Articles

Articles are a collaborative effort to provide a single canonical page on all topics relevant to the practice of radiology. As such, articles are written and edited by countless contributing members over a period of time. A global group of dedicated editors oversee accuracy, consulting with expert advisers, and constantly reviewing additions.

15,908 results found
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Double emulsion film

Double emulsion film is a type of x-ray film that contains emulsion on both sides of the base. They have a thin layer of emulsion on both sides to absorb light from the front and back of the intensifying screen with which they are meant to be used. Both emulsions contribute to the overall radiog...
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Periodontitis

Periodontitis is an inflammatory disease affecting the supporting tissues of the teeth. It is a common cause of tooth loss, particularly in the adult population. Terminology Different forms of periodontitis are recognized. The terms 'chronic periodontitis' and 'aggressive periodontitis' have b...
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Canal wall down mastoidectomy

A canal-wall-down mastoidectomy comprises a group of mastoidectomies which is more open and extensive than a canal-wall-up mastoidectomy. In addition to traditional forms, various modified forms are now performed (see modified canal wall down mastoidectomy). They initially comprise the similar ...
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Devitalised soft tissue

Devitalised soft tissue occurs in diabetic feet or peripheral vascular disease, particularly deep to and around ulcers. Terminology Devitalised soft tissue is preferred to necrotic or ischemic soft tissue as the current understanding (c. 2022) is whether MRI appearances truly reflect necrosis ...
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Sinus tract

Sinus tracts are an abnormal connection between a fluid collection with a mucous mucosal surface and/or skin 1,2. It can result from acute or chronic processes and occasionally extend into the joints and bones 1. Terminology The term sinus tract is non-specific; however, when used in soft tiss...
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Dragonfly sign

Dragonfly sign describes the appearance of the cerebellum on coronal images, which is seen secondary to cerebellar atrophy in pontocerebellar hypoplasia 1. The sign is so called as the whole cerebellum resembles the shape of a dragonfly if one imagines the vermis is the body of the insect and t...
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Floating knee

A floating knee refers to ipsilateral fractures of both femoral and tibial shafts. These are relatively rare injuries with reported poor outcomes. Clinical presentation The usual presentation is a combined closed midshaft femoral fracture and open midshaft tibial fracture. Vascular injury is p...
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Neurographics (journal)

Neurographics is a bimonthly review journal publication by the American Society of Neuroradiology and was first published in 2011. In 2011, at the behest of Mauricio Castillo, Editor of Chief of AJNR, a new review journal, Neurographics, was published, initially quarterly, now bimonthly, by the...
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Radiology journals

Many radiology journals are currently published globally: American Journal of Neuroradiology (AJNR) American Journal of Roentgenology (AJR) BJR|case reports BJR|Open British Journal of Radiology (BJR) Canadian Association of Radiologists Journal Clinical Radiology Dentomaxillofacial Radi...
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Holmium laser enucleation of the prostate​

Holmium laser enucleation of the prostate​ (HoLEP) is a minimally invasive treatment for an enlarged prostate usually performed for benign prostatic hyperplasia. The procedure uses a laser to remove tissue that is obstructing urine flow through the prostate. A separate instrument is then used t...
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Costello syndrome

Costello syndrome is a rare condition that involves multiple organs of the body and comprises cutis laxa that is extra skin loosening of the neck, palms and soles of the feet and developmental delays.  Multiple papillomata in the face, around the anal region, cardiac abnormalities and short stat...
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Collagen vascular disease related interstitial pneumonitis

Collagen vascular disease-related interstitial pneumonitis (CVD-IP) refers to a subgroup of interstitial lung disease that is associated with collagen vascular disease. Epidemiology Some estimate that up to 15% of patients presenting for evaluation of interstitial lung disease may have an unde...
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Prognathism

