Articles

Articles are a collaborative effort to provide a single canonical page on all topics relevant to the practice of radiology. As such, articles are written and edited by countless contributing members over a period of time. A global group of dedicated editors oversee accuracy, consulting with expert advisers, and constantly reviewing additions.

15,920 results found
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Double aortic arch

Double aortic arches are the most common symptomatic type of the aortic arch variant. It may account for up to 50-60% of vascular rings. Clinical presentation Double aortic arch is mostly diagnosed in childhood due to symptoms related to esophageal and/or tracheal obstruction. Respiratory symp...
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Tangential calcium sign

A tangential calcium sign is a sign seen with an aortic aneurysm rupture. The calcified intimal rim is discontinuous and is seen to tangentially point away from the aneurysmal lumen. This sign is seen at the point of breach. There is associated retroperitoneal leakage.
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Aortocaval fistula

Aortocaval fistula is a rare and devastating complication of abdominal aortic aneurysm (AAA), where in the aneurysm erodes into the inferior vena cava. Epidemiology Spontaneous rupture of an abdominal aortic aneurysm into the adjacent inferior vena cava occurs in <1% of all aneurysms and in ~...
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Abdominal aortic aneurysm rupture

Abdominal aortic aneurysm (AAA) rupture is a feared complication of abdominal aortic aneurysm and is a surgical emergency. It is part of the acute aortic syndrome spectrum. Epidemiology Abdominal aortic aneurysms are common and affect ~7.5% of patients aged over 65 years 6. Clinical presentat...
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Exophytic hepatic mass

Exophytic hepatic mass or tumor is a lesion which predominantly lies outside the margins of liver but originates from within the liver. Pathology Causes include 1: benign  hepatic hemangioma hepatic adenoma hepatic cyst hepatic angiomyolipoma focal nodular hyperplasia malignant  hepati...
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Spontaneous retroperitoneal hemorrhage

Spontaneous retroperitoneal hemorrhage (SRH) is a distinctive clinical pathology of retroperitoneal bleeding without a preceding history of trauma. For a broader discussion, including other etiologies, please refer to the parental article on retroperitoneal hemorrhage.  Clinical presentation ...
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Retroperitoneal hemorrhage

Retroperitoneal hemorrhage can be a source of significant yet occult blood loss. Terminology Some articles conflate and/or confuse retroperitoneal hemorrhage and Wunderlich syndrome 5. However Wunderlich syndrome refers primarily to bleeding around the kidney, not the retroperitoneum in genera...
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Tumor-to-tumor metastasis

A tumor-to-tumor metastasis, also known as a collision tumor, is a rare metastatic process in which a primary malignant tumor ('donor') metastasizes to another tumor ('recipient'), most commonly a benign tumor such as a meningioma. Epidemiology Tumor-to-tumor metastasis is considered very rare...
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Small aorta (differential)

Causes of a small aorta include: Williams syndrome Takayasu arteritis giant cell arteritis neurofibromatosis midaortic syndrome small aorta syndrome idiopathic
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Splenic haemangiomatosis

Splenic haemangiomatosis involves multiple, diffuse splenic hemangiomas replacing its entire parenchyma and is very rare. Epidemiology Associations Reported associations include Klippel-Trénaunay-Weber syndrome Kasabach-Merritt syndrome 6 Pathology It can occur as a manifestation of syste...
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Pulmonary infiltrates

The term pulmonary infiltrate is considered a context-dependent, non-specific and imprecise descriptive term when used in radiology reports (plain film or CT). From a pathophysiological perspective, the term "infiltrate" refers to “an abnormal substance that accumulates gradually within cells o...
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Flash filling hepatic hemangioma

Flash filling hepatic hemangiomas, also known as flash filling hepatic venous malformations, are a type of atypical hepatic hemangioma, which due to its imaging features often raises the concern of a malignant process rather than a benign one.  Terminology It is important to note that accordin...
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Pulmonary sequestration (intralobar)

