Articles

Articles are a collaborative effort to provide a single canonical page on all topics relevant to the practice of radiology. As such, articles are written and edited by countless contributing members over a period of time. A global group of dedicated editors oversee accuracy, consulting with expert advisers, and constantly reviewing additions.

15,920 results found
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Phase-sensitive inversion recovery

Phase-sensitive inversion recovery (PSIR), also known as phase-corrected inversion recovery (PCIR), refers to an inversion recovery MRI pulse sequence that accounts for the positive and negative polarities and preserves the information of tissue magnetization during the recovery from the initial...
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CT pancreas (protocol)

The CT pancreas protocol serves as an outline for a dedicated examination of the pancreas. As a separate examination, it is usually conducted as a biphasic contrast study and might be conducted as a part of other scans such as  CT abdomen-pelvis, CT chest-abdomen-pelvis. Note: This article aims...
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CT elbow (protocol)

The CT elbow protocol serves as an examination for the bony assessment of the elbow and is usually performed as a non-contrast study. It can be also combined with a CT arthrogram for the evaluation of chondral and osteochondral injuries.  Note: This article aims to frame a general concept of a ...
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CT hand and wrist (protocol)

The CT hand and wrist protocol serves as an examination for the bony assessment of the wrist and is often performed as a non-contrast study and less often as a contrast-enhanced study. A CT wrist can be also conducted as a CT arthrogram for the evaluation of ligamentous injuries and the triangul...
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Spontaneous rupture of the urinary bladder

A spontaneous rupture of the urinary bladder is usually on a background of a pre-existing pathology and is a urological emergency. For a general discussion of the perforation of the urinary bladder, please refer to the article on urinary bladder rupture. Epidemiology Intraperitoneal bladder t...
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CT pelvis (protocol)

The CT pelvis protocol serves as an outline for the acquisition of a pelvic CT. As a separate examination, it might be performed as a non-contrast or contrast study or might be combined with a CT hip or rarely with a CT cystogram. A pelvic CT might be also conducted as a part of other scans such...
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Prefemoral fat pad impingement syndrome

Prefemoral fat pad impingement syndrome, also known as supratrochlear / posterior suprapatellar fat pad impingement syndrome, is one of the fat pad impingement syndromes of the knee, specifically involving the prefemoral fat pad. Clinical presentation Patients present with anterior knee pain e...
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Cephalic arch stenosis

Cephalic arch stenosis is considered one of the commonest cause of dysfunction in a brachiocephalic fistula which involves the cephalic vein in the region of the cephalic arch prior to junction with the axillary vein. Epidemiology Has an average reported prevalance of around 15% in all autogen...
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Brachiocephalic fistula

A brachiocephalic fistula is a form of acquired arm arteriovenous fistula usually performed for chronic haemodialysis. Criteria for adequate vasculature Reported criteria include: arterial diameter of >2 mm vein diameter of >2.5 mm, while a tourniquet or blood pressure cuff is applied Drawb...
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Flat epithelial atypia

Flat epithelial atypia is an entity that comprises any columnar cell lesion with low-grade cytologic atypia. Terminology Flat epithelial atypia was introduced in the 3rd edition of WHO Classification of Breast Tumors in 2003, to substitute terms such as clinging carcinoma monomorphous type, at...
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Columnar cell hyperplasia of the breast

Columnar cell hyperplasia is part of the spectrum of columnar cell lesions of the breast characterized by enlarged terminal ductal lobular units lined by stratified (more than two layers) columnar epithelium, cellular crowding or overlapping without atypia. It can also form tufts or mounds with...
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Superior cerebellar vein

The superior cerebellar vein is formed by the union of the precentral cerebellar vein and superior vermian vein in the quadrigeminal cistern and ascends vertically as an unpaired structure to drain into the inferior aspect of the proximal (anterior) great cerebral vein of Galen 1,2.  In some in...
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Precentral cerebellar vein

