Kathleen C Clark (1896-1968) was a pioneer in the field of radiographic education standardization, authoring the radiographic positioning textbook, ‘Clark's Positioning in Radiography’, a textbook still in print to this day.
Early life and career
Kathleen Clara Clark, otherwise known as ‘Kitty’, completed her radiographic training at Guy’s Hospital, London in 1921, then working at Princess Mary’s Hospital, Margate until she moved to the Royal Northern Hospital, North London. It was at the Royal Northern Hospital that Clarke created a school of radiography. Prior to this, radiography education was not entirely consistent. This school became a standard which other radiography teaching courses could look up to.
1935 saw Kitty Clark co-founding the Ilford Radiographic Department, Tavistock House, London, a department renowned around the world for its high-quality standard of research.
Clark's Positioning in Radiography
1939 saw the first edition of Clark’s radiography textbook, ‘Clark’s Positioning in Radiography’, often cited as one of the most important textbooks in radiography to date.
This textbook, still in press and in high use today 2, not only standardized radiographic positioning and exposures, it did so with a style far from alienating format of scientific literature. Its accessibility, ease of use and overall standardization enabled a higher standard of radiographic education throughout the world.
Mass miniature radiography
Kitty Clarke dedicated a considerable portion of her career to the early detection of tuberculosis via the use of miniature radiography. Subsequently, Clarke published researched into the use of x-ray screen photography, a topic that generated considerable interest around the 1940s as a method to screen military personnel for service 3.
Clark published the book ‘Mass Miniature Radiography of Civilians’ in 1945, which became the go-to text on the subject 4.
Clark's work into mass miniature radiography earned her an MBE in 1945 for her service to the profession.
Awards and appointments
- first female president of the Society of Radiographers (1935-1937)
- Member of the British Empire (MBE) 1945
- author of the indispensable Clark’s Positioning in Radiography
- pioneer in the field of mass miniature radiography, later a heavily utilized tool in the detection of TB
- 1. Adrian M. K. Thomas, Arpan K. Banerjee. The History of Radiology. (2013) ISBN: 9780199639977
- 2. A. Stewart Whitley, Charles Sloane, Ken Holmes, Graham Hoadley, Craig Anderson. Clark's Positioning in Radiography. (2015) ISBN: 9781444122350
- 3. K. C. Clark, G. R. Mather Cordiner, Philip Ellman. Experiments in X-ray Screen Photography with Control Direct Radiographs. (2014) The British Journal of Radiology. doi:10.1259/0007-1285-14-158-54
- 4. Mass Miniature Radiography of Civilians for the Detection of Pulmonary Tuberculosis (Guide to Administration and Technique with a Mobile Apparatus Using 35-mm. Film: and Results of a Survey). (1945) Journal of the American Medical Association. 128 (6): 472. doi:10.1001/jama.1945.02860230076032 - Pubmed
Related Radiopaedia articles
History of radiology
- key milestones
- 1895: Wilhelm Roentgen detects x-rays
- 1896: Antoine Henri Becquerel discovers radioactivity
- 1896: Sydney Rowland founds the first radiology journal, Archives of Clinical Skiagraphy
- 1896: Thomas Edison invents the first commercially-available fluoroscope
- 1898: Marie Curie publishes her paper 'Rays emitted by uranium and thorium compounds'
- 1913: Albert Salomon commences research leading to mammography
- 1927: Egas Moniz develops cerebral angiography
- 1934: Frederic and Irene Joliot-Curie artificially produce radioisotopes
- 1936: John Lawrence uses phosphorus-32 to treat leukemia
- 1939: Kitty Clark publishes Clark’s Positioning in Radiography
- 1950s: David Kuhl invents Positron Emission Tomography (PET)
- 1953: Sven-Ivar Seldinger develops his famous technique
- 1957: Ian Donald invents fetal ultrasound
- 1964: Charles Dotter introduces image-guided intervention
- 1965: Benjamin Felson publishes his Principles of Chest Roentgenology
- 1972: Godfrey Hounsfield introduces the CT scanner (co-developed with Allan Cormack)
- 1977: Ray Damadian builds the first commercial MRI scanner
- 2005: Frank Gaillard creates Radiopaedia.org :)
- 2012: inaugural International Day of Radiology
key figures in the history of radiology
- Antoine Henri Becquerel
- Kathleen "Kitty" Clark
- Allan M Cormack
- Marie Curie
- Ray V Damadian
- Ian Donald
- Charles T Dotter
- Thomas A Edison
- Charles Thurstan Holland
- Godfrey N Hounsfield
- Frederick Joliot
- Irene Joliot-Curie
- David E Kuhl
- Paul C Lauterbur
- Peter Mansfield
- Egas Moniz
- Wilhelm C Roentgen
- Sven-Ivar Seldinger
- Albert Soiland
- Florence Stoney
- important figures in the history of radiology
- Nobel Prize winners in radiology
- history of modalities
- plain radiography
- nuclear medicine
- interventional radiology
- history of radiology journals
- history of radiology organizations
- United Kingdom
- United States
- pioneering radiology books