Articles

Articles are a collaborative effort to provide a single canonical page on all topics relevant to the practice of radiology. As such, articles are written and edited by countless contributing members over a period of time. A global group of dedicated editors oversee accuracy, consulting with expert advisers, and constantly reviewing additions.

15,919 results found
Article

New onset atrial fibrillation causes (mnemonic)

A mnemonic to remember the commonest causes of new onset atrial fibrillation is: PIRATES ​Mnemonic P: pulmonary I: ischemic R: rheumatic A: atrial myxoma T: thyroid E: embolism S: sepsis
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Seizure causes (mnemonic)

A mnemonic to remember the commonest causes of seizures is: VITAMIN ​Mnemonic V: vascular I: infection T: trauma A: AV malformation  M: metabolic  I: idiopathic  N: neoplasm
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Cerebellar disease signs (mnemonic)

A mnemonic to remember the signs of cerebellar disease is: DANISH Mnemonic D: dysdiadochokinesia/dysmetria A: ataxia N: nystagmus I: intention tremor S: slurred speech H: hypotonia
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Horner syndrome signs (mnemonic)

A mnemonic to remember the commonest signs of Horner syndrome is: PAMELA Mnemonic P: ptosis A: anhydrosis M: miosis E: enophthalmos L: loss of ciliary-spinal reflex A: anisocoria
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Acute gouty arthritis

Acute gouty arthritis, also known as a gout flare, is the acute symptomatic phase of gout due to the deposition of monosodium urate crystals in a synovial joint. Clinical presentation Acute gouty arthritis presents as a tender, erythematous, swollen joint. Involvement is typically monoarticula...
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Skeletal muscle

Skeletal muscles, skeletal striated muscles or plainly muscles are an integral part of the locomotor system responsible for movements. The musculoskeletal system of the human body has more than 600 muscles 1 making up around 40% of the body weight. They are very heterogeneous and have different ...
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Magnetically controlled growing rods

The method of magnetically controlled growing rods (MCGR) was introduced to avoid the morbidity of recurrent lengthening procedures, which are the basis of the treatment in traditional growing rods. Procedure As with traditional growing rods, they use spinal anchors (pedicle screws and hooks)....
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Glandular odontogenic cyst

Glandular odontogenic cysts (GOC) are developmental odontogenic cysts with glandular differentiation of the epithelium. Epidemiology Glandular odontogenic cysts are rare 1,2 and account for about 0.5% of odontogenic cysts 3. They are slightly more frequent in men and show a peak in the fifth a...
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Gingival cyst

Gingival cysts or dental lamina cysts are developmental oral mucosal cysts growing from the remnants of the dental lamina in the gingival or alveolar tissue. In newborns, they are transient appearances. Epidemiology Gingival cysts are very common and transient in newborns and are seen within t...
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Orthokeratinized odontogenic cyst

Orthokeratinized odontogenic cysts (OOC) are developmental odontogenic cysts arising from the remnants of the dental lamina and form a separate new entity in the WHO classification of odontogenic and maxillofacial bone tumors since 2017. Epidemiology Orthokeratinized odontogenic cysts are rare...
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Small intestine diverticular disease

Small intestine diverticular disease is an uncommon form of diverticular disease and can be classified into disease affecting the: Meckel diverticulum Meckel diverticulitis non Meckel diverticular disease duodenum - duodenal diverticulosis duodenal diverticulitis jejunum and ileum - jejuno...
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Rosenbach sign (disambiguation)

Rosenbach sign may refer to several different clinical signs: Rosenbach sign (AV regurgitation) Rosenbach sign (eye) Rosenbach sign (hemiplegia) History and etymology Ottomar Ernst Felix Rosenbach (1851-1907), a German physician born in Prussian County in Silesia, graduated from medicine in...
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Growing rod procedure