The precentral cerebellar vein is an unpaired vein that courses superiorly in the quadrigeminal cistern, behind the tectal plate, to eventually drain into the inferior aspect of the proximal (anterior) great cerebral vein of Galen 1,2.  Gross anatomy The precentral cerebellar vein is formed by...
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Columnar cell change without atypia (breast)

Columnar cell change without atypia breast lesions are characterized by enlarged terminal ductal lobular units lined by columnar epithelial cells which substitute the normal cuboid epithelial layer.  They are also associated with prominent apical cytoplasmic snouts and intraluminal secretions. ...
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CT neck (protocol)

The CT neck protocol serves as a radiological examination of the head and neck. This protocol is usually performed as a contrast study and might be acquired separately or combined with a CT chest or CT chest-abdomen-pelvis. On rare occasions, it will be performed as a non-contrast study. Dependi...
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CT thoracic spine (protocol)

The CT thoracic spine or T-spine protocol serves as an examination for the assessment of the thoracic spine. As a separate examination, it is often performed as a non-contrast study. It might be combined or simultaneously acquired with a CT chest or CT chest-abdomen-pelvis as part of a trauma or...
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Lateral acromial angle

The lateral acromial angle is a measurement performed on plain film AP projection or coronal images of CT or MRI to assess the position of the acromion. Measurement It is measured by drawing a vertical line lateral and perpendicular to the glenoid and a horizontal line parallel to the acromion...
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CT lumbar spine (protocol)

The CT lumbar spine or L-spine protocol serves as an examination for the assessment of the lumbar spine. As a separate examination, it is most often performed as a non-contrast study. It might be combined or simultaneously acquired with a CT abdomen. It also forms a part of a polytrauma CT or mi...
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CT cervical spine (protocol)

The CT cervical spine or C-spine protocol serves as an examination for the assessment of the cervical spine. It is usually performed as a non-contrast study. In certain situations, it might be combined or simultaneously acquired with a CT angiography of the cerebral arteries or a CT of the neck....
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CT shoulder (protocol)

The CT shoulder protocol serves as an examination for the assessment of the shoulder joint. It is often performed as a non-contrast study. It can be combined with a CT arthrogram for the evaluation of labral injuries or the rotator cuff if MRI is contraindicated or in a postoperative setting whe...
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CT hip (protocol)

The CT hip protocol serves as an examination for the evaluation of the hip joint. It is often performed as a non-contrast study. However, it can be combined with a CT arthrogram for the evaluation of chondral and/or labral tears or a femoral neck version scan. Note: This article aims to frame a...
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Opalski syndrome

Opalski syndrome is a very rare brainstem stroke syndrome similar to Babinski-Nageotte syndrome, however, the medullary lesion extends beyond decussation of the corticospinal tracts into the upper cervical cord. Clinical presentation Opalski syndrome is considered to be a spreading of the “Wal...
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CT knee (protocol)

The CT knee protocol serves as an examination for the bony assessment of the knee the femoral condyles or the tibial plateau and the proximal tibiofibular joint. It is often performed as a non-contrast study. It can also be combined with a CT arthrogram in cases of suspected internal derangement...
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CT foot (protocol)

The CT foot protocol serves as an examination for the bony assessment of the fore and mid-foot and is almost always performed as a non-contrast study. It can also be combined with a CT ankle protocol or can be acquired as dual-energy CT depending on the clinical question. Note: This article aim...
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Zuska disease

Zuska disease, also known as Zuska-Atkins disease, is a rare pathology that is characterized by recurrent subareolar abscess formation, sometimes followed by fistula and pus drainage. Epidemiology It is seen more commonly in females however, case reports of male disease have also been reported...
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CT ankle (protocol)

The CT ankle protocol serves as an examination for the bony assessment of the ankle and rearfoot and is almost always performed as a non-contrast study. It can be also combined with a CT arthrogram for the evaluation of chondral and osteochondral injuries or can encompass the whole foot in certa...
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Rectal diverticulosis

Rectal diverticulosis (plural: diverticuloses) or the presence of diverticula in the rectum is very rare. Epidemiology Rectal diverticula are very rare with only scattered case reports in the global medical corpus, and symptomatic cases, e.g. rectal diverticulitis, are even rarer 1. It has bee...
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Using and attributing images from Radiopaedia