Intralobar pulmonary sequestration (ILS) is a subtype of pulmonary sequestration.  Clinical presentation Patients usually present before the third decade with recurrent infection. Pathology It is the commoner type of pulmonary sequestration (four times commoner than extralobar sequestration)...
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Thoracic endometriosis

Thoracic endometriosis is an uncommon location for endometriosis and the main cause of catamenial pneumothorax.  Epidemiology Most often occurs in the third and fourth decades of life 3. Clinical presentation Symptoms may include: catamenial pleuritic chest pain catamenial hemoptysis: when...
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Spoke wheel pattern in kidney

A spoke wheel pattern in renal imaging refers to a vascular appearance seen with certain renal tumors, typically seen in oncocytomas but can also be seen in renal cell carcinomas.  This appearance refers to a peripheral rim of vessels from which centripetal vessels converge centrally giving the...
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Threads and streaks sign

The threads and streaks sign refers to an angiographic appearance of a vascularized tumor thrombus extending into the ipsilateral renal vein or the inferior vena cava from a renal cell carcinoma. This gives an appearance of linear, thread-like or string-like appearance of the involved vessel.  ...
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Pie in the sky bladder

Pie in the sky bladder refers to the appearance of a contrast-opacified floating bladder seen high in the pelvis due to the presence of a large pelvic hematoma. This sign should raise concern regarding the possibility of an underlying urethral injury.
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Spaghetti sign (bladder)

The spaghetti sign may be seen in upper urinary tract bleeding. It refers to the presence of a linear worm- or spaghetti-like filling defect within a contrast-opacified bladder 1,2. This linear filling defect represents blood clot extruded from the ureter and thereby molded into a tubular shape...
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Os intermetatarseum

The os intermetatarseum is an uncommon accessory ossicle of the foot occurring in ~4% (range 1-7%) of the population.  Clinical presentation It is usually asymptomatic and an incidental finding although it can be a cause of dorsal midfoot pain.  Gross anatomy The os intermetarseum is typical...
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Extrapleural sign

The extrapleural sign, described by Ben Felson in 1973 1, refers to the appearance of a pulmonary opacity with oblique margins that taper slowly to the chest wall when the lesion is viewed tangentially to the x-ray beam. This appearance suggests that the lesion is pleural or extrapleural in natu...
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Male urethra

The male urethra is a fibromuscular tube that drains urine from the bladder. It has a longer, more complicated, course than the female urethra and is also more prone to pathology. Gross anatomy The male urethra measures, on average, 18-20 cm in length. It commences at the internal urethral ori...
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Myocardial bridging of the coronary arteries

Myocardial bridging is a common congenital anomaly of the coronary arteries where a coronary artery courses through the myocardium.  Epidemiology It is found approximately in 20-30% of the adult population in autopsy studies. The incidence in coronary angiograms is between 2-15% and can be eas...
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Bullet and bodkin sign

Bullet and bodkin sign is the appearance of the ureter when there is an abrupt transition in the ureteral caliber. Bullet in the name is represented by the dilated proximal ureteric segment which appears to be perched on the constricted / non-dilated encased ureter which gives an appearance of a...
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Maiden waist deformity

A maiden waist deformity or sign is a name given to the appearance when there is medial deviation of both ureters. This typically occurs in retroperitoneal fibrosis. In this condition, there is medial indrawing of the ureters due to deposition of fibrous tissue in the retroperitoneum at the leve...
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Moth eaten calyces

Moth eaten calyx refers to the ragged, feathery calyceal outline due to irregular erosions of the calyx. It is one of the earliest excretory urographic appearance of genitourinary tuberculosis.  Pathology This appearance is due to necrotizing papillitis, which may further progress to form medu...
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Renal hilar lip

A renal hilar lip is a developmental anomaly of the kidney. It is an infolding of the cortex at the level of the renal sinus and in this region the renal cortex appears thicker.  Radiographic features On imaging it appears as supra- or infra-hilar cortical bulges. At certain levels of cross-se...
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Kidney sweat sign

