Articles

Articles are a collaborative effort to provide a single canonical page on all topics relevant to the practice of radiology. As such, articles are written and edited by countless contributing members over a period of time. A global group of dedicated editors oversee accuracy, consulting with expert advisers, and constantly reviewing additions.

15,920 results found
Article

Ring-shaped lateral ventricular nodules

Ring-shaped lateral ventricular nodules (RSLVNs) are small nodular ring-shaped lesions attached generally to the ependyma of the roof and body of the lateral ventricles. They are incidental findings and are of no reported clinical significance 1. Epidemiology These nodules are rare and their ...
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Wearable biosensors

Wearable biosensors are portable electronic devices that enable real-time monitoring and feedback to the user on various biological and physiological indicators. It has been suggested that they could revolutionise personalised healthcare and home management of patients by enabling continuous mon...
Article

SMART-CT severity index

A SMART-CT severity index is a recent tool and an expansion of the original modified CT severity index of acute pancreatitis. This novel index that is nomogram based, predicts the clinical consequence with modest accuracy. Two components are mainly evaluated, the first ones are the components of...
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Osteomeniscal impact edema

Osteomeniscal impact edema (OMIE) refers to a bone marrow edema pattern in the knee adjacent to a displaced meniscal flap tear. Clinical presentation Patients can present with focal medial knee pain. Pathology This occurs secondary to a displaced meniscal flap tear with peripheral, focal ede...
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Os cuboideum secundarium

An os cuboideum secundarium is an accessory tarsal bone, located along the plantar aspect of the foot, adjacent to the calcaneocuboid joint, inferior to the posterior margin of the cuboid and anterior margin of the calcaneus. Epidemiology It is one of the rarest accessory tarsal bones and its ...
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Trochlea (eye)

The trochlea is a cartilaginous structure acting as a pulley for the superior oblique muscle of the eye.  Gross anatomy The trochlea inserts on the trochlear fovea and spine located on the anteromedial part of the orbital roof. The tendon of superior oblique muscle passes through it 1. Functi...
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AO/OTA classification of pelvic ring fractures

The AO/OTA classification is one of the systems for classifying pelvic ring fractures. Like other fractures, they are divided into three groups subject to the severity and complexity of the respective injury 1: type A: intact posterior arch A1: a pelvic or innominate bone avulsion fracture A1...
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Northern lights phenomenon

The northern lights phenomenon represents an echogenic band slowly descending distal to the ultrasound transducer, and is exclusively seen during high mechanical index (MI) B-mode scanning after the administration of ultrasonic contrast media. It is not to be confused with prolonged heterogeneou...
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Pelvic organ prolapse

Pelvic organ prolapse refers to a pathological downward herniation of various pelvic organ structures into or through the perineum. It usually results from a pelvic floor weakness by impairment of various ligaments, fasciae, and muscles that support the pelvic organs. The prolapse can include o...
Article

High-grade astrocytoma with piloid features

High-grade astrocytoma with piloid features is a recently described rare tumor most commonly encountered in the posterior fossa of adults, especially those with neurofibromatosis type 1. It appears heterogeneous and has a dismal prognosis.  Epidemiology Due to the small number of patients so f...
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Os intercuneiforme

An os intercuneiforme is a supernumerary tarsal bone located between the first and second cuneiforms, anterior to the navicular bone.  Epidemiology It's a rare ossicle with an estimated prevalence of 1-2% 1 Gross pathology It's a triangular-shaped bone appearing to be an isolated proximal co...
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AO/OTA classification of proximal femoral fractures

The AO/OTA classification is one of the most frequently used systems for classifying proximal femoral fractures or proximal femoral end segment fractures. Like other fractures, they are divided into three groups subject to the severity and complexity of the respective injury 1: type A: trochant...
Article

Pseudoneuroma sign (plantar plate tear)