Using images from Radiopaedia in your presentations is not only ok but actively encouraged. Radiopaedia is all about sharing our knowledge and cases and by so doing make it easier to teach and to learn from each other.  To download an image just click the download icon (little cloud with down a...
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Sharing cases and playlists

Sharing cases and playlists is a cornerstone of what Radiopaedia is all about. As such we offer a number of ways for cases and playlists to be shared and these can be accessed via the "share" button. Each of the ways of sharing has its own URL and all you need to do is copy one and share online,...
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Pediatric finger (oblique view)

The oblique finger view for pediatrics is an additional view examining the distal metacarpal, distal, middle and proximal phalanges of the finger of interest.  Indications To minimize radiation dose, only the PA and lateral finger views are typically performed for pediatrics. However, the obli...
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AO/OTA classification of proximal tibial fractures

The AO/OTA classification is one of the most frequently used systems for classifying proximal tibial fractures or proximal tibial end segment fractures. Like other fractures, they are divided into three groups subject to the severity and complexity of the respective injury 1: type A: extraartic...
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Lindegaard ratio

The Lindegaard ratio refers to the calculated ratio of the mean flow velocities in the middle cerebral artery and the ipsilateral extracranial internal carotid artery, as measured by transcranial Doppler 1. Its primary utility is, in the context of increased MCA velocities after subarachnoid hem...
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Burned-out phase of hypertrophic cardiomyopathy

The burned-out phase of hypertrophic cardiomyopathy refers to the end-stage of hypertrophic cardiomyopathy and is characterized by myocardial fibrosis, systolic dysfunction and left ventricular wall thinning. Epidemiology The burned-out phase can be seen in 3-5% of patients with hypertrophic c...
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APPEND score

The APPEND score is a clinical decision rule and predictor of the likelihood of acute appendicitis. Criteria 1 male gender (1) anorexia (1) migratory pain (1) localized peritonism (1) elevated CRP > 15mg/L (1) neutrophilia >7.5x109/L (1) APPEND refers to the mnemonic: A: anorexia P: pa...
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Beak sign (gallbladder)

The beak sign of gallbladder volvulus describes tapering of the distended gallbladder lumen as it transitions to a fulcrum point at the pedicle, resembling a curved beak.  Terminology The term bird's beak sign is used in a number of other contexts: see bird beak sign (disambiguation). 
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Peri-ictal pseudoprogression

Peri-ictal pseudoprogression (PIPG) is a rare complication of prior cranial radiation and is thought to be on the same spectrum as SMART syndrome, albeit less severe.  Epidemiology PIPG is encountered in patients who have a remote history (typically >10 years) undergone prior cranial radiother...
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Inflammatory arthritis

Inflammatory arthritides are a group of joint disorders associated with synovitis and synovial hyperplasia caused by an influx of inflammatory cells. Inflammatory arthritides might also show extra-articular inflammation such as tenosynovitis and enthesitis and might be associated with involvemen...
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Zero echo time imaging

Zero echo time (ZTE) imaging is a relatively recent development in MR technology, with the aim to better visualize tissues such as bone with the shortest T2 values.  Physics In ZTE, the signal is acquired immediately after applying the radiofrequency pulse resulting in near-zero echo times. Af...
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Cardiac wall motion abnormalities

Cardiac wall motion abnormalities describe kinetic alterations in the cardiac wall motion during the cardiac cycle and have an effect on cardiac function. Cardiac wall motion abnormalities can be categorized with respect to their degree and their distribution pattern that is whether they are glo...
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Bone erosion

Bone erosions or simply erosions refer to focal bony defects in the subchondral bone plate or cortical bone and the adjacent trabecular bone. Unlike bone cysts, the cortical or subchondral bone is also affected. They are a feature seen in inflammatory arthritides and erosive osteoarthritis and c...
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Cartilage