The kidney sweat sign refers to the presence of thin, hypoechoic, extracapsular fluid collections around kidneys in renal failure patients. This fluid is thought to represent perirenal edema. It can be appreciated on ultrasound, CT and MRI.  Differential diagnosis perirenal hematoma perirenal...
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Big rib sign

The big rib sign is a sign to differentiate right and left ribs on lateral chest radiographs.  It exploits a technique of magnification differences on lateral projections between right and left ribs. For example, on right lateral projections the left ribs appear larger than right ribs.  This s...
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Companion shadows

Companion shadows are smooth, homogeneous, radiopaque shadows running parallel along the bones. In a study of 700 chest radiographs, Ben Felson found that 75% had companion shadows on the lower ribs 3. Radiographic features They appear secondary to soft tissues and intercostal muscles running ...
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Pulmonary nodular lymphoid hyperplasia

Pulmonary nodular lymphoid hyperplasia (PNLH) is a type of benign lymphoproliferative disease that can affect the lung. Epidemiology It can present in any age group although the majority of cases present between 50 and 70 years of age 6. Clinical presentation Most cases are usually asymptoma...
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Nodular lymphoid hyperplasia

Nodular lymphoid hyperplasia (NLH) is a type of rare, benign, lymphoproliferative disease. It is most commonly reported affecting the gastrointestinal and respiratory systems. The presence of gut/mucosa associated lymphoid tissue (GALT/MALT) can be seen in children and young adults as a normal ...
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Balloon on a string sign (ureter)

The balloon on a string sign refers to the appearance of the ureter on intravenous urography in ureteropelvic junction obstruction. It is seen due to the high and eccentric point of the exit of ureter from a dilated renal pelvis. 
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Spotted nephrogram

A spotted nephrogram is a descriptive term indicating an appearance of patchy, segmental and subsegmental renal parenchymal enhancement. Pathology The pattern is indicative of focal areas of cortical ischemia or necrosis, as a result of small vessel occlusion. This abnormal perfusion pattern c...
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Cystic lesions of the spleen (mnemonic)

A mnemonic for causes of cystic lesions in the spleen is: TEAM Mnemonic T: trauma E: echinococcal A: abscess M: metastasis
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Bladder wall calcification (mnemonic)

A mnemonic for the causes of bladder wall calcification is: CREST Mnemonic C: cystitis post radiation therapy/chemotherapy/chronic infection R: radiation E: eosinophilic cystitis S: schistosomiasis T: tuberculosis
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Cleft epiphysis

Cleft epiphysis is a normal variant of an epiphysis. It can be either unilateral or bilateral. The most common site is the epiphysis of the first proximal phalanx of the foot. Radiographic features Plain radiograph Plain radiographs will demonstrate a lucent defect in the epiphysis. The borde...
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Renal arterial cut-off sign

Renal arterial cut-off sign, as the name suggests, is an abrupt termination of the contrast-opacified lumen of the renal artery. It may or may not be associated with contrast extravasation. It is seen in a vascular injury, e.g. segmental or main renal artery thrombosis or occlusion.
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Female prostate sign

Female prostate sign is a characteristic imaging sign seen in patients with a large urethral diverticulum.  A large urethral diverticulum in females surrounds the urethra, and elevates the base of the bladder, mimicking the typical appearance of enlarged prostate in males.
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CSF otorrhea

CSF otorrhea is defined as leakage of cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) from the subarachnoid space into the middle ear cavity or mastoid air cells and then out the ear via a perforation in the tympanic membrane or defect in the external ear. Epidemiology There are a number of underlying causes, and t...
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Beak sign (pyloric stenosis)

Beak sign in pyloric stenosis is one of the fluoroscopic (barium meal) findings which is useful in the diagnosis of congenital hypertrophic pyloric stenosis. Radiographic features Barium meal A beak-like tapering projection of barium is seen entering into the narrowed and compressed pyloric c...
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Os supranaviculare

