Mitral valve prolapse

Mitral valve prolapse (MVP) is often defined as systolic bowing of the mitral leaflet more than 2 mm beyond the annular plane into the atrium 1. It is a common cause of mitral regurgitation (considered most frequent cause of severe non-ischemic mitral regurgitation 2).

It may affect up to 2-3% of the general population 3

Mitral leaflet bowing is caused by rupture or elongation of the chordae tendineae (often due to myxomatous degeneration). The middle scallop of the posterior leaflet (P2 segment) is most often affected.

The most common phenotype of mitral prolapse is considered to be diffuse myxomatous degeneration of the mitral valve (Barlow disease - mitral valve)

In mitral valve prolapse, the coaptation line lies behind the annular plane. On 2D echo, the diagnosis of a prolapse should be made in the parasternal or eventually the apical long-axis view and not on an apical four-chamber view, as the saddle shaped annulus could lead to a false positive diagnosis 5

It is usually repaired surgically. 

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Article information

rID: 45098
System: Cardiac
Synonyms or Alternate Spellings:
  • Prolapse of mitral valve
  • Mitral valve prolapse (MVP)

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