Cartilage or cartilaginous tissue is a resilient and type of connective tissue of mesodermal origin that forms an integral part within the musculoskeletal system and as a structural component in other organs.   Cartilage can be generally classified into the following main types: hyaline cartil...
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Status post

Status post (S/P) is a term used in medicine to refer to a treatment (often a surgical procedure), diagnosis or just an event, that a patient has experienced previously, for example, "status post cholecystectomy", "S/P vaginal delivery", etc. History and etymology 'Status' is Latin for conditi...
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Synovial folds

Synovial folds or synovial plicae are remnant duplications of synovium formed during embryonic development. They are of particular interest and commonly described in the knee, elbow and hip joint but can be also found in other joints 1-4. Terminology The term ‘plica’ is commonly used if a syn...
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Synovial folds of the hip

Synovial folds or plicae of the hip are vestigial structures within the hip joint and include labral and ligamental plicae as well as the femoral retinacula. Gross anatomy The following synovial folds, plicae or retinacula have been described in the hip joint 1-5: femoral neck plicae or retin...
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Periodontal ligament widening

Periodontal ligament widening can be a finding which can present on OPG and facial bone CT imaging and can occur in several situations.  The normal width range is usually between 0.15-0.21 mm (may decrease with age). Conditions associated with widening are varied and can include: trauma  occ...
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Periodontal ligament

Periodontal ligaments are structures holding teeth in their sockets. They are seen as a thin radiolucent space between the surface of the tooth root and the lamina dura, the lining of the tooth socket. The lamina dura serves as a periodontal ligament attachment site.  They comprise soft connect...
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Articular cartilage

Articular cartilage refers to the cartilaginous connective tissue covering the bony surfaces of diarthrodial joints. Gross anatomy Articular cartilage is hyaline cartilage and is composed of a low density of chondrocytes surrounded by an abundant extracellular matrix. The extracellular matrix ...
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Archives of the Roentgen Ray

The Archives of the Roentgen Ray was a general radiology journal published from 1897 to 1915. In 1915, it was renamed the Archives of Radiology and Electrotherapy. The Archives was a forerunner publication of the British Journal of Radiology (BJR). History In 1897, after a single year in print...
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Dentomaxillofacial Radiology

Dentomaxillofacial Radiology (DMFR) is the official journal of the International Association of Dentomaxillofacial Radiology (IADMFR) and is published by the British Institute of Radiology (BIR); it was first published in 1972. Its primary focus is head and neck imaging and oral radiology. Its ...
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Differential diagnosis for PV bleeding (non-pregnant patients)

Per vaginal (PV) bleeding in a non-pregnant patient is a common clinical presentation with a multitude of causes. The potential causes vary with the patient's menstrual status. A well-known mnemonic is found here. Premenopausal fibroids cervical cancer adenomyosis endometriosis polycystic...
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British Institute of Radiology

The British Institute of Radiology (BIR) is a multidisciplinary radiology society, whose ultimate forerunner, the "X-ray Society" was the first radiology society to be founded in the world, in 1897. Journals The British Institute of Radiology publishes several journals, its premier one being t...
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Backfill

Backfill refers to intra-articular high signal intensity on T1 weighted images seen in axial spondylarthritis within the sacroiliac joint filling up excavated bone erosions 1. It has been characterized as a complete loss of the cortical bone within the sacroiliac joint at the anticipated locatio...
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Diaphragmatic lung hernia

A diaphragmatic lung hernia (plural: hernias or herniae) is extremely rare, characterized by a lung herniation through the diaphragm into the abdominal cavity. There has been a single case report 2. It is questionable whether this entity truly exists at all 3. This is not to be confused with th...
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Cervical lung hernia

Cervical lung hernias (alternative plural: herniae), also known as apical lung hernias, are a subtype of lung hernias in which lung protrudes through the apex of the thoracic cavity. Epidemiology Lung herniation of any form is rare. Cervical lung hernia is thought to represent only ~20% lung h...
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Radioactivity units

The amount of radioactivity present in a sample of material is expressed using radioactivity units. The becquerel (Bq), is the SI unit of radioactivity. Superseded units curie: still commonly used in the United States rutherford: obsolete mache: obsolete
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Idiopathic aortitis

