Glasgow-Blatchford score

Last revised by Dr Daniel J Bell on 07 May 2022

The Glasgow-Blatchford score (GBS) is a widely-used and well-validated scoring system for upper GI bleeding and the need for intervention.

The scoring system relies upon knowing the patient's urea, hemoglobin, systolic blood pressure, and several other criteria. Each criterion is scored, and the points added together to give a single overall score.

Urea (mg/dL)

  • <18.2                   0 points
  • 18.2-22.3             2 points
  • 22.4-28                3 points
  • 28-70                   4 points
  • >70                      6 points

Hemoglobin (g/dL) - men

  • >13                      0 points
  • 12-13                   1 points
  • 10-12                   3 points
  • <10                      6 points

Hemoglobin (g/dL) - women

  • >12                     0 points
  • 10-1                    1 points
  • <10                     6 points

Systolic BP (mm Hg)

  • ≥110                   0 points
  • 100–109             1 points
  • 90–99                 2 points
  • <90                     3 points

Other criteria

  • pulse ≥100 per min            1 point
  • melena present                1 point
  • presentation with syncope  2 points
  • liver disease history           2 points
  • cardiac failure present       2 points
  • score may be anything from 0 to 23
  • score is 0: low risk - may be discharged home
  • score >0: high risk for active intervention
    • transfusion, endoscopy, or surgery

The Glasgow-Blatchford score was devised by a (now retired) Scottish public health specialist Oliver Blatchford (fl. 2022) et al, from studying a large population of patients in the city of Glasgow in 1997 1.

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