The pseudoneuroma sign is an indirect sign of plantar plate tears at the metatarsophalangeal joint (MTPJ) on MRI. This sign refers to pericapsular ill-defined and eccentric to the intermetatarsal space soft tissue thickening and is helpful for raising the accurate diagnosis of a plantar plate te...
Article

Non-pulsatile tinnitus

Non-pulsatile tinnitus is a form of tinnitus where there is a continuous ringing sensation of the ears. It is thought to have a considerable subjective component in many individuals. Pathology Many factors have been postulated, inclusive of 1-4: cerumen impaction middle ear infection medica...
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Auriculocondylar syndrome

Auriculocondylar syndrome is a rare congenital syndrome primarily characterized by malformed ears and mandibular condyle aplasia/hypoplasia. Pathology This is an autosomal dominant genetic disease resulting from GNAI3 or PLCB4 gene defects. This affects facial development especially the 1st an...
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AO classification of distal femur fractures

The AO classification of distal femoral fractures is one of the commonly used fracture classification systems in orthopedics. Each long bone has a single number with the parts of the bone denoted numerically, the proximal end is 1, diaphysis is 2, and the distal end is 3.  The distal femur sys...
Article

Gunal-Seber-Basaran syndrome

Gunal-Seber-Basaran syndrome is an exceedingly rare presentation of multiple bone islands, i.e. osteopoikilosis. It is characterized by dacryocystitis due to lacrimal canal stenosis with osteopoikilosis 1-3. This syndrome has an autosomal dominant inheritance 2,3. History and etymology The com...
Article

Radius and ulnar shaft fractures

Radius and ulnar shaft fractures, if treated inadequately, can result in significant dysfunction of the upper limb. This is due to the important role that the forearm plays in positioning of the hand through pronation and supination (at the proximal and distal radioulnar joint) as well as throug...
Article

Heart failure with preserved ejection fraction

Heart failure with preserved ejection fraction (HFpEF) is a type of heart failure with normal or near-normal ejection fraction and objective evidence of diastolic dysfunction. Terminology Heart failure with preserved ejection fraction was initially termed ‘diastolic heart failure' and was repl...
Article

Dolichocolon

Dolichocolon refers to an abnormally elongated redundant colon. It is considered a developmental variant.  Clinical presentation The main symptoms and signs of dolichocolon are: constipation abdominal pain abdominal distension volvulus However, dolichocolon is a contentious entity, and so...
Article

Tibial shaft fracture

Tibial shaft fractures are the most common long bone fractures and the second most common type of open fractures (second only to open phalanx fractures) 1.  Pathology Mechanism  Typically involve high-energy mechanisms such as road traffic accidents (incidence 43%) or sports 1. These are usua...
Article

Os talotibiale

An os talotibiale is a small accessory ossicle of the foot located at the anterior aspect of the tibiotalar joint. As of 2021, there are no published case reports about this ossicle and the knowledge in the literature is still insufficient 1. Epidemiology It is a rare ossicle with a reported i...
Article

Symmetrical cerebral T2 hyperintensities

Symmetrical cerebral T2/FLAIR hyperintensities are seen in a broad range of pathologies. The differential depends essentially on the location of the lesions. Symmetrical corticospinal tract lesions amyotrophic lateral sclerosis symmetrical T2/FLAIR hyperintensities along the corticospinal tra...
Article

Interstitial cells of Cajal

The interstitial cells of Cajal are mesenchymal cells closely apposed to neural and smooth muscle cells of the gut. They form a heterogeneous group with differing ultrastructure and functions. One cell type has an ancillary neural function as a gastrointestinal pacemaker, generating electrical s...
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Full stop

Full stops, also known as periods, are generally used on Radiopaedia as they would be used in life elsewhere. In particular, as per our style guide, please ensure that: there is one character space only between the full stop at the end of one sentence and the start of a new sentence there are...
Article