Prognathism or mandibular prognathism refers to a type of morphological jaw positional anomaly in which the lower jaw protrudes ahead of the upper jaw. This results in an extended chin and dental malocclusion. It can be associated with certain conditions such as acromegaly syphilis - late cong...
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Lymphoplasmacytic lymphoma

Lymphoplasmacytic lymphoma (LPL) is an uncommon type of B-cell non-Hodgkin lymphoma. In this condition, the affected tissues (usually bone marrow) become infiltrated by small lymphocytes, plasmacytoid lymphocytes, and plasma cells.  Some publications state this condition synonymous with Waldens...
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Atypical neurofibromatous neoplasms of uncertain biologic potential (ANNUBP)

Atypical neurofibromas and atypical neurofibromatous neoplasms of uncertain biologic potential (collectively AN/ANNUBP) refer to neurofibromas with atypical histological features. They are considered premalignant with an increased risk of progressing to a malignant peripheral nerve sheath tumor....
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Pica

Pica refers to a psychiatric disorder in which patients report a craving for and compulsive consumption of substances that are not food. Substances consumed include earth, clay, plaster, paint chips, string, hair, animal feces and stones 1.  Epidemiology Although the condition can present in a...
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Subscapularis tendon tear

Subscapularis tendon tears are a less common rotator cuff tear, and have been considered more difficult to diagnose pre-operatively (both clinically and radiological) and have been known as a "hidden lesion" 5. Accurate pre-operative diagnosis is important as it affects the surgical approach and...
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Infectious tenosynovitis

Infectious or septic tenosynovitis refers to an infection of the closed synovial tendon sheath 1-3. Terminology The term ‘infectious or septic tenosynovitis’ applies for tendons with a tendon sheath, for tendons without a tendon sheath with a paratenon the term ‘infective paratenonitis’ can be...
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CSF alpha-fetoprotein

Alpha-fetoprotein (AFP) in the cerebrospinal spinal fluid (CSF) has been reported as a tumor marker for some intracranial tumors with yolk sac elements, and teratoma 1. Interpretation Elevation intracranial yolk sac tumor intracranial embryonal carcinoma congenital CNS tumors with yolk sac ...
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Falling injuries

Falling injuries are the second most common cause of accidental or unintentional deaths in the world. Falling trauma is the most common mechanism of injury in persons 21 years old or younger 1,2. Clinical presentation Many factors influence the presentation of a fall-from-height victim, such a...
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Pediatric shoulder (lateral view)

The lateral shoulder view in pediatrics is part of a two view series examining the shoulder joint, clavicle, scapula and proximal humerus.  Indications This projection is an orthogonal view of the AP shoulder and is useful in pediatric imaging for identifying potential fractures or dislocation...
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Fibrolamellar hepatocellular carcinoma (mnemonic)

The features of fibrolamellar hepatocellular carcinoma can be recalled using this mnemonic: PSYCH Mnemonic P: pseudocapsule S: scar (fibrotic) Y: young patients C: capsular retraction H: huge and heterogenous
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Soft tissue abscess

Soft tissue abscesses are focal or localized collections of pus caused by bacteria or other pathogens surrounded by a peripheral rim or abscess membrane found within the soft tissues in any part of the body 1. Soft tissue abscesses include subcutaneous abscesses, intramuscular abscesses and int...
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Brain and Spinal Cord Injury Center score

The Brain and Spinal Injury Center (BASIC) score is a classification system for grading acute traumatic spinal cord injury based on the axial extent of intramedullary signal abnormality on T2 weighted MRI. Classification The BASIC score is an ordinal scale that is graded 0 to 4 1: BASIC 0 (no...
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Foot (DP talus view)

The medial oblique axial talus view, also known as the Canale view, is a specialized projection of the talus bone, more specifically the talar neck. Indications This view is specifically indicated when assessing talar neck fracture and/or their follow-up. It is particularly useful to assess va...
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Intracranial yolk sac tumor