Idiopathic aortitis is a rare form of non-infective aortitis with a lack of any known systemic disease. Epidemiology There may be a greater predilection in females 1. Clinical presentation While many patients can be asymptomatic, it may present with symptoms of aortic inflammation such as ba...
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Compensatory lung hyperinflation

Compensatory lung hyperinflation (a.k.a. compensatory lung overinflation) is a situation in which due to loss of volume of a lung, unaffected parts of the same lung overinflate as compensation. In more severe cases, the contralateral lung may also overinflate with possible mediastinal shift towa...
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Rigid spine

A rigid spine is a condition that is characterized by the ossification and/or fusion of spinal segments thus leading to a change in biomechanics. The shock absorption capabilities of normal intervertebral discs, as well as the elasticity of ligaments, is eliminated thus making the rigid spine mo...
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Discoligamentous injury

Discoligamentous injuries are severe spinal injuries in which the intervertebral disc and the intervertebral ligamentous structures are involved. They include cervical, thoracic or lumbar anterior tension band injuries as well as translational injuries. Terminology The term transdiscal fractur...
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Ligamentum teres injury

Ligamentum teres injuries or ligamentum capitis femoris injuries are a cause of hip pain and comprise complete, partial, degenerative tears as well as bony avulsions of the ligamentum teres of the hip. Epidemiology Ligamentum teres injuries are considered a more common cause of hip pain and ar...
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Fibular collateral ligament-biceps femoris bursa

The fibular collateral ligament-biceps femoris bursa is a small bursa separating the medial surface of the anterior arm of the long head biceps femoris tendon from the medially inserting lateral collateral ligament of the knee at the level of the fibular head. Gross anatomy The fibular collate...
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Segmental endplate angles in spine injuries

Segmental endplate or segmental kyphosis angles include the monosegmental and bisegmental endplate angle as well as the vertebral compression angle and play a role in the stability assessment after spinal injuries. The following angles might be used 1-3: monosegmental endplate angle or Gardner...
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Flexor-pronator mass injury

A flexor-pronator mass injury or common flexor-pronator muscle injury is a muscle injury most commonly a muscle tear or strain of flexor-pronator muscles of the elbow joint. Epidemiology A flexor-pronator mass injury is an uncommon injury seen in athletes practising throwing sports. It can rar...
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Valgus instability of the elbow

Valgus instability of the elbow can develop as a result of ulnar collateral ligament injury either in the setting of chronic overuse or in the context of an acute or an acute-on-chronic injury. Epidemiology Valgus instability can be seen in athletes and less commonly in non-athletes. Risk fac...
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Entorhinal cortical atrophy score

The entorhinal cortical atrophy (ERICA) score has been developed as an alternative to the medial temporal lobe atrophy (MTA) score to help visually identify patients with Alzheimer disease by evaluating the entorhinal cortex for volume loss 1. Usage An ERICA score of 2 or 3 (see below) has bee...
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Iris sign

The iris sign is the imaging appearance of deep medullary venous thrombosis/congestion-related white matter injury in neonates created by fan-shaped, outwards radiating hemorrhages or cytotoxic edema in the subcortical and periventricular cerebral white matter. The appearance resembles the flowe...
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Meniscofibular ligament

The meniscofibular ligament is a capsular ligament that connects the corpus of the lateral meniscus to the fibular head and provides stability to the posterolateral corner of the knee. Gross anatomy The meniscofibular has been shown to be present in up to 100% of cadaver studies 1,2. It consis...
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Sagittal stratum

The sagittal strata are regions of white matter in the posterior brain located around the atria and occipital horns of the lateral ventricles. Gross anatomy The precise anatomical definition has not been agreed upon, but these borders have been proposed 1: medial: tapetum and ventricular epen...
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Meniscocapsular ligament

The meniscocapsular ligament attaches the base of the posterior horn of the medial meniscus to the posterior joint capsule of the knee adjacent to the coronary ligament. Gross anatomy The meniscocapsular ligament is a collagenous structure of the posteromedial corner of the knee and connects t...
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Distal semimembranosus tendon