Fosbury flop tear of the rotator cuff

Fosbury flop tears of the rotator cuff are full-thickness rotator cuff tears with a reversed superomedial or flipped orientation of the torn tendon stump. Epidemiology Fosbury flop tears are uncommon with a prevalence of ~2.5% of all rotator cuff tears 1-3. Diagnosis The diagnosis is suggest...
Article

Elsberg syndrome

Elsberg syndrome is an established but rarely recognized cause of cauda equina syndrome and lower thoracic myelitis, associated with a presumed infectious etiology.  Epidemiology Elsberg syndrome is likely responsible for 10% of combined cauda equina syndrome and myelitis 1. Clinical presenta...
Article

Pembrolizumab induced pneumonitis

Pembrolizumab induced pneumonitis is a form of drug-induced lung disease occurring as a result of a response to the use of the programmed cell death protein 1 (PD1) inhibitor pembrolizumab. It may have variable pattern 2.  Pembrolizumab is also reported to have a high risk of inducing lung inju...
Article

Scapular medial rotation

Scapular medial rotation describes the rotation of the scapula (scapulothoracic joint) such that the glenoid fossa faces downwards - thus it may also be called downward rotation. It is the opposite of scapular lateral rotation - similarly, this motion requires motion at the sternoclavicular and ...
Article

Scapular lateral rotation

Scapular lateral rotation describes the rotation of the scapula (scapulothoracic joint) such that the glenoid fossa faces upwards - thus it may also be called upward rotation. This motion allows elevation of the humerus as seen in abduction of the arm. It is almost always associated with scapula...
Article

Scapular retraction

Scapular retraction describes the backward movement of the scapula about the thoracic wall (scapulothoracic joint). As the scapula moves towards the midline it can also be referred to as scapular adduction. The opposite motion is scapular protraction. The muscles that act as primary movers are ...
Article

Scapular protraction

Scapular protraction describes the forward movement of the scapula about the thoracic wall (scapulothoracic joint). As the scapula moves away from the midline it can also be referred to as scapular abduction. This motion usually occurs in conjunction with some scapular lateral rotation. This mov...
Article

Parastremmatic dysplasia

Parastremmatic dysplasia is a rare skeletal dysplasia that is characterized by shortening of the trunk, joint contractures, limb deformities, a short stiff neck, malformation of the pelvis, kyphosis of thoracic spine and urinary incontinence. Pathology Parastremmatic dysplasia belongs to a gro...
Article

Cerebellar restricted diffusion

Cerebellar restricted diffusion refers to a hyperintense signal involving the cerebellum on DWI images with a corresponding low signal on ADC images. Vascular thrombo-occlusive disease cerebellar arterial infarction  1 AICA infarction PICA infarction superior cerebellar arterial infarct ce...
Article

Scapular depression

Scapular depression refers to the caudal motion of the scapula (scapulothoracic joint). In most instances, depression of the scapula is a passive process (due to gravity) that is facilitated by movement at the acromioclavicular joint. Occasionally some muscular attachments serve as active depres...
Article

Scapular elevation

Scapular elevation refers to the cranial motion of the scapula (scapulothoracic joint), commonly described as “shrugging the shoulders”. This movement is facilitated by several muscles and it is useful to distinguish these as primary movers and stabilizers. It is important to note that no one mo...
Article

Pulmonary zygomycosis

Pulmonary zygomycosis was previously used term for an umbrella of pulmonary fungal species causing pulmonary fungal infection which is now superseded by terms such as pulmonary mucormycosis according to more recent publications. Previously some publications have used two terms as synonymous.
Article

Intraosseous schwannoma

Intraosseous schwannomas are a group of rare benign osseous lesions that account for about 0.2% of all primary bone tumors. It is the most common benign peripheral nerves tumor arising from Schwann cells of the neural sheaths, and its intraosseous manifestation is very rare 1. Epidemiology It ...
Article

