Gullo syndrome, also known as benign pancreatic hyperenzymaemia, is characterized by the abnormal elevation of the serum levels of most or all of the pancreatic enzymes without any evidence of underlying pancreatic pathology. All other laboratory assays and imaging studies are unremarkable.
Individuals are asymptomatic since they lack any underlying pancreatic disease.
Its cause remains unknown. It has been described in both sporadic and familial forms.
By definition of the disease amylase and lipase levels will be elevated three times the upper limit of normal for a period of over one year. Variations in the levels of the enzymes can occur from day-to-day.
Benign pancreatic hyperenzymaemia is a diagnosis of exclusion and by definition all imaging of the pancreas, including the ductal system, will be normal.
History and etymology
The syndrome was first described by Lucio Gullo (1938-2009) 4, a renowned Italian pancreatologist, in 1996 3.
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- 2. Gullo L. Benign pancreatic hyperenzymemia or Gullo's syndrome. (2006) JOP : Journal of the pancreas. 7 (2): 241-2; author reply 243-4. Pubmed
- 3. Gullo L. Chronic nonpathological hyperamylasemia of pancreatic origin. (1996) Gastroenterology. 110 (6): 1905-8. Pubmed
- 4. Tomassetti P, Pezzilli R, Migliori M, De Giorgio R. A Tribute to Lucio Gullo, MD (1938-2009). (2010) Pancreas. 39 (4): 423-4. doi:10.1097/MPA.0b013e3181d7871b
- 5. Schnedl WJ, Enko D, Mangge H, Schenk M, Lackner S, Holasek SJ. Benign pancreatic hyperenzymemia (Gullo syndrome), histamine intolerance, and carbohydrate malabsorption. (2017) Proceedings (Baylor University. Medical Center). 30 (2): 177-178. Pubmed