Risk factors for testicular germ cell tumors

Dr Henry Knipe and Dr Andrew Dixon et al.

Risk factors for testicular germ cell tumors (GCT) include:

  • Caucasians at higher risk than African Americans (9:1)
  • undescended testis
    • 10-40x increased risk 
    • around 10% of all tumors are associated with undescended testis
    • higher risk if intra-abdominal testis compared with intra-inguinal
    • orchidopexy prior to puberty can reduce the tumor risk
    • increased risk in the contralateral normally descended testis
  • previous tumor in contralateral testis
  • family history of testicular germ cell tumor
    • 4x increase if father affected
    • 9x if brother affected
  • testicular microlithiasis
    • ~8x increased risk of GCT in symptomatic testicle with microlithiasis 1
    • no increased risk found in asymptomatic testicles therefore screening is unlikely to be useful
    • overall, microlithiasis is present in around 50% of GCT cases, but it is also very common in patients without cancer
  • testicular dysgenesis 
  • other risk factors may include
    • infections such as HIV, orchitis 
    • history of trauma 
    • organ transplant immunosuppression

See also

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Article information

rID: 10149
System: Urogenital
Section: Gamuts
Tag: refs, cases
Synonyms or Alternate Spellings:
  • Testicular germ cell tumour risk factors
  • Testicular GCT risk factors
  • Risk factors for testicular GCT
  • Risk factors for testicular germ cell tumour

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