Scrotal pyoceles are typically a complication of epididymo-orchitis or testicular abscess but can also occur following trauma or surgery. The purulent fluid collection generally arises from communication between the infected testicle or testicular abscess and an existing hydrocele, through the mesothelial lining of the tunica vaginalis.
Ultrasound is the imaging modality of choice for investigation of scrotal pain and swelling, or follow-up of a known epididymo-orchitis. Features of pyocele on ultrasound are:
- complex, heterogeneous fluid collection in the scrotal sac with septa
- gas may be present causing hyperechoic foci and shadowing
If the pyocele organizes into a scrotal abscess, there will be a distinct well-demarcated hyperemic wall around the purulent fluid collection.
Treatment and prognosis
Conservative management with antibiotics is generally sufficient for treatment of a pyocele, however surgical debridement may be necessary in more severe cases.
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