The term otosclerosis is somewhat of a misnomer. Much of the clinical course is characterized by lucent rather than sclerotic bony changes and hence it is more appropriately known as otospongiosis which is a term preferred by many head and neck radiologists.
Typically, patients present during their 4th and 5th decades. However, because the condition tends to have symptoms that gradually worsen, it is often difficult to precisely determine onset 6. Presentation during childhood is uncommon.
A female predilection is present with a F:M ratio of ~2:1. Caucasians are more frequently affected than other racial groups 6,7. In up to 50% of cases, a familial predisposition can be identified 7.
Histologic prevalence of otosclerosis has been reported between 3.4-10% in unselected Caucasian temporal bones 7.
Otosclerosis most commonly presents with hearing loss, most often conductive, but can also be sensorineural or mixed, and is frequently bilateral 3,9. The clinical course is usually slowly progressive over the years. Hearing loss may be exacerbated by pregnancy 6.
On otoscopy, there are usually minimal or no findings, except in severe cases where cochlear involvement can result in hyperemia of the cochlear promontory (Schwartze sign) 1-3. On pure-tone audiometry, there may be a characteristic decrease in bone conduction at 2000 Hz (Carhart notch).
The pathophysiology of otosclerosis is multifactorial and incompletely understood, with genetic, viral, inflammatory, and autoimmune components 9,10.
Two phases are described: early/active (otospongiosis) and late/inactive (otosclerosis). In the early phase, lesions consist predominantly of histiocytes, osteoblasts, and osteocytes, the latter being the most active cell group. The bone around pre-existing blood vessels is absorbed, creating a better microcirculation. Eventually, osteoblasts become more involved, resulting in the formation of irregular foci of new spongy bone 9. This new bone appears densely blue on hematoxylin and eosinophil staining and is known as the blue mantles of Manasse.
There are two subtypes:
- fenestral (stapedial): ~80%
- retrofenestral (cochlear): ~20%
NB: the prefix 'retro' does not mean 'posterior' but rather 'behind', as in 'deep to', the medial wall of the middle ear from the perspective of otoscopy.
Retrofenestral otosclerosis usually occurs with fenestral involvement, so the two entities are considered a continuum rather than distinct 11.
Thin-slice CT scan through the temporal bones, also called as high-resolution CT, is the imaging modality of choice. Axial and coronal (or preferably 20 degrees coronal) thin-slice bone algorithm non-contrast scans are needed to adequately demonstrate the inner ear structures and subtle early changes 1-3.
On imaging, two main types of presentation have been described:
Findings depend on the phase of the disease:
- otospongiotic phase
- there are demineralization and formation of spongy bone, manifest as decreased attenuation (lucency) within the normally homogeneously dense border of the otic capsule
- otosclerotic phase
- the region increases in attenuation
- as otosclerotic bone may be difficult to distinguish from surrounding normal bone, some have identified diagnostic criteria using the thickness of the otic capsule or an abnormally convex contour of the otic capsule cortex anterolateral to the anterior margin of the oval window 13
- in severe cases, the oval window and/or, less commonly, the round window is completely filled in by a dense bony plate (with complete fixation of the stapes)
CT grading system (Symons and Fanning)
Various authors have used CT grading systems of otosclerosis in their studies. In 2009, a Lee et al 3 article assured that the Symons and Fanning CT grading system yields excellent interobserver and intraobserver agreement:
- solely fenestral, either spongiotic or sclerotic lesions, evident as a thickened stapes footplate, and/or decalcified, narrowed or enlarged round or oval windows
- patchy localized cochlear disease (with or without fenestral involvement)
- grade 2A: basal cochlear turn involvement
- grade 2B: middle / apical turns involvement
- grade 2C: both the basal turn and the middle / apical turns involvement
- patchy localized cochlear disease (with or without fenestral involvement)
- diffuse confluent cochlear involvement of the otic capsule (with or without fenestral involvement)
MRI has a limited role. In retrofenestral otosclerosis, pericochlear, and perilabyrinthine soft tissue intensity signal on T1 with contrast enhancement may be demonstrated. Increased T2 signal may also be present 8.