An os supranaviculare is an accessory ossicle of the foot, located at the proximal dorsal aspect of the navicular bone or talonavicular joint. It is also known as Piries bone, talonavicular dorsale, or (dorsal) talonavicular ossicle and is present in ~1% of the population.  Differential diagnos...
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Abnormal collection of barium anywhere (mnemonic)

A mnemonic used for abnormal collection of barium anywhere in the body: FED UP Mnemonic F: fistula E: extravasation D: diverticulum U: ulcer P: perforation
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Wartenberg syndrome

Wartenberg syndrome, also known as cheiralgia paresthetica, is due to compression of the superficial branch of the radial nerve in the distal forearm and a rare nerve compression neuropathy. Clinical presentation Patients present with pain and paresthesia along the dorsum of the distal forearm...
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Fetal MCA systolic/diastolic ratio

Fetal MCA systolic/diastolic (S/D) ratio is an important parameter in fetal middle cerebral arterial Doppler assessment. It is a useful predictor of fetal distress and intrauterine growth restriction (IUGR).  Interpretation Normal  During pregnancy the middle cerebral (and other intracranial)...
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Gilula three carpal arcs

Gilula three carpal arcs are used in the assessment of normal alignment of the carpus on PA wrist radiographs. They entail: first arc: is a smooth curve outlining the proximal convexities of the scaphoid, lunate and triquetrum second arc: traces the distal concave surfaces of the same bones t...
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Hyrtl fissure

Hyrtl fissure (also known as tympanomeningeal fissure) is a congenital infralabyrinthic fissure through the petrous temporal bone. It is a very rare cause of spontaneous CSF otorrhea and meningitis. Development This fissure is present in the developing fetal petrous temporal bone and is typica...
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CT cisternography

Computed tomography (CT) cisternography is an imaging technique used to diagnose CSF rhinorrhea or CSF otorrhea (CSF leaks), as CT allows the assessment of the bones of the base of the skull.  Procedure pre-contrast CT is performed with thin slices 3-10 mL of an iodinated non-ionic low-osmola...
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Tulip bulb sign

Tulip bulb sign refers to the characteristic appearance of annuloaortic ectasia as seen on CT angiography. There is symmetric dilatation of the three sinuses of Valsalva, with extension into the ascending aorta and effacement of the sinotubular junction.  It is seen especially in Marfan syndro...
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Pulmonary ossification

Pulmonary ossification is a rare finding and is characterized by the presence of mature bone in alveolar or interstitial spaces, either localized or disseminated throughout the lung parenchyma. It can be idiopathic (idiopathic pulmonary ossification) or secondary to chronic lung, cardiac or sys...
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Secondary pulmonary hemosiderosis

Secondary pulmonary hemosiderosis (SPH) is a form of pulmonary hemosiderosis. This is considered the less common form and is usually due to conditions such as collagen vascular diseases, coagulation disorders, and congestive heart failure 3 (especially mitral stenosis).
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Pulmonary hypertension (2008 classification)

The classification system for pulmonary hypertension was revised at the 4th World Symposium on Pulmonary Hypertension held in Dana Point, California, in 2008 1. This system is as follows: group 1: pulmonary arterial hypertension 1.1: idiopathic pulmonary arterial hypertension 1.2: heritable ...
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Perirenal cobweb

Perirenal cobwebs are the presence of prominent perinephric septa. It is best appreciated on CT images. Pathology The cobweb is considered to be due to engorged venous collaterals or due to edema and fluid extravasation into the perirenal space 1. Perirenal cobwebs may be seen in many benign ...
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Sneddon syndrome

Sneddon syndrome is a type of systemic non-inflammatory vasculopathy characterized by livedo reticularis and progressive and occlusive cerebrovascular thrombosis involving the medium-sized arteries. Epidemiology Sneddon syndrome is more common in females, and tends to affect a young adult popu...
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Beta-propeller protein-associated neurodegeneration