Subseptate uterus

A subseptate uterus is a mild form congenital uterine anomaly (often considered as a normal variant) where there is a presence of a partial septum within the uterus not extending to the cervix and with the central point of the septum at an acute (<90°) angle. The external uterine contour is unif...
Article

Clear cell papillary renal cell carcinoma

Clear cell papillary renal cell carcinoma is a subtype renal cell carcinoma. Epidemiology Generally uncommon but thought to be the fourth most common histologic type of renal cell carcinoma at the time of new classification (c. 2016) 1. Pathology This subtype is characterized by low-grade, c...
Article

Apical rocking

Apical rocking is a radiographic sign that might be seen either on echocardiography or cine imaging on cardiac MRI in the four-chamber view and refers to a movement of the cardiac apex in cardiac dyssynchrony. It is characterized by the following 1-3: short-timed movement of the apex towards th...
Article

Fluid-fluid levels in liver lesions

Fluid-fluid levels in liver lesions are a rare appearance of both benign and malignant conditions. Differential diagnosis benign complicated hepatic cyst 2 hepatic abscess 2 chronic hepatic hematoma 3 biliary cystadenoma 3 hepatic hemangioma (very rare) 2 malignant cystic/necrotic hepat...
Article

Cardiac dyssynchrony

Cardiac dyssynchrony refers to deviations in timing and/or disturbance of the normal sequence of activation and contraction between the atria and ventricles of the heart, the right and left ventricle or among the ventricular wall segments. Dysynchrony can be subdivided into electrical and mechan...
Article

LumiFlow

LumiFlow is a postprocessing technique for color or power Doppler ultrasound, which produces a relief-like visualization of the depicted vasculature.  Physics Lumiflow can be applied to both color and power Doppler imaging. It applies a shading with an artifical light source to create a three-...
Article

Deep artery of the penis

The deep artery of the penis, also known as cavernosal artery, is one of the two terminal branches of the internal pudendal artery. Gross anatomy Origin The internal pudendal artery bifurcates terminally into the deep artery of the penis and the dorsal artery of the penis at the anterior marg...
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Dorsal artery of the penis

The dorsal artery of the penis is one of the two terminal branches of the internal pudendal artery.  Gross anatomy Origin The internal pudendal artery bifurcates into the deep artery of the penis and the dorsal artery of the penis at the anterior margin of the perineal membrane 1. Terminatio...
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Artery to the bulb

The artery to the bulb of the penis (male) or vestibule (female) is a branch of the internal pudendal artery. It differs slightly in males and females.   Artery to the bulb of the penis Origin: internal pudendal artery, distal to the perineal artery1. a common penile artery, serving as the or...
Article

Downsloping lateral acromion

A downsloping lateral acromion is a variation in acromion shape where the lateral margin of acromion extends to project inferiorly.  Radiographic assessment  This can be assessed on plain film, CT or MRI and shows a low lateral acromial angle. See also acromion types low lying acromion
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Lymphangiomatosis

Lymphangiomatosis is a rare mesenchymal disorder that is characterized by developmental "malformation" of multiple lymphatic channels (usually with dilatation). Terminology If lymphatic channels are purely dilated and not malformed the term lymphangiectasia is usually used. If lymphangiomatosi...
Article

Not elsewhere classified (NEC)

Not elsewhere classified (NEC) is a term used in a variety of classification systems to denote an entity that has been fully characterized but whose features are contradictory and/or do not fit into established classifications.  Not elsewhere classified (NEC) should not, however, be confused wi...
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Not otherwise specified (NOS)

Not otherwise specified (NOS) is a term used in a variety of classification systems to denote an entity that has been only incompletely characterized; enough for a general diagnosis but not to the point of a complete diagnosis.  The definition and use will vary between different classification ...
Article

Neonatal aortic thrombosis

Neonatal aortic thrombosis is a rare life-threatening condition that can affect neonates admitted to the neonatal intensive care unit (NICU). Epidemiology The incidence of neonatal aortic thrombosis is 0.2% of neonates admitted to the NICU. Risk factors umbilical arterial catheters (UAC): ~8...
Article