Treatment and prognosis
A stapedectomy with stapes prosthesis is the treatment of choice for fenestral otosclerosis 4.
In the first part of the 20th century, a procedure referred to as fenestration was performed, in which a neo-window was created in the lateral semicircular canal or vestibule to allow passage of sound waves into the inner ear, bypassing the ossicular chain. These changes should not be mistaken with labyrinthine fistulae or middle and inner ear malformations 4.
History and etymology
It was first described by the Italian anatomist, Antonio Maria Valsalva (of the maneuver fame) in 1735.
- 1. Mafee MF, Valvassori GE, Deitch RL et-al. Use of CT in the evaluation of cochlear otosclerosis. Radiology. 1985;156 (3): 703-8. Radiology (abstract) [pubmed citation]
- 2. Mafee MF, Valvassori GE, Becker M. Imaging of the head and neck. George Thieme Verlag. (2004) ISBN:1588900096. Read it at Google Books - Find it at Amazon
- 3. Lee TC, Aviv RI, Chen JM et-al. CT grading of otosclerosis. AJNR Am J Neuroradiol. 2009;30 (7): 1435-9. doi:10.3174/ajnr.A1558 [pubmed citation]
- 4. Niyazov D, Borges A, Ishiyama A et-al. Fenestration surgery for otosclerosis: CT findings of an old surgical procedure. AJNR Am J Neuroradiol. 2000;21 (9): 1670-2. AJNR Am J Neuroradiol (full text) [pubmed citation]
- 5. Lee TC, Aviv RI, Chen JM et-al. CT grading of otosclerosis. AJNR Am J Neuroradiol. 2009;30 (7): 1435-9. doi:10.3174/ajnr.A1558 [pubmed citation]
- 6. Otosclerosis and Stapedectomy. Christopher, M.D. De Souza, Michael E., M.D. Glasscock. Thieme Medical Publishers ISBN:1588901696 (find it at amazon.com)
- 7. Otosclerosis And Stapes Surgery. Wolfgang Arnold (Editor), Rudolf Hausler (Editor). Not Avail ISBN:3805581130 (find it at amazon.com)
- 8. Goh JP, Chan LL, Tan TY. MRI of cochlear otosclerosis. Br J Radiol. 2002;75 (894): 502-5. Br J Radiol (full text) [pubmed citation]
- 9. Rudic M, Keogh I, Wagner R, Wilkinson E, Kiros N, Ferrary E, Sterkers O, Bozorg Grayeli A, Zarkovic K, Zarkovic N. The pathophysiology of otosclerosis: Review of current research. Hearing research. 330 (Pt A): 51-6. doi:10.1016/j.heares.2015.07.014 - Pubmed
- 10. Chole RA, McKenna M. Pathophysiology of otosclerosis. Otology & neurotology : official publication of the American Otological Society, American Neurotology Society [and] European Academy of Otology and Neurotology. 22 (2): 249-57. Pubmed
- 11. Purohit B, Hermans R, Op de Beeck K. Imaging in otosclerosis: A pictorial review. (2014) Insights into imaging. 5 (2): 245-52. doi:10.1007/s13244-014-0313-9 - Pubmed
- 12. Mansour S, Nicolas K, Ahmad HH. Round window otosclerosis: radiologic classification and clinical correlations. (2011) Otology & neurotology : official publication of the American Otological Society, American Neurotology Society [and] European Academy of Otology and Neurotology. 32 (3): 384-92. doi:10.1097/MAO.0b013e3182096e80 - Pubmed
- 13. Sanghan N, Chansakul T, Kozin ED, Juliano AF, Curtin HD, Reinshagen KL. Retrospective Review of Otic Capsule Contour and Thickness in Patients with Otosclerosis and Individuals with Normal Hearing on CT. (2018) AJNR. American journal of neuroradiology. 39 (12): 2350-2355. doi:10.3174/ajnr.A5892 - Pubmed
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