of choice, it can be done endoscopically or open surgery; a fold from the gastric fundus is wrapped around the lower esophageal junction to enforces the action of the sphincter
- 1. Bredenoord AJ, Pandolfino JE, Smout AJ. Gastro-oesophageal reflux disease. (2013) Lancet (London, England). 381 (9881): 1933-42. doi:10.1016/S0140-6736(12)62171-0 - Pubmed
- 2. Nelson SP, Chen EH, Syniar GM, Christoffel KK. Prevalence of symptoms of gastroesophageal reflux during infancy. A pediatric practice-based survey. Pediatric Practice Research Group. (1997) Archives of pediatrics & adolescent medicine. 151 (6): 569-72. Pubmed
- 3. Werlin SL, D'Souza BJ, Hogan WJ, Dodds WJ, Arndorfer RC. Sandifer syndrome: an unappreciated clinical entity. (1980) Developmental medicine and child neurology. 22 (3): 374-8. Pubmed
- 4. The Radiology Interactive Training Initiative (RITI), Royal College of Radiologists, UK
Related Radiopaedia articles
- esophageal dysmotility
- esophageal tumors
- benign esophageal neoplasms
- malignant esophageal neoplasms
- gastro-esophageal reflux disease
- esophageal stricture