Intracranial yolk sac tumors represent 2% of nongerminomatous germ cell tumors 1.  Epidemiology Intracranial yolk sac tumors commonly occur in childhood or adolescence. CSF alfa fetoprotein can act as a tumor marker for yolk sac tumors.  Radiographic features Intracranial yolk sac tumors are...
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Upper lobe fibrocavitary pattern of mycobacterium avium complex pulmonary disease

Upper lobe fibrocavitary pattern of mycobacterium avium complex pulmonary disease is morphological from pulmonary mycobacterium avium complex infection although it is worthwhile understanding that there can be a spectrum of the disease with mixed forms.  This form had been initially the traditi...
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Robinson classification of clavicle fractures

The Robinson classification of clavicle fractures, as well as the AO/OTA and Neer classification systems, is a frequently used classification system for assessing clavicular fractures. The Robinson classification is based on a review of a thousand patients and was developed to provide a guide t...
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Portal venous flow

Portal venous flow is normally towards the liver (hepatopetal), with the normal main portal vein peak systolic velocities usually ranging between 20-40 cm/s. In pathological situations, the flow velocity may decrease or even invert resulting in hepatofugal flow. The flow waveform is usually sm...
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Center edge angle of Wiberg

The center-edge angle (CEA) of Wiberg is a measurement in the pelvis which is the angle formed by Perkin line and a line from the center of the femoral head to the lateral edge of the acetabulum. It can be used to assess for conditions such as developmental dysplasia of the hip although only con...
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Suspected physical abuse - head injuries

Suspected physical abuse, also known as non-accidental injury (NAI), can result in a range of head injuries. Pathology Infants have a relatively large head size as compared to their body mass, weak neck muscles, large subarachnoid space, relatively flat skull base and pliable, thin skull. The ...
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Infant-type hemispheric glioma

Infant-type hemispheric gliomas, also known as infant high-grade gliomas, are high-grade brain tumors occurring in children. Terminology Infant-type hemispheric gliomas belong to the family of "pediatric high-grade diffuse gliomas" of the 2021 WHO Classification of Tumors of the Central Nervou...
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Dark-field computed tomography

Dark-field computed tomography is an emerging medical imaging technology. While conventional CT measures differential attenuation properties of the various tissues, dark-field CT utilizes their small-angle scattering (dark field) characteristics.  Physics Instead of attenuation of x-ray photon...
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Aggressive versus non-aggressive bone lesions (radiographs)

Bone lesions are generally characterized as either aggressive versus non-aggressive bone lesions, with radiographs forming much of an initial assessment.  Imaging features When describing a bone lesion, some of its features reflect its biological activity. These characteristics include zone of...
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Cruciate ligament tears (knee)

The cruciate ligaments of the knee commonly tear: anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) tear the ACL is the most commonly torn knee ligament 1 posterior cruciate ligament (PCL) tear tears of the PCL are less common and usually less significant 2
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Right ventricular outflow tract obstruction

A right ventricular outflow tract obstruction (RVOTO) refers to any form of obstruction exerting effects on the right ventricular outflow tract. The obstruction itself however can occur at various sites inclusive of the following levels: mid-right ventricle infundibulum (e.g. tetralogy of Fall...
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Diffuse pediatric-type high-grade gliomas, H3-wildtype and IDH-wildtype

Diffuse pediatric-type high-grade gliomas, H3-wildtype and IDH-wildtype are high-grade pediatric tumors recently included in the 5th Edition (2021) of the WHO brain tumor classification. Terminology Diffuse pediatric-type high-grade gliomas H3-wildtype and IDH-wildtype are classified among the...
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Canine space

The canine space, or infraorbital space, is a paired compartment in the soft tissues of the face, overlying the maxilla near the canine tooth root and covered by the levator labii superioris muscle. Gross anatomy The canine space contains fat and branches of the infraorbital nerve. Boundaries...
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Congenital pouch colon

Congenital pouch colons are an anomaly in which there is cystic dilation of a shortened colon. They can either partially or totally replace the colon. Pathology Associations Congenital pouch colons can be associated with vaginal or vestibular fistulas and less frequently with other genitourin...
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Posterior fossa ependymoma

