Manganese (chemical symbol Mn) is one of the trace elements. It has an important biological role in the synthetic pathway for mucopolysaccharides, and it also is a cofactor for several enzymes.
Manganese has the atomic number 25 with an atomic weight of 54.94 g/mol. It is a transition metal.
Diet, absorption, transport and storage
In the normal human diet, manganese is primarily found in legumes, nuts and pulses, with smaller concentrations in leafy vegetables, tea, chocolate and several fruits (e.g. pineapple) 3.
Manganese has many important roles, involved in:
- formation and activation of enzymes, e.g. oxidoreductases, transferases, hydrolases, lyases, isomerases, and ligases
- metabolising carbohydrates and lipids
- synthesis of proteins, vitamins B and C
Manganese deficiency is not seen in humans 1.
Overexposure to manganese is typically due to occupational exposure or with environmental exposure to air and water pollution. Manganese toxicity, whether acute or chronic, is known as manganism. Chronic manganism leads to a Parkinson-like state 3.
- 1. William Alexander Newman Dorland. Dorland's Illustrated Medical Dictionary. (2018) ISBN: 9781416023647
- 2. Li L, Yang X. The Essential Element Manganese, Oxidative Stress, and Metabolic Diseases: Links and Interactions. (2018) Oxidative medicine and cellular longevity. 2018: 7580707. doi:10.1155/2018/7580707 - Pubmed
- 3. Chen P, Chakraborty S, Mukhopadhyay S, Lee E, Paoliello MM, Bowman AB, Aschner M. Manganese homeostasis in the nervous system. (2015) Journal of neurochemistry. 134 (4): 601-10. doi:10.1111/jnc.13170 - Pubmed
- 4. O'Neal SL, Zheng W. Manganese Toxicity Upon Overexposure: a Decade in Review. (2015) Current environmental health reports. 2 (3): 315-28. doi:10.1007/s40572-015-0056-x - Pubmed
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