Pes anserinus (disambiguation)

The pes anserinus (rare plural: pedes anserini) is the name given to two different anatomical structures: pes anserinus (facial nerve): a.k.a. parotid plexus pes anserinus (knee) Both structures are so named due to their similarity to a goose's foot, which is what 'pes anserinus' means in Lat...
Article

Marginal mandibular nerve

The marginal mandibular nerve (TA: ramus marginalis mandibularis nervi facialis) is a branch of the extratemporal (terminal) segment of the facial nerve. It supplies the depressor anguli oris, depressor labii inferioris and mentalis muscles. It is of greater clinical importance than the other fa...
Article

Odynophagia

Odynophagia is the term given for painful swallowing.  Pathology It can arise from a number of causes which include esophageal inflammation - esophagitis esophageal infection substernal dysphagia tonsillitis pharyngitis esophageal spasm See also dysphagia: difficulty swallowing.
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Mentalis muscle

The mentalis muscles (TA: musculus mentalis) are paired muscles, one on each side of the mouth, important as elevators of the chin and lower lip; the muscles are one of the facial muscles.  Summary origin: incisive fossa of the mandible insertion: skin of the chin​ innervation: facial nerve ...
Article

Mitrofanoff procedure

The Mitrofanoff procedure, also known as appendicovesicostomy, is a surgical procedure where a conduit is created using the appendix to form a connection between the urinary bladder and skin surface. Intermittent catheterization is performed through the surgically constructed conduit, thus provi...
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Glycosaminoglycans

Glycosaminoglycans (GAGs), formerly known as mucopolysaccharides, are biomolecules produced by almost all mammalian cells, as well as in many vertebrates and invertebrates, but have not been described in plants 1. They are constituent elements of proteoglycans and are found within the cells in t...
Article

Common iliac lymph nodes

The common iliac lymph nodes are found surrounding the common iliac artery and vein which is located above the bifurcation of the external and internal iliac vessels and distal to the aortic bifurcation (in a majority of patients at the L4 level and a minority at the L3 or L5 level) and medial t...
Article

Antebrachial fascia

The antebrachial fascia or deep fascia of the forearm is a thick connective tissue fascia investing the muscles of the forearm. It also formes the lateral intermuscular septum which divides the forearm muscle into the two following compartments of the forearm together with the radius, ulna and i...
Article

Vestibular paroxysmia

Vestibular paroxysmia describes a clinical syndrome of sudden and stereotyped episodes of vertigo-type symptoms which usually last for less than one minute, often attributed to being a nerve compression syndrome affecting the vestibular nerve. Epidemiology Vestibular paroxysmia most commonly m...
Article

Omodysplasia

Omodysplasia is an extremely rare short-limb skeletal dysplasia characterized by 1: frontal bossing depressed nasal bridge anteverted nares low-set ears long philtrum rhizomelia short Humerus with hypoplastic distal humeri elbow dislocation radio-ulnar diastasis flared metaphyses shor...
Article

Nestin

Nestin is an intermediate filament protein found primarily in central nervous system stem cells. It is the target of antibodies for immunohistochemistry for the assessment of neuropathological histology specimens. 
Article

Perineal artery

The perineal artery arises from the internal pudendal artery and supplies some of the perineal musculature and external genitalia. Summary Origin: branches off the internal pudendal artery, arising at the level of the posterior angle of the perineal membrane Branches: it has two branches: a ...
Article

Middle genicular artery

The middle genicular artery (MGA) is one of the arteries of the knee joint and is a major supplicant of the anterior and posterior cruciate ligaments. Summary location: knee origin: popliteal artery supply: cruciate ligaments Gross anatomy The middle genicular artery originates from the an...
Article