The growing rod is a surgical technique developed as an alternative procedure to spinal fusion to treat early-onset scoliosis (EOS), although the latter is the final and definitive treatment for scoliosis. The growing rod can be considered a delaying tactic to spinal fusion and is a distraction...
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Nephrogenic phase

The nephrogenic phase, also known as the nephrographic phase or the renal parenchymal phase, is a postcontrast injection time range in which there is an optimal enhancement of the renal parenchyma including the medulla. Technique The acquisition time depends on the intravenous device (central ...
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Stork test

The Stork test (also known as the Gillet test) is a clinical test used to assess the movement (intrapelvic motion) of the sacroiliac joint between the innominate bone and sacrum. It can be useful in evaluating suspected sacroiliac joint pathology / dysfunction. It involves placing the examiner'...
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Lateral periodontal and botryoid odontogenic cysts

Lateral periodontal odontogenic cysts are developmental cysts arising adjacent or lateral to the roots of vital teeth and botryoid odontogenic cysts are multilocular variants of lateral periodontal odontogenic cysts. Epidemiology Lateral periodontal and botryoid odontogenic cysts are rare, wit...
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Ameloblastic carcinoma

Ameloblastic carcinomas or malignant ameloblastoma are malignant epithelial odontogenic neoplasms with histologic features ameloblastoma. Epidemiology Ameloblastic carcinomas are rare tumors approximately accounting for 1% of jaw tumors 1,2. They have been found in a wide age range and are mor...
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Tension hydrocele

A tension hydrocele is a rare form of hydrocele that may result in impeded arterial inflow and venous outflow to and from the testis 1; testicular ischemia may result, leading to necrosis of the testicular parenchyma 2. Diagnosis Tension hydrocele can be diagnosed through a combination of clin...
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Portal venous phase

The portal venous phase, also known as the late portal phase or hepatic phase, is a contrast-enhanced CT or MRI series that has the following characteristics: liver parenchyma is at its peak enhancement with a density >110 HU (an increase of at least 50 HU from the unenhanced baseline)1,2 port...
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Alcian blue stain

Alcian blue stain is a histological stain utilized for the identification of extracellular matrix proteoglycans, like glycosaminoglycans and hyaluronic acid 1, commonly in connective tissue and epithelial malignant neoplasms 2, and also Barrett esophagus, where it can highlight mucosal intestina...
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Giemsa stain

Giemsa stain is a commonly used histological stain that colors the cytoplasm blue to pink (depending on its acidity) and the nucleus blue to black 1. It serves as the diagnostic gold standard of histopathological staining of blood samples from patients with plasmodium-borne malaria, and as the b...
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Tobacco abuse

Tobacco abuse, most commonly by smoking cigarettes, is a legal drug habit of many throughout the world. It is a significant risk factor for many malignancies, respiratory and cardiovascular diseases and is a major cause of premature mortality throughout the world. Epidemiology It has been esti...
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Lumbar disc arthroplasty

Lumbar disc arthroplasty is a procedure involving the replacement of lumbar intervertebral discs with artificial discs to manage lower back pain. Similar to its cervical counterpart (cervical disc arthroplasty), it is an alternative to fusion procedures as a means of maintaining an increased ra...
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Humeral length (obstetric ultrasound)

The humeral length (HL) is sometimes measured as an additional fetal biometric parameter in a second-trimester ultrasound scan. Its measurement can often compliment the femoral length especially in situations where there are short limb syndromes. Short humeral length have been associated with co...
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Non-recurrent laryngeal nerve

A non-recurrent laryngeal nerve is an uncommon anatomical variant in which the recurrent laryngeal nerve takes a course that is deviant to its usual descent into the thorax. The non-recurrent laryngeal nerve rather enters the larynx directly from the cervical Vagus nerve instead of coursing infe...
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Dentinogenic ghost cell tumor