Posterior fossa ependymomas are the most common type of ependymoma, most commonly occurring in children. They are divided on the basis of DNA-methylation profiling into two groups, A and B.  Epidemiology Posterior fossa ependymomas are encountered in all age groups but are usually encountered ...
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PIK3CA-related overgrowth spectrum (PROS)

PIK3CA-related overgrowth spectrum (PROS) is a broad group of segmental overgrowth disorders that can occur with or without associated vascular anomalies, caused by activating mutations in the PIK3CA gene, which are also responsible for the vast majority of isolated lymphatic malformations and s...
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Talocrural angle

The talocrural angle can be used to assess for fibular shortening after a fracture. Measurement The talocrural angle is measured on the mortise view as the angle between a line along the distal tibial plafond articular surface and another line joining the tips of both malleoli 3,4.  Interpret...
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DNA-methylation

DNA-methylation is an epigenetic modification of DNA by the addition of methyl groups which in turn results in changes to numerous processes including how genes are expressed.  The specific pattern of methylation is specific to different tissues, can change over time depending on physiological ...
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Contraceptive implant migration

Contraceptive implant migration is a rare complication of etonogestrel implant insertion.  Clinical presentation unable to palpate device in the upper arm chest pain dyspnea non-productive cough menorrhagia irregular vaginal bleeding Pathology Contraceptive implants are most commonly in...
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Collar sign in spondylolysis

The Collar sign in spondylolysis refers to a break in the pars interarticularis of the vertebra on oblique radiographs that can have the appearance of a collar around the Scotty dog's neck. unilateral or bilateral 90% seen at the L5 level and less than10% noted at the L4 level1,2 65% of patie...
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Sliding hiatus hernia

A sliding hiatus hernia or type 1 hiatus hernia is considered the most common type of hiatus hernia. They can be present to varying degrees and can also co-exist with other types (inclusive of a rolling hiatus hernia). Clinical presentation Many patients may have gastro-esophageal reflux. Some...
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Timed barium esophagogram

The timed barium esophagogram (TBO) is a simple physiologic assessment and objective method for assessing the esophageal emptying used in patients with suspected achalasia and to evaluate and follow up patients who have been treated with myotomy or pneumatic dilatation1,3. Technique Several te...
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Mackler's triad

Mackler's triad consists of the clinical symptoms of vomiting, followed by severe pain in the chest, usually retrosternal, lower thoracic, and upper abdominal, associated with subcutaneous emphysema detected on physical examination, which is suggestive of esophageal rupture (Boerhaave syndrome) ...
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Anderson triad

The Anderson triad consists of the clinical findings of tachypnea and abdominal rigidity with lower thoracic or epigastric pain, associated with subcutaneous emphysema, which is usually related to esophageal rupture. 
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Sea anemone sign

The sea anemone sign is a unique (but not wholly exclusive) appearance seen in ovarian serous surface papillary borderline tumors (SSPBT). It refers to its surface stroma frequently branches into exophytic papillary stalks, macroscopically 1. Radiographic features On cross-sectional imaging, p...
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First metatarsal declination angle

The first metatarsal declination angle can be used to assess for metatarsus primus elevatus in hallux rigidus.  Measurement The first metatarsal declination angle is formed between the longitudinal axis of the first metatarsal and the supporting surface 1-4.  Interpretation normal: 20-21° 1-...
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Nephrostogram

Nephrostogram, also known as antegrade pyelogram, is a special x-ray procedure that fluoroscopically evaluates the upper collecting system by introducing water-soluble contrast through the nephrostomy catheter.  Indications Nephrostogram can be useful to determine tube position or assess resid...
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Subhepatic appendicitis

Subhepatic appendicitis refers to inflammation of the appendix in which the appendix and cecum have failed to descend inferiorly during normal development; resulting in a "subhepatic" position. Epidemiology Presentation of an inflamed subhepatic appendix is exceedingly uncommon, representing o...
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Patellofemoral angle

The patellofemoral angle is a measure of patellar tilt and is useful in the diagnosis of patellofemoral instability and excessive lateral pressure syndrome.  Measurement The patellofemoral angle is formed between a line drawn along the bony lateral patellar facet and another line drawn along t...
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Diffuse hemispheric glioma H3 G34 mutant

Diffuse hemispheric gliomas, H3 G34 mutant are rare and high grade infiltrating tumors typically presenting in adolescents and young adults. Terminology Diffuse hemispheric gliomas H3 G34 mutant have been recently included in the 5th Edition (2021) of the WHO brain tumor classification 1 among...
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Regional migratory osteoporosis

Regional migratory osteoporosis is a rare arthralgia affecting the weight-bearing joints of the lower limb.  Epidemiology Regional migratory osteoporosis is most common in middle-aged men 1. Clinical presentation The classic clinical presentation is a history of non-traumatic joint pain, whi...
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Ilizarov apparatus

The Ilizarov apparatus (aka Ilizarov frame) is an external metallic orthopedic fixation device used to length or reshape limbs from congenital deformity or following injury. The procedure was pioneered by the Polish surgeon Gavrill Abramovich Ilizarov.  
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Rheumatoid arthritis associated interstitial lung disease

Rheumatoid arthritis associated interstitial lung disease (RA-ILD) is one of the pulmonary manifestations of rheumatoid arthritis. Epidemiology There may be a greater male predilection with onset of lung disease typically occurring in the 5th to 6th decades of life 5. Radiographic features C...
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Trichilemmal cyst

Trichilemmal cysts, also known as pilar cysts, are benign accumulations of keratin along the outer hair root sheath, most commonly on the scalp. They are the most common subcutaneous nodule incidentally found on head imaging and are of no clinical relevance when asymptomatic 1. Uncommonly, they ...
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Medulloepithelioma of the optic disc and optic nerve

Medulloepitheliomas of the optic disc and optic nerve are extremely rare primary intraocular embryonal tumors arising from the optic disc and optic nerve. Terminology A medulloepithelioma of the optic disc and optic nerve may also be referred to as a diktyoma or teratoneuroma, although the use...
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Ovary size and volume

Ovary size and volume is frequently determined with ultrasound. The volume estimate is calculated by the formula for an ellipsoid, where D1, D2, and D3 are the three axial measurements: D1 x D2 x D3 x 0.52 The normal, adult, non-pregnant, mean ovary volume of women who are not postmenopausal i...
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Tumor pseudoprogression (disambiguation)

Tumor pseudoprogression, also known just as pseudoprogression, corresponds to an increase of lesion size related to treatment, and in some cases even development of transient new lesions, which mimicks true disease progression.  Tumor pseudoprogression is increasingly recognized, and can be enc...
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Tumor pseudoprogression (lung cancer)

Radiologic tumor pseudoprogression on imaging denotes an imaging appearance of tumor response where the tumor first exhibits findings suggestive of progression (i.e. growth, new lesions). However, during sustained therapy, response is eventually demonstrated 1. Epidemiology With the advent of ...
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Reye syndrome

Reye syndrome is a rare pediatric condition characterized by acute onset encephalopathy, severe vomiting and fatty liver failure. It typically presents in children recovering from a viral illness, most commonly influenza or chickenpox 1.  Epidemiology Reye syndrome is usually seen between the ...
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Cacosmia

Cacosmia refers to a form of olfactory dysfunction where the patient has an inability to "recognize" smells. It can arise from a number of pathologies and can include peripheral sinonasal and central sensorineural components. In this situation, the patient knows there is a smell but cannot disti...
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Endometrial osseous metaplasia