Axial spondyloarthritis

Axial spondyloarthrititis (SpA) is a clinical subset of the seronegative spondyloarthritides that present primarily with back pain and morning stiffness. There is a long delay, on average 14 years, between symptoms onset and diagnosis 1. Epidemiology The prevalence of axial SpA is ~1% 1. Age o...
Article

Carcinoma of the Littré glands

Carcinoma of the Littré glands is rare. The Littré (urethral) glands of the penis may be the origin of cancers of the penis, usually adenocarcinomas 1. Epidemiology There are only a few scattered case reports of true Littré gland malignancy, although it is probably under-reported due to the fa...
Article

Pediatric thumb (AP/PA view)

The anteroposterior (AP) or posteroanterior (PA) view of the thumb in pediatrics is part of a two view series and is orthogonal to the lateral view. Often the decision to choose between the AP or PA thumb depends on what the child can manage and how agitated they are. An AP thumb is ideal as the...
Article

Incompetent ileocecal valve

An incompetent ileocecal valve is a situation where there can be reflux of backward flow of food content from the large bowel (cecum) through to the small bowel (terminal ileum) and through the ileocecal valve. A low degree of incompetence is not an uncommon finding 3. In some states, patients m...
Article

Uploading DICOM images to Radiopaedia

Uploading DICOM images to Radiopaedia is possible through the case creation page with full client-side anonymisation.  Here is what occurs:  drag and drop: drag and drop the DICOM folder into the case upload area (the will not be uploaded at this stage) anonymisation: the files will be proces...
Article

Cystic vein

The cystic veins (TA: venae cysticae) are the main venous drainage of the gallbladder. They subsequently drain into the portal vein. Gross anatomy The cystic veins begin as venules running over the surface of the fundus and body of the gallbladder which merge proximate to the neck of the gallb...
Article

Development of the heart

The heart is one of the first organs in the developing embryo to form and function. By the start of week 4, a primitive heart has begun to pump blood and by week 7 most of the gross development of the heart is complete. Its development is complex, with several events occurring simultaneously. T...
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Superior medial genicular artery

The superior medial genicular artery (SMGA) is the medial counterpart of the superior lateral genicular artery and participates in the supply of the superomedial structures of the knee and the vascularization of the patella. Summary location: knee origin: popliteal artery branches: anterior ...
Article

Superior lateral genicular artery

The superior lateral genicular artery (SLGA) is the lateral counterpart of the superior medial genicular artery and supplies the superolateral structures of the knee and participates in the vascularization of the patella. Summary location: knee origin: popliteal artery branches: anterior and...
Article

Auricular perichondritis

Auricular perichondritis, also known as perichondritis of the ear or pinna, is an infection or inflammation of the cartilage-bearing part of the external ear. Terminology The term perichondritis, strictly speaking, refers to inflammation involving the perichondrium. However, a distinction is o...
Article

Inferior medial genicular artery

The inferior medial genicular artery (IMGA) is the medial counterpart of the inferior lateral genicular artery and supplies the inferomedial structures of the knee including the medial tibial condyle and participates in the supply of the patella. Summary location: knee origin: popliteal arter...
Article

Inferior lateral genicular artery

The inferior lateral genicular artery (ILGA) is the lateral counterpart of the inferior medial genicular artery and supplies the inferolateral structures of the knee and the patella. Summary location: knee origin: popliteal artery branches: cutaneous perforating branches supply: inferolater...
Article

Sphincter (disambiguation)

A sphincter (TA: musculus sphincter) is a term used in anatomy to refer a ring of muscle which narrows a tube or closes off a bodily orifice 1. anal sphincter ​external anal sphincter internal anal sphincter hepatic sphincter esophageal sphincter lower esophageal sphincter upper esophagea...
Article

Buccolabial muscles

The buccolabial muscles form a subgroup of the facial muscles.  Elevators, retractors and evertors of the upper lip: levator labii superioris alaeque nasalis (LLSAN) muscle levator labii superioris muscle zygomaticus major muscle zygomaticus minor muscle malaris muscle levator anguli oris...
Article