Dentinogenic ghost cell tumors (DGCT) are benign mixed epithelial and mesenchymal odontogenic tumors with locally aggressive behavior. Terminology It is also known as the 'solid' or 'neoplastic form of calcifying odontogenic cyst’, since the 4th WHO classification of head and neck tumors in 20...
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Odontogenic fibroma

Odontogenic fibromas are benign mesenchymal odontogenic tumors with varying amounts of fibrous connective tissue. Epidemiology Odontogenic fibromas are rare tumors and are more common in women. Central odontogenic fibromas occur in a wide age range and peripheral odontomas have a peak between ...
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Squamous cell carcinoma of the penis

Squamous cell carcinoma (SCC) of the penis is an uncommon condition that often presents at an advanced stage. Imaging is more often used for staging than for the initial diagnosis. It is the commonest histological subtype of penile cancer. Epidemiology Penile cancer is a relatively infrequent ...
Article

Rosenbach sign (eye)

The Rosenbach sign of the eyes is a clinical sign of Graves disease. It consists of fine tremors of the eyelids when gently closed 1,2. History and etymology Ottomar Ernst Felix Rosenbach (1851-1907), a German physician born in Prussian County in Silesia, graduated from medicine in Breslau in ...
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Rosenbach sign (hemiplegia)

Rosenbach sign or phenomenon is a clinical sign described in hemiplegia.  The sign refers to the absence of an abdominal wall skin reflex when stroking the paralyzed side of a patient; conversely on the unaffected side, the reflex is normal 1. See also Rosenbach gave his name to two other cli...
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Rosenbach sign (aortic valve regurgitation)

Rosenbach sign is a clinical sign that is seen in severe aortic/tricuspid valve regurgitation. It is elicited as pulsation of the liver, during systole, and it is primarily due to the increased cardiac output and associated retrograde blood flow into the liver 1-3. See also Rosenbach also gave...
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Disclosures

Disclosures are an important part of your user profile.  Radiopaedia.org strives to ensure that our content is free from commercial bias or undue corporate influence. Furthermore, transparency is important to us. We, therefore, encourage you to include relevant financial disclosures in the dedi...
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Distal radioulnar joint instability

Distal radioulnar joint (DRUJ) instability refers to excessive painful mobility in the distal radioulnar joint usually as a result of a previous traumatic injury or bony malunion. Epidemiology Distal radioulnar joint instability is common but often misdiagnosed 1. Associations Distal radioul...
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Accessory brachialis muscle

An accessory brachialis muscle, also known as brachialis accessorius muscle, is a very rare accessory muscle of the elbow and an anatomical variant. Summary origin: anterior surface of the lower humeral diaphysis course: variably medial or lateral to the brachialis muscle insertion: variable...
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Obturator sign

Obturator sign is a clinical sign of acute appendicitis, it is defined as discomfort felt by the subject/patient on the slow internal movement of the hip joint, while the right knee is flexed. It indicates an inflamed pelvic appendix that is in contact with the obturator internus muscle 1-3. Se...
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Neer impingement test

The Neer impingement test is a clinical test to aid the diagnosis of rotator cuff impingement. It predominantly provokes a posterosuperior internal impingement mechanism and involves forward flexion of the arm with the thumb facing down with the arm in a more anterolateral orientation.  
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Thumb pathology

Thumb pathology is wide and includes all lesions involving the tendons, ligaments, muscles, bone, and articulations of the thumb. signs yo-yo on a string sign congenital absent thumb triphalangeal thumb tendon tear/rupture Stener lesion fractures of the thumb Bennett fracture-dislocatio...
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Additional radial wrist extensor muscles

Additional radial wrist extensors are normal anatomical variants and accessory muscles of the forearm and the wrist.  The following additional wrist extensors have been described 1-6: extensor carpi radialis intermedius extensor carpi radialis accessorius extensor carpi radialis tertius Epid...
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Pituitary height grading