Beta-propeller protein-associated neurodegeneration (BPAN) is a rare subtype of neurodegeneration with brain iron accumulation disease (NBIA). It was previously known as static encephalopathy with neurodegeneration in childhood (SENDA), but it was renamed after the underlying genetic abnormalit...
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Mulberry stone

A mulberry stone is one of the types of urinary tract stones. It is formed of calcium oxalate dihydrate. It can be considered as a subset of a jackstone calculus which has a spiked appearance. When the stone has less well-developed spikes, it may appear to have a mamillated appearance, hence it ...
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Orbital gyrus

The orbital gyri are located on the inferior surface of the frontal lobe. There are four gyri and they are divided by the H-shaped orbital sulci. They have a role in the perception of odors.   Gross anatomy The medial orbital gyrus is separated from the gyrus rectus (or straight gyrus) by the ...
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Endocrine venous sampling

Endocrine venous sampling is a set of similar interventional techniques proposed for the specific diagnosis of some endocrine disorders such as:  inferior petrosal sinus sampling evaluates for ACTH-secreting pituitary adenoma as etiology for endogenous Cushing syndrome selective venous sampli...
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Haglund deformity

Haglund deformity, also known as a pump bump, Bauer bump, or Mulholland deformity, is defined as bony enlargement formed at the posterosuperior aspect of the calcaneum. This deformity leads to retrocalcaneal bursitis. Pathology Haglund deformity may result from the chronic pressure of rigid sh...
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Omphalomesenteric fistula

Omphalomesenteric fistula occurs as a result of failure of obliteration of the omphalomesenteric duct. It is one of the congenital fistulas of the gastrointestinal tract. The treatment of choice is often a partial transumbilical resection with umbilical restitution. See also gut fistulation
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Epigastric hernia

Epigastric hernias, also known as fatty hernias of the linea alba, occur ventrally through a defect in the linea alba, superior to the umbilicus. Epidemiology Risk factors obesity  pregnancy Radiographic features Ultrasound Shows a midline defect which is usually small with or without her...
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Inferior lumbar triangle

The inferior lumbar triangle, also known as the Petit triangle, is an anatomical space through which inferior lumbar hernias can occur. It is not to be confused with the adjacent superior lumbar triangle (of Grynfeltt-Lesshaft). Gross anatomy Boundaries inferiorly: iliac crest anteriorly: ex...
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Angiosarcoma involving the lung

Angiosarcoma involving the lung includes: metastatic angiosarcoma to lung 1  commoner usual primary sites include the heart and breast 2 primary pulmonary angiosarcoma: very rare See also angiosarcoma
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Pelvic kidney

Pelvic kidney (sometimes known as sacral kidney) is a kidney that is fixed in the bony pelvis or across the spine and is an anatomic variant 1. Epidemiology Pelvic ectopia is seen in 1 in 2,100-3,000 autopsies. It is considered the most common form of renal ectopia 4. Associations Ectopic ki...
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Pancake kidney

Pancake kidney (also known as discoid kidney, disc kidney, lump kidney, fused pelvic kidney or cake kidney) is a rare renal fusion anomaly of the kidneys of the crossed fused variety. Clinical presentation Pancake kidney may be an incidental finding. However, they can present clinically becaus...
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Great vessel space

The great vessel space is the fourth retroperitoneal space along with the anterior and posterior pararenal spaces, and the perirenal space 1,2. Unlike other retroperitoneal spaces, it is not well-defined by fascial planes and thus disease processes affecting other retroperitoneal spaces can also...
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Para-esophageal hernia

Para-esophageal hernias (POH), or rolling hiatus hernias, are an uncommon type of hiatus hernia representing ~10% of all hiatus hernias.  Clinical presentation Can vary and can include: asymptomatic gastro-esophageal reflux disease  substernal, post-prandial chest pain epigastric pain dys...
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Neurocutaneous melanosis

Neurocutaneous melanosis or neurocutaneous melanomatosis, is a rare sporadic phakomatosis characterized by multiple congenital cutaneous nevi and meningeal melanocytosis / meningeal melanomatosis.  Epidemiology Neurocutaneous melanosis tends to be diagnosed in the first few years of life with ...
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CSF rhinorrhea

CSF rhinorrhea refers to a symptom of cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) leakage extracranially into the paranasal sinuses, thence into the nasal cavity, and exiting via the anterior nares. It can occur whenever there is an osseous or dural defect of the skull base (cf. CSF otorrhea). Pathology Etiolog...
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Pontine tegmental cap dysplasia

Pontine tegmental cap dysplasia (PTCD) is a rare congenital malformation of the brainstem and hindbrain with imaging hallmark of an ectopic dorsal transverse pontine fiber projecting from the tegmentum into the fourth ventricle.  Epidemiology PTCD is a rare congenital malformation with just ov...
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Diaphragmatic paralysis

Diaphragmatic paralysis (also considered very similar to the term diaphragmatic palsy) can be unilateral or bilateral. Clinical presentation Clinical features are highly variable according to underlying etiological factors: unilateral paralysis: asymptomatic in most of the patients as the oth...
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Extracranial meningioma

Extracranial meningiomas, also known as primary extradural meningiomas are a form of ectopic meningioma, are a rare location-specific type of meningioma that arise outside the dural covering of the brain and spinal cord. They are essentially extracranial tumors, most often occurring in the head ...
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Cookie bite bone metastases

Cookie bite bone metastases are characterized by small focal eccentric lytic external cortical destruction in long tubular bones. This type of destruction is typically described for metastases from lung cancer, however, they can also occur with other tumors.
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Ansa pancreatica

The ansa pancreatica is a rare type of anatomical variation of the pancreatic duct. It is a communication between the main pancreatic duct (of Wirsung) and the accessory pancreatic duct (of Santorini). Recently, the ansa pancreatica has been considered as a predisposing factor in patients with i...
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Meandering main pancreatic duct

Meandering main pancreatic duct (MMPD) denotes a main pancreatic duct that drains normally into the major papilla but performs a hairpin turn (reverse Z-type) or loop (loop-type) in the pancreatic head, in contradistinction to the smooth curvature seen in most cases. These ductal variants are f...
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Perlmann tumor

Perlmann tumor of the kidney (also sometimes known as benign adenomatous multicystic kidney tumor) is often mistaken for a malignant neoplasm. Many now consider it synonymous with the more well-known multilocular cystic nephroma.
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Transposition of inferior vena cava

Transposition of inferior vena cava (also known as left-sided IVC) refers to a variant course of the inferior vena cava. It is the most common anomaly of IVC and occurs due to persistence of left supracardinal vein. Diagnosis of left sided inferior vena cava is important for: planning of vascu...
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Gallium-67 scintigraphy

Gallium-67 is a photon-emitting radiotracer used for scintigraphy which is used in the form of various salts like citrate and nitrate. Once administered, imaging may consist of planar (2 dimensional) , SPECT, and SPECT-CT acquisitions. Once injected it binds to plasma proteins (especially transf...
Article

Pseudosyndactyly

Pseudosyndactyly refers to a mitten hand deformity of hands and feet in dystrophic epidermolysis bullosa. It may also be seen in amniotic band syndrome. It should not be confused with true syndactyly which is the actual and complete fusion of fingers. In pseudosyndactyly fingers are fused by th...
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Horseshoe adrenal gland

A horseshoe adrenal gland is a very rare anomaly. It is also sometimes referred to as a butterfly, fused or midline adrenal gland. It is a solitary adrenal gland that is present in the midline of the fused portion either passing between the aorta and the inferior vena cava or posterior to the a...
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Asplenia syndrome