Endometrial osseous metaplasia is a very rare pathological condition whereby there may be mature bone formation within the endometrium. This process may be a cause of menorrhagia and/or infertility. See also endocervical osseous metaplasia and cervical osseous metaplasia (may represent the sam...
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Endocervical microcalcifications

Endocervical microcalcifications can often be an incidental finding and may represent part of the same spectrum of endometrial microcalcifications. They are generally favored benign 1. They may be seen as tiny echogenic foci in the endocervical region on ultrasound. See also endocervical osse...
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Comma sign of subscapularis tear

The comma sign of subscapularis tear was first described on arthroscopy but recognized later on MRI. The comma sign represents a full thickness partial width superior subscapularis tear along with torn superior glenohumeral and coracohumeral ligament insertional fibers vertically retracted via a...
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Pulmonary valve calcification

Pulmonary valve calcification is an uncommon occurrence and usually occurs in the presence of longstanding elevation of right ventricular pressures (such as that of severe pulmonary hypertension). It can also be associated with pulmonary valve stenosis. Some authors suggest if valve calcificatio...
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Pediatric shoulder (AP view)

The anteroposterior shoulder view in pediatrics is part of a two view series examining the shoulder joint, clavicle, scapula and proximal humerus.  Indications This projection demonstrates the shoulder joint in natural anatomical position and is used as an orthogonal view to the lateral should...
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Broden's view

The Broden's view (or Broden view) is a specialized projection that accurately 1 examines the large posterior calcaneal facet and the subtalar joint 2. As technology advances, computed tomography (CT) has widely been used to better visualize and characterize fragment displacements and fracture ...
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Fourth-fifth intermetatarsal angle

The fourth-fifth intermetatarsal angle is used to assess for a bunionette deformity. It should not be confused with the first intermetatarsal angle, used to assess for hallux valgus deformity.  Measurement The fourth-fifth intermetatarsal angle is formed between the long axis of the fourth and...
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Glenoid version angle

The glenoid version angle can be determined by either the Friedman method or the scapular blade method. Glenoid version is important in the preoperative assessment for shoulder arthroplasty and can also be useful in the diagnosis of glenoid dysplasia and causes of recurrent glenohumeral instabil...
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Tuberculous bronchostenosis

Tuberculous bronchostenosis is a potential complication that can occur from endobronchial tuberculosis, especially in a chronic form. Pathology Bronchostenosis usually begins as simple erythema and edema with lymphocytic submucosal infiltration followed by tubercle formation. Destruction and r...
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Friedman line

The Friedman or scapular line can be used to determine glenoid version and glenoid bone loss 4. Glenoid version angle measured by the Friedman method has better inter-reader reliability than the scapular body method 2.  Measurement The Friedman line is drawn along the long axis of the scapula ...
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Superior hypogastric nerve block

Superior hypogastric nerve block is a valuable tool for pain relief in the setting of uterine fibroid embolization. This procedure results in significant ischemic pain, peaking at 6-8 hours and lasting approximately 24 hours, then followed by a lesser degree of post-embolization pain which can l...
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AP Meary's angle

AP Meary's angle or AP talus-first metatarsal angle is used to assess for midfoot abduction/adduction in pes planus and pes cavus to assist with pre-operative planning 1.  Measurement On a weight-bearing AP foot radiograph, a line is drawn down the longitudinal axis of the first metatarsal to ...
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Medulloepithelioma of the brain

Medulloepitheliomas of the brain are rare, highly malignant, primitive embryonic tumors derived from the primitive medullary plate and neural tube. These tumors, once considered distinct entities, are now thought to be a pattern of embryonal tumors with multilayered rosettes. Please refer to tha...
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Posterior tibial line

The posterior tibial line is drawn along the posterior aspect of the distal tibial shaft on a lateral ankle x-ray and can be used to assess the sagittal alignment of the talus when comparing side-to-side and/or calculate the posterior tibial line-talar ratio 1,2.
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Suboccipital cavernous sinus