The distal semimembranosus tendon, distal semimembranosus complex or distal semimembranosus muscle-tendon unit is a major musculotendinous structure of the posteromedial corner of the knee and an important dynamic stabilizer of the knee. Gross anatomy The semimembranosus tendon has a complex a...
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Occult

Occult is used in radiology to refer to pathology that cannot be seen on more or more modalities. Most commonly it is used to refer to occult fractures on plain radiography, which are easy to see on MRI. Examples of occult phenomena Several disease entities have been commonly described as "occ...
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FLAIR-hyperintense lesions in anti-MOG associated encephalitis with seizures (FLAMES)

FLAIR-hyperintense lesions in anti-MOG associated encephalitis with seizures (FLAMES) is a clinico-radiographic sub-entity of MOGAD comprising seizures and FLAIR-hyperintensities on MRI, particularly involving the cortex 1,2. Epidemiology and treatment are covered in a general discussion of mye...
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Fabellofibular ligament

The fabellofibular ligament (FFL) or gastrocnemiofibular ligament is a ligamentous structure of the posterolateral corner of the knee and a static secondary stabilizer with morphological variability. Gross anatomy The fabellofibular ligament takes its course from the fabella and descends verti...
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Pancake organ (disambiguation)

A variety of organ abnormalities have been described as having an appearance similar to a pancake. pancake adrenal  pancake brain pancake kidney pancake vertebra
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Myelodysplastic syndrome / myeloproliferative neoplasm (MDS/MPN) overlap syndromes

Myelodysplastic syndrome / myeloproliferative neoplasm (MDS/MPN) overlap syndromes refer to a group of chronic clonal myeloid malignancies in which there are features of both myelodysplastic syndrome and myeloproliferative neoplasm at the time of presentation. Entities that can fall into this g...
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Common flexor origin of the elbow

The common flexor origin of the elbow refers to a common attachment of the following flexor-pronator muscles at the medial epicondyle of the distal humerus 1-3: pronator teres (PT) flexor digitorum superficialis (FDS) flexor carpi ulnaris (FCU) The flexor carpi radialis (FCR) and palmaris lo...
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Annular ligament of the elbow

The annular ligament is a part of the lateral collateral ligamentous complex of the elbow joint and a major stabilizer of the proximal radioulnar joint. Gross anatomy The annular ligament is located within the elbow joint and is one of four ligaments forming the lateral collateral ligamentous ...
Article

Common extensor origin of the elbow

The common extensor origin of the elbow classically refers to the common tendon of the following forearm extensor muscles, which form a common footprint at the lateral epicondyle 1,2: extensor carpi radialis brevis (ECRB) extensor digitorum communis (EDC) extensor digiti minimi (EDM) extenso...
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Radial collateral ligament of the elbow

The radial collateral ligament (RCL), radial collateral ligament proper or lateral collateral ligament of the elbow is a static lateral stabilizer and a part of the lateral collateral ligamentous complex of the elbow. Gross anatomy The radial collateral ligament courses through the intertuberc...
Article

Review area

Review areas (a.k.a. reporting checklists) are specific anatomical regions of imaging examinations whereby it has been found that radiologists are more likely to overlook significant findings. The most well known review areas are those of the standard frontal chest radiograph. The routine use of...
Article

Fat in dural sinuses

Fat in dural sinuses is usually an incidental finding and generally tends to occur in the regions of torcula and superior sagittal sinus. They are thought to represent normal adipose tissue in the sinus wall.  Differential diagnosis In some situations they may mimic pneumocephalus on CT if not...
Article

Urogenital diaphragm

The urogenital diaphragm is an incorrect historic term describing a structure or structures in the perineum. The term is still in occasional use despite not appearing in Terminologia Anatomica. Most descriptions of the diaphragm relate to a discoid space between the superficial and deep fasciae...
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Caseous calcification of the mitral annulus

Caseous calcification, liquefactive necrosis or ‘toothpaste tumor’ of the mitral annulus refers to a calcