Germinal matrix hemorrhage (grading)

Grading of germinal matrix hemorrhage has taken several forms over the years. The most commonly used system is the sonographic grading system proposed by Burstein, Papile et al. 


  • grade I
    • restricted to subependymal region/germinal matrix which is seen in the caudothalamic groove
    • overall good prognosis 4
  • grade II
    • extension into normal sized ventricles and typically filling less than 50% of the volume of the ventricle
    • overall good prognosis 4
  • grade III
    • extension into dilated ventricles
    • ~20% mortality
  • grade IV
    • grade III with parenchymal hemorrhage
    • 90% mortality 4

It was initially postulated that grade IV IVH represented parenchymal extension of ventricular hemorrhage. It is now recognized that grade IV IVH represents parenchymal hemorrhage secondary to venous infarction caused by compression of deep terminal veins by an expanded ventricle filled with blood.

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Article information

rID: 7600
System: Paediatrics
Synonyms or Alternate Spellings:
  • Germinal matrix hemorrhage grading
  • Grading of neonatal intracranial haemorrhages
  • Grading of neonatal intracranial hemorrhage
  • Grading of neonatal intracranial hemorrhages
  • Grading of neonatal intracranial haemorrhage

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Cases and figures

  • Grade I germinal ...
    Case 1: grade I
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  • Case 2: grade I
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  • Case 3: grade II
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  • Grade III germina...
    Case 4: grade III
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  • Case 5: grade III
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