Pelvic organ prolapse

Last revised by Dr Vikas Shah on 20 Oct 2021

Pelvic organ prolapse refers to a pathological downward herniation of various pelvic organ structures into or through the perineum. It usually results from a pelvic floor weakness by impairment of various ligaments, fasciae, and muscles that support the pelvic organs.

The prolapse can include one or a combination of structures which comprise of: 

Dynamic pelvic floor MRI and evacuation proctography can be used to evaluate pelvic organ prolapse, with the former enabling measurements to be made that can then allow grading of prolapse.

History and etymology

The word "prolapse" literally means 'fall out of place'. 

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Cases and figures

  • Case 1: urinary bladder prolapse
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  • Case 2: external rectal prolapse
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  • Case 3: uterine prolapse and cystocele
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