Asplenia syndrome, also known as right isomerism or Ivemark syndrome, is a type of heterotaxy syndrome. Epidemiology There is an increased male predilection. Asplenia syndrome is usually diagnosed in neonates 4. Associations severe/complex congenital heart disease (50%), especially cyanotic ...
Article

Lying down adrenal sign

The lying down adrenal sign is a cross-sectional imaging sign of renal agenesis or ectopia in which the ipsilateral adrenal gland appears to be 'lying down' on the psoas muscle posteriorly. Due to the linear as opposed to Y-shaped configuration of the gland in such situations, it is also describ...
Article

Characteristic radiation

Characteristic radiation is a type of energy emission relevant for X-ray production. This energy emission happens when a fast-moving electron collides with a K-shell electron, the electron in the K-shell is ejected (provided the energy of the incident electron is greater than the binding energy ...
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X-ray production

X-rays are produced due to sudden deceleration of fast-moving electrons when they collide and interact with the target anode. In this process of deceleration, more than 99% of the electron energy is converted into heat and less than 1% of energy is converted into x-rays. Definitions Generator ...
Article

Angiosarcoma - bone

Angiosarcoma of bone is a malignant vascular tumor of bone. These are rare and account for less than 1% of malignant bone tumors. The majority of these tumors arising in bone are primary; however, a tiny percentage are either radiation-induced or associated with bone infarction Epidemiology Mo...
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Image plate artifact

Image plate artifact is caused by backscatter radiation. Backscatter radiation is transmitted through the back of the cassette to the cassette hinge where the lead coating gets weakened or cracked.  To reduce backscatter, the radiographer should collimate where possible.
Article

Decompression sickness

Decompression sickness (DCS), also known as diver's disease, aerobullosis, the bends or caisson disease, is an uncommon diving-related decompression illness that is an acute neurological emergency typically occurring in deep sea divers.  Clinical presentation Decompression sickness can be furt...
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Epididymal lesions

Epididymal lesions are most commonly encountered on ultrasonography. Most epididymal lesions are benign; malignant lesions are rare. They can comprise of  Benign solid lesions adenomatoid tumor of the scrotum: most common epididymal mass 4 epididymal leiomyoma papillary cystadenoma of the e...
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Spermatic cord hydrocele

A spermatic cord hydrocele refers to a loculated fluid collection along the spermatic cord. It is separated from, and located above, the testis and the epididymis. Pathology It results from aberrant closure of the processus vaginalis. There are two recognized subtypes encysted spermatic cord...
Article

Sylvian fissure

The Sylvian fissure, also known as the lateral sulcus or fissure, begins near the basal forebrain and extends to the lateral surface of the brain separating the frontal and parietal lobes superiorly from the temporal lobe inferiorly 3. The insula is located immediately deep to the Sylvian fissur...
Article

Girdlestone procedure

The Girdlestone procedure (also known as a femoral head ostectomy or Girdlestone resection arthroplasty) is an excision arthroplasty of the hip. The procedure inevitably results in limb shortening. Indications  peri-prosthetic infection aseptic loosening recurrent dislocation failed interna...
Article

Technetium 99m-methyl diphosphonate

Technetium 99m-methyl diphosphonate (99mTc MDP) is a radiotracer used in nuclear medicine especially for bone scintigraphy. Any disease process which results in extracellular fluid expansion will lead to accumulation of this tracer. Radionuclide profile photon energy: 140 keV physical half-li...
Article

Gymnast wrist

Gymnast wrist is a term that is used to describe a variety of chronic overuse injuries of the wrist in gymnasts with an immature skeleton. Gymnast wrist comprises a combination of osseous and ligamentous injuries and usually manifests as a chronic Salter-Harris type I fracture of the distal radi...
Article

Gyrus rectus

The gyrus rectus, or straight gyrus, is located at the most medial margin of the inferior surface of the frontal lobe 1,2. Its function is unclear but it may be involved in higher cognitive function (e.g. personality) 3. Gross anatomy The gyrus rectus is bounded medially by the interhemispheri...

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