Pituitary height grading describes degrees of loss of the pituitary height (concavity), which encompasses gradations of (partially) empty sella. Grading As originally described by Yuh et al. 1, the loss of pituitary height (h) and the sellar height (H) are measured on a midsagittal T1-weighted...
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Accessory flexor carpi ulnaris muscle

The accessory flexor carpi ulnaris (AFCU) is a rare accessory muscle of the forearm and wrist and a normal anatomical variant that can be found in addition to a normal flexor carpi ulnaris muscle. Epidemiology The accessory flexor carpi ulnaris muscle is considered very rare 1,2. Associations...
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Flexor carpi radialis brevis vel profundus

The flexor carpi radialis brevis (FCRB) vel profundus muscle is an accessory muscle of the forearm and wrist and a normal anatomical variant. Epidemiology The flexor carpi radialis brevis vel profundus muscle has been found in 2-8% of anatomical dissections 1-3. Summary origin: anterior surf...
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Pericapsular nerve group block (ultrasound-guided)

Pericapsular nerve group (PENG) blocks are one approach for delivering anesthesia to the hip joint. It is most commonly used in patients with fractures of the hip and bony pelvis 1.  Indications acetabular fractures 5 pubic rami fractures proximal femoral fractures intertrochanteric fractur...
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Late arterial phase

The late arterial phase, also known as the corticomedullary phase or early venous portal phase, is a contrast-enhanced CT or MRI series, in which there is an optimal enhancement of structures that get their blood supply directly from the arterial system. The standard characteristics for this ph...
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Early arterial phase

The early arterial phase, also known as the early systemic arterial phase, is a contrast-enhanced CT or MRI series, in which the contrast (e.g. iodinated or gadolinium) is still in the arteries and has not reached the organs and other soft tissues. Technique The acquisition time depends on the...
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Steelpan sign (sigmoid volvulus)

The steelpan sign refers to the close resemblance of sigmoid volvulus on CT to the percussion instrument known as the steelpan. The steelpan, also known as steel drum or pan, is a Caribbean musical instrument invented in Trinidad and Tobago by the mid-1930s, which became very popular in Trinidad...
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Hypervascular splenic lesions

Hypervascular splenic lesions are findings that enhance more or similarly to the background splenic parenchyma on late arterial phase, on contrast-enhanced CT or MRI. Vascular mycotic aneurysm Neoplastic splenic hemangioma 2 most common primary benign neoplasm of the spleen second most com...
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Arterial transit artifact

The arterial transit artifact, sometimes known as the bright vessel appearance or trapped labeled spins, on noncontrast arterial spin labeling (ASL) MR perfusion of the brain refers to curvilinear high signal corresponding to labeled blood within cerebral arteries. Normally, in ASL imaging, labe...
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Implant migration

Implant migration or hardware migration refers to the displacement of an implant or component away from its designated position and is associated with hardware failure and loosening. Examples of implant migration include screw break out or screw back out, cage extrusion, inlay extrusion, choledo...
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Split-wall sign (sigmoid volvulus)

The split-wall sign is one of the signs of sigmoid volvulus. This sign is characterized by the separation of the walls of a single loop of the sigmoid colon due to the invagination of mesenteric fat between them. The intervening fat causes the loop to appear bilobed or C-shaped on axial images, ...
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Implant malposition

Implant malposition or hardware malposition refer to inappropriately positioned implants or hardware. It can be associated with various complications related to injury of adjacent structures. Terminology For implants with variant positions and no complications or increased risk, the term devia...
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Pediatric humerus (AP view)

The anteroposterior humerus view for pediatrics is part of the humerus series and is usually taken in a standing position. However, it can also be obtained in a supine position. The projection demonstrates the humerus in its natural anatomical position allowing for adequate radiographic examina...
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Humerus series (pediatric)

The humerus series for pediatrics is a set of anteroposterior and lateral radiographs taken to investigate elbow joint pathology, often in the context of trauma. As the elbow joint is also imaged in this series, being familiar with the order of elbow ossification is important in assessing the e...
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Bile duct duplication