Crural fascia

The crural fascia or deep fascia of the lower leg is a thick connective tissue fascia that invests the muscles of the lower leg and divides them into the four compartments of the lower leg 1,2: anterior compartment lateral or peroneal compartment deep posterior compartment superficial poster...
Article

Practical radiography: A Hand-Book of the Applications of the X-Rays

The book Practical radiography: A Hand-Book of the Applications of the X-Rays was the first ever textbook on x-rays anywhere in the world. It was written by H Snowden Ward and first published in May 1896 by Dawbarn & Ward. This is a mere six months after Wilhelm Roentgen's discovery of x-rays. ...
Article

Thyrolinguofacial trunk

A thyrolinguofacial trunk is a very rare pattern of branching of the anterior branches of the external carotid artery. Rather than the facial artery, lingual artery, and superior thyroid artery having their own distinct origins, all three vessels originate from a common trunk of the external car...
Article

Linguofacial trunk

A linguofacial trunk is a rare variation of the anterior branches of the external carotid artery. The lingual artery and facial artery share a common trunk rather than branching independently from the external carotid artery 1. Unlike the thyrolingual or thyrolinguofacial variations in which the...
Article

Thyrolingual trunk

A thyrolingual trunk is an anatomical variant in which the superior thyroid artery and lingual artery share a common trunk 1. This is in contrast to the typical pattern of both vessels emerging independently from the external carotid artery. Other variations of origin include a linguofacial trun...
Article

Acromial spur

Acromial spurs refer to bony spurs involving the acromion process (usually means a spur at the lateral end). If it extends inferior, it is then termed a subacromial spur. In that situation they can reduce the acromiohumeral interval and predispose to subacromial impingement. They are probably be...
Article

Submental artery

The submental artery is the largest branch of the facial artery. The vessel supplies the floor of the mouth and sublingual gland while also connecting the circulation of the tongue and the floor of the mouth 1,3.  Summary origin: facial artery 2 course: emerges from the facial artery at the s...
Article

Submasseteric space

The submasseteric space, also known as the masseteric space, is the inferolateral subcompartment of the masticator space located between the mandible and masseter muscle. Gross anatomy Relations and/or Boundaries The submasseteric space has the following boundaries 1: medially: mandible (ram...
Article

Pterygomandibular space

The pterygomandibular space is the inferomedial subcompartment of the masticator space located between the mandible and pterygoid muscles. Gross anatomy Contents The pterygomandibular space contains loose areolar tissue, the sphenomandibular ligament, and the following named neurovascular str...
Article

Progressive muscular atrophy

Progressive muscular atrophy is one of the motor neuron diseases, sometimes considered a variant of amyotrophic lateral sclerosis, confined to the lower motor neurons.
Article

Coronary microcirculation

The coronary microcirculation comprises several anatomically and functionally different coronary vascular compartments with a small diameter (<500 µm) that play a crucial role in the regulation of myocardial perfusion. Summary location: epicardium, myocardium, endocardium blood supply: epicar...
Article

Scapula method

The scapula method is used to assess posterior humeral head subluxation in patients with glenohumeral osteoarthritis as part of the work-up for shoulder arthroplasty.  Method First, the scapular axis (medial border of the scapular body to center of the glenoid) is drawn on an axial image that ...
Article

Dual stream language processing models

The dual stream language processing models (dorsal and ventral) have replaced the historic model that only included the Broca's and Wernicke's areas and the arcuate fasciculus 1.  Function The dorsal stream is responsible for phonological processing and language production (sound/sign to actio...
Article

Levator anguli oris muscle

The levator anguli oris muscle, also known as caninus or triangularis labii superioris muscles, is a buccolabial muscle, a subdivision of the facial muscles. Gross anatomy Summary origin: canine fossa of the maxilla​ insertion: modiolus and merges with depressor anguli oris muscle innervati...

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