Laryngeal carcinoma (staging)

Laryngeal carcinoma staging refers to TNM staging of carcinomas involving the supraglottic, glottic, and subglottic larynx. The vast majority of applicable cases are squamous cell carcinomas, but other epithelial tumors are also included. The following article reflects the 8th edition published by the American Joint Committee on Cancer, which is used for staging starting January 1, 2018 1,2.

TX and Tis are the same for all three sites of the larynx:

  • TX: primary tumor cannot be assessed
  • Tis: carcinoma in situ

T1 through T3 are defined differently by laryngeal site:

  • T1: limited to vocal cord(s) with normal vocal cord mobility (may involve anterior or posterior commissure)
    • T1a: limited to one vocal cord
    • T1b: involves both vocal cords
  • T2: extends to supraglottis and/or subglottis, and/or with impaired vocal cord mobility
  • T3: limited to larynx with vocal cord fixation and/or invasion of paraglottic space and/or inner cortex of thyroid cartilage
  • T1: limited to subglottis
  • T2: extends to vocal cord(s) with normal or impaired vocal cord mobility (no cord fixation)
  • T3: limited to larynx with vocal cord fixation and/or invasion of paraglottic space and/or inner cortex of thyroid cartilage

T4 is the same for all three sites of the larynx:

Regional nodal status is defined the same as for most other cancers of the head and neck. See the main article, cervical lymph node (staging).

The terms pM0 and MX are not valid TNM categories. The following categories may be used, either in the clinical classification (c) for patients with cancer identified before treatment and/or in the pathological classification (p) for patients for whom surgery is the first definitive therapy:

  • cM0: no evidence of metastases
  • cM1: distant metastasis
  • pM1: distant metastasis, microscopically confirmed

The prognostic stage groups are defined the same as for most other cancers of the head and neck:

  • Stage 0
    • Tis, N0, M0
  • Stage I
    • T1, N0, M0
  • Stage II
    • T2, N0, M0
  • Stage III
    • T3, N0, M0
    • [T1, T2, T3], N1, M0
  • Stage IVA
    • T4a, [N0, N1], M0
    • [T1, T2, T3, T4a], N2, M0
  • Stage IVB
    • [Any T], N3, M0
    • T4b, [Any N], M0
  • Stage IVC
    • [Any T], [Any N], M1
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Article information

rID: 1567
Section: Staging
Synonyms or Alternate Spellings:
  • Larynx carcinoma staging
  • Larynx cancer staging
  • Laryngeal cancer staging
  • Staging of laryngeal SCC
  • Staging of laryngeal squamous cell carinoma
  • Staging of squamous cell carcinoma of the larynx
  • Staging of SCC of the larynx
  • Laryngeal SCC staging

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Cases and figures

  • Case 1: T4 disease
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  • Case 2: T3N0
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