The nutcracker phenomenon (NCP), also known as left renal vein entrapment refers to a situation of impeded outflow from the left renal vein (LRV) into the inferior vena cava (IVC) as a result of compression and is often accompanied by demonstrable lateral (hilar) dilatation and mesoaortic narrowing. It can be a common incidental finding on routine CT imaging and many patient's can be asymptomatic 2.
If associated with relevant symptoms it is then known as the nutcracker syndrome.
- 1. Kurklinsky AK, Rooke TW. Nutcracker phenomenon and nutcracker syndrome. (2010) Mayo Clinic proceedings. 85 (6): 552-9. doi:10.4065/mcp.2009.0586 - Pubmed
- 2. Grimm LJ, Engstrom BI, Nelson RC, Kim CY. Incidental detection of nutcracker phenomenon on multidetector CT in an asymptomatic population: prevalence and associated findings. (2013) Journal of computer assisted tomography. 37 (3): 415-8. doi:10.1097/RCT.0b013e3182873235 - Pubmed
- 3. Hangge, Patrick, Gupta, Nikhil, Khurana, Aditya, Quencer, Keith, Albadawi, Hassan, Alzubaidi, Sadeer, Knuttinen, M-Grace, Naidu, Sailendra, Oklu, Rahmi. Degree of Left Renal Vein Compression Predicts Nutcracker Syndrome. (2018) Journal of Clinical Medicine. 7 (5): 107. doi:10.3390/jcm7050107