Hepatic myeloid sarcoma

Hepatic myeloid sarcomas, also referred to as hepatic granulocytic sarcoma or hepatic chloromas, are rare neoplasms comprised of myeloid precursor cells happening in the liver. They are commonly associated with acute myeloid leukemia (AML), but they may also occur with other myeloproliferative and myelodysplastic disorders. 

Please refer to the main article on myeloid sarcoma/chloroma for a broad discussion on this entity. 

Myeloid sarcomas occur in 3-5% of patients with acute myelogenous leukemia (AML). They are also associated with chronic myeloid leukemia (CML) and myelodysplastic syndromes 1.

More common locations for myeloid sarcoma are bones, lymph nodes, soft tissues, skin and breasts, with the liver involved less commonly (4% in one study) 2.

May present during remission or relapse of the underlying disease (occurs during remission in 20%) 2.

Consists of myeloid blasts or precursor cells. It sometimes stains green with the application of myeloperoxidase, hence the older term "chloroma" ("chloros" is the Greek word for "green").

Imaging features mimic hepatic lymphoma. A presumptive diagnosis of hepatic myeloid sarcoma is made in the setting of a patient with known AML.

  • more ill-defined margins than hepatic lymphoma
  • more heterogeneous enhancement than hepatic lymphoma
  • may result in biliary obstruction
  • FDG-PET: highly sensitive for detection

Myeloid sarcoma is predictive of a poor outcome for a patient's AML.

Hepatic myeloid sarcoma is treated with chemotherapy or targeted radiotherapy 3.

Hepatobiliary pathology
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Article information

rID: 34163
Synonyms or Alternate Spellings:
  • Hepatic granulocytic sarcoma
  • Hepatic chloroma
  • Myeloid sarcoma of the liver
  • Granulocytic sarcoma of the liver
  • Chloroma of the liver
  • Hepatic myeloid sarcomas

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