The suboccipital cavernous sinuses are paired venous plexuses that surround the horizontal (distal V3) portion of the vertebral arteries at the craniocervical junction. Its name derives from its resemblance to the cavernous sinus as it is a venous cushion surrounding a large arterial loop at the...
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Supraodontoid space

The supraodontoid space, also known as the supradental space or apical cave, is an extradural space at the anterior craniocervical junction superior to the odontoid process of C2 (dens axis). Gross anatomy Boundaries The space is a cave-shaped region facing posteriorly with the following boun...
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Tuli classification of occipital condyle fractures

The Tuli classification of occipital condyle fractures is a clinically-oriented system for describing these injuries based on fracture displacement and ligamentous injury. It is newer than the more well-known Anderson and Montesano classification of occipital condyle fractures and allows the inc...
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CNS neuroblastoma, FOXR2-activated

Central nervous system neuroblastoma, FOXR2-activated is a novel brain tumor entity recently included in the WHO brain tumor classification 1. Terminology Central nervous system neuroblastoma with FOXR2 activation was identified in 2016 as a new molecular entity, distinguished from primitive n...
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Hair

Hair (TA: pilus/pili) remains important physiologically and psychologically for humans. The hair shaft develops from a structure known as the hair follicle. Each hair has an arrector pili muscle and both sensory and sympathetic neural connections. Gross anatomy The hair shaft (TA: stipes pili)...
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Tram-track sign (knee)

The tram-track sign refers to the posterior cruciate ligament (PCL) appearance when it has a diffuse or partial thickening of the anteroposterior diameter greater than 7 mm. It is associated with longitudinal intraligamentous signal abnormalities showing fluid signal characteristics (hyperintens...
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Posterior superior aortic recess

The posterior superior aortic recess, (also known as the superior pericardial recess or the superior sinus) is one of the variable invaginations of the superior aortic recess and is located posterior to the ascending aorta. It may mimic mediastinal lymphadenopathy or a bronchogenic cyst.
Article

Posterior pericardial recess

The posterior pericardial recess is one of the pericardial recesses forming a small space within the pericardium. It arises from the superior margin of the oblique pericardial sinus, posterior to the right pulmonary artery and medial to the bronchus intermedius. It may mimic mediastinal lymphad...
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Medial cuneiform to second metatarsal distance

Medial cuneiform to second metatarsal distance is the measurement of the distance between the lateral aspect of the medial cuneiform and the medial aspect of the base of the second metatarsal bone 1,2. Usage Medial cuneiform to second metatarsal distance is an important measurement used in ass...
Article

Post-traumatic pseudolipoma

Post-traumatic pseudolipomas, also known as post-traumatic lipohypertrophy, are prominent increases in the volume of subcutaneous adipose tissue or even benign tumors arising at the location of a preceding blunt soft tissue trauma 1. Clinical presentation Focal palpable mass, not tender and wi...
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Lateral tibiotalar distance

Lateral tibiotalar distance is a measurement on an ankle anterior drawer lateral view to assess for ankle instability.  Measurement On an ankle anterior drawer lateral view (typically performed using a Telos device 2-4), the distance between the posterior tip of the distal tibial articular sur...
Article

Furuncle

A furuncle, also known as a boil, is an infected hair follicle with extension through the dermis into the subcutaneous soft tissues (cf. folliculitis, a more superficial hair follicle infection, with pus limited to the epidermis). Epidemiology Risk factors Outbreaks of furunculosis are seen, ...
Article

Double beak sign

The double beak sign refers to the sudden tapering that two adjacent intestinal loops show in the internal hernia at the transition point of the closed loop obstruction. The marked reduction in caliber results in distension of the afferent and efferent intestinal loops. History and etymology I...
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Eburnation

Eburnation describes the appearance of bone following a degenerative process in which subchondral or otherwise exposed bone acquires a non-anatomical sclerotic, microimpacted, and "polished" articular surface. This phenomenon typically arises in one of two situations: hypertrophic non-union of...

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