Bile duct duplication, also known as common bile duct duplication (although in some cases this latter terminology would be erroneous), is a rare congenital anomaly of the biliary system. A double bile duct is considered normal during early human development, but by birth, we expect to see the co...
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Anectasis

Anectasis is a term that describes primary atelectasis, as distinct from secondary atelectasis. Anectasis refers to the failure of the lung to expand fully at birth. See also atelectasis
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Osseous surgical spinal fusion

Osseous surgical spinal fusion refers to spinal fusion surgery with bone grafts, bone graft supplements or bone graft substitutes. Osseous spinal fusion eventually supplies the best stability for the respective spinal segment and most types of spinal fusion surgeries are directed to establish a...
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Shrimp sign (progressive multifocal leukoencephalopathy)

The shrimp sign is an MRI marker of cerebellar progressive multifocal leukoencephalopathy, characterized by T2-hyperintensity in the cerebellar white matter abutting but sparing the dentate nucleus. The white matter lesion resembles a shrimp, with the dentate nucleus outlining the belly of the ...
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Fetal MRI

Fetal MRI allows for detailed imaging of the developing fetus in utero. Fast sequences are required due to fetal movement 1. Fetal MRI is most commonly utilized when ultrasound (USS) findings are equivocal. Fetal anatomy can be evaluated in detail including the brain, upper aerodigestive tract, ...
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Quadratus femoris injection (technique)

Quadratus femoris injections under image guidance ensure precise delivery of an injectate and ensure the sciatic nerve is avoided during the procedure.  CT and ultrasound can be used, with ultrasound becoming more challenging in those with larger body habitus. Indications therapeutic for ischi...
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Posterior instrumentation and fusion (scoliosis)

Posterior instrumentation and fusion is a surgical technique to improve spinal curvature in scoliosis patients. Procedure The vertebral column is manipulated into the desired position and held in place with metalwork namely pedicle screws and/or hooks transfixed with rods with or without in si...
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Spinal instrumentation hardware

Spinal instrumentation hardware refers to various types of implants used for fixation in spinal surgery. They can be used in various combinations and include wires, clamps, screws, different plate-screw and rod-screw interfaces, intervertebral prostheses and disk replacements. Cervical spine in...
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Congenital scoliosis

Congenital scoliosis refers to scoliosis resulting from a congenital abnormality of the vertebra, e.g. a segmentation or fusion defect.  Terminology There are several definitions of congenital scoliosis. Some authors include neurological congenital causes. In this article, our focus will only ...
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Neuromuscular scoliosis

Neuromuscular scoliosis is a term that can be used to describe scoliosis that is caused by underlying brain, spine or muscular conditions. While the underlying conditions can be a very broad group of disparate conditions, they tend to result in similar spinal curves. Radiographic features Neur...
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Acetaminophen

Paracetamοl (or acetaminοphen in North America) is the most widely used drug in the world. It is employed as an antipyretic and mild analgesic in both adults and children. Although once regarded as a benign agent, it is now viewed with increasing concern due to its acute hepatotoxicity following...
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Interspinous device

Implantation of interspinous devices is one option for treating lumbar canal stenosis and other causes of low back pain. These devices attempt to produce lumbar flexion by distracting the lumbar spinous processes restoring height and resulting in tightening of the thickened ligamentum flavum, an...
Article

Chemical article structure

Articles about chemicals, whether chemical elements or their innumerable compounds, have a unique structure and subheadings. All articles should be placed in the Pathology section. ======================================================================= The introduction should take the followin...
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White knight nodule (thyroid)

The "white knight" nodule is regarded as a benign lesion of the thyroid gland 1. Pathology Follicular cells, Hurthle cells, numerous small and large lymphocytes and colloid are seen on fine needle aspiration cytology of white knight nodules, which is consistent with Hashimoto thyroiditis 2,3. ...
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Hardware failure

Orthopedic implant or hardware failure refers to the failure of the implant to live up to its expected requirements with respect to the manufacturer's or the surgeon's allegations. This includes any complication directly related to the implant such as wear, fractures, dissociations and dislocati...
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Craniocervical fixation

Craniocervical fixation, instrumentation or occipitocervical fusion refer to surgical fixation techniques with the goal to stabilize the craniocervical junction. History and etymology An occipitocervical fusion with fibular only bone graft was already described by Forrester in 1927 1,2. Severa...
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Atlantoaxial fixation

Atlantoaxial fixation refers to various surgical techniques to stabilize the atlantoaxial complex. History and etymology The first effort of an atlantoaxial stabilization was made by Mixter and Osgood in 1910 by fixation of the spinous processes with a heavy silk thread 1,2.  Posterior cervic...
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Coach finger

A coach finger refers to dorsal dislocation of the middle phalanx (P2) in relation to the proximal phalanx (P1) at the proximal interphalangeal (PIP) joint. It occurs as a result of forced hyperextension with axial loading.   
Article

Ventilator induced lung injury

Ventilator-induced lung injury (VILI) is a type of acute lung injury usually inflicted or aggravated by mechanical ventilation. It may occur during invasive or non-invasive ventilation. Pathology The predominant mechanisms include: alveolar overdistention (volutrauma) / regional lung overdist...
Article

Shock

Shock is a pathologic state in which cellular injury results from an inadequate degree of effective tissue perfusion 5. It is commonly subcategorized by hemodynamic parameters into hypovolemic, distributive, cardiogenic, and extracardiac obstructive shock 1. Common causes include hemorrhage, car...
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Kussmaul sign

Kussmaul sign is a clinical sign, seen as a paradoxical increase in the jugular venous pressure in response to inspiration. This is opposed to the normal physiological response of inspiration resulting in decreased jugular venous pressure 1. Pathology Etiology This sign typically arises secon...
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Odontoid process fixation

Odontoid process fixation or odontoid process repair refers to the surgical fixation of an odontoid fracture. Anterior odontoid screw fixation is performed with single and double screw techniques, non-cannulated and cannulated screws, and uni- or bicortical fixation techniques. Odontoid plate ...
Article

Anterior meniscofemoral ligament (ligament of Humphrey)

The anterior meniscofemoral ligament (aMFL) inserts to the lateral aspect of the medial femoral condyle and runs between the anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) and posterior cruciate ligament (PCL) to its' distal attachment to the posterior horn of the lateral meniscus 1-3.  It is one of two varia...
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Osteoporotic vs pathological vertebral fractures

Discriminating between acute osteoporotic and pathological vertebral fractures is sometimes challenging. This may be especially true in the elderly population, in which both osteoporosis and malignant disease often co-occur, and vertebral fractures of both kinds are common and indeed may coexist...
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Oblique lumbar interbody fusion (OLIF)

Oblique lumbar interbody fusion (OLIF) is one of several techniques used in lumbar interbody fusion. It provides minimally invasive access to the disc space, passing between the peritoneum and the psoas muscles. Indications Indications for the procedure generally overlap with those of LLIF and...
Article

Tc99m mebrofenin

Tc99m-Mebrofenin: trimethyl bromo IDA, also known as TBIDA, or under the trade name Choletec, is a diagnostic radiopharmaceutical used in hepatobiliary imaging. It is one of the Tc99m IDA (iminodiacetic acid) analogs. It is taken up by hepatocytes through the same membrane transport mechanism as...
Article

Boas sign

Boas sign is a clinical sign that is defined as hyperesthesia felt by the patient to light touch in the right lower scapular region or the right upper quadrant of the abdomen. It is classically seen in patients with acute cholecystitis. History and etymology Ismar Isidor Boas (1858–1938), was ...
Article

Carnett sign

The Carnett sign describes an examination finding used to distinguish pain arising from the abdominal wall from pain arising from within the abdomen itself. Eliciting the sign was described as a two-stage procedure. First the examiner locates the point of maximal tenderness through palpation of...
Article

Fothergill sign

The Fothergill sign describes an examination finding used to distinguish an abdominal wall mass from one arising in the abdomen itself. The sign is said to be present if a mass remains palpable and becomes fixed when the rectus muscles are contracted, such as when the patient lifts their head f...
Article

Blumberg sign

Blumberg sign is defined as discomfort on the manual application of tension over the abdomen observed by simultaneously watching the subjects face. On the removal of the examiner's hand the patient should be again asked whether he or she is feeling pain or not. It is expressive of peritoneal irr...
Article

Subsidence

In a medical sense, subsidence refers to the collapse or settling of bone located immediately next to an implantable device in direction of the loading force. It can lead to a loss of the desired postoperative result and to further complications 1. Epidemiology Associations Subsidence can be ...
Article

RANO criteria for brain metastases (RANO-BM)

Response assessment in neuro-oncology brain metastases (RANO-BM) criteria are recommendations for standardized tumor response and progression assessment in clinical trials involving brain metastases. Published in 2015, these should not be confused with the RANO criteria for high-grade glioma fro...
Article

Posterior cervical fusion

Posterior cervical fusion refers to a surgical spinal fusion technique of the cervical spine for conditions requiring posterior stabilization. It might be done for the management of cervical spine fractures or combined with spinal decompression techniques such as laminectomy or laminotomy. Hist...
Article

Rovsing sign

Rovsing sign is commonly used to describe pain elicited in the right iliac fossa on deep palpation of the left iliac fossa.  It is used in clinical examination to detect peritoneal irritation in the right iliac fossa, most frequently associated with acute appendicitis. Most teaching erroneously...
Article

Aaron sign

Aaron sign is a clinical sign that is defined as a feeling of distress and pain in the epigastric, umbilical and praecordial regions, on steady pressure over McBurney point, it is suggestive of chronic appendicitis. History and etymology Charles Dettie Aaron (1866–1951) was an American gastroe...
Article

Ligament

Ligaments are connective tissue structures that arch over joints connecting one bone to another bone with primary functions as stabilizers of articulations. The scientific study of ligaments is called syndesmology. Histology Ligaments are ultimately formed from numerous ligamental fibrils. The...
Article

Posterior sacroiliac ligament

The posterior (a.k.a. dorsal) sacroiliac ligament (TA: ligamentum sacroiliacum posterius) is a very strong ligament important in stabilizing the sacroiliac joint. Gross anatomy Some texts state that the posterior sacroiliac ligaments have two components; a more superior part, the short posteri...
Article

Renal imaging in nuclear medicine

Renal imaging in nuclear medicine is a method to assess the kidneys and collecting systems via multiple different radioactive tracers. Dynamic renal imaging is performed using Tc-99m MAG3 or Tc99m DTPA, and static renal imaging is performed with Tc-99m DMSA. In addition, Tc-99m DTPA can be used ...
Article

Complications of spinal surgery

Complications of spinal surgery are common and can occur at different time intervals after the surgery. Some of them are related to instrumentation, the procedure and/or the approach others are not. Anyhow, it is essential for the radiologist to be aware of them in the assessment of radiographs,...
Article

Paraspinal muscles

The paraspinal muscles (PSM) , also known as paravertebral muscles, is a descriptive term given to those muscles that closely surround the spine, primarily the thoracolumbar spine. There has been great research interest in using the cross-sectional area of these muscles as a measure of overall m...
Article

Laminotomy

A laminotomy is a spinal decompression procedure with partial removal of the vertebral arch usually at its base. Laminotomies might be combined with other spinal procedures such as discectomy or spinal fusion procedures. If a laminotomy is combined with a foraminotomy, then the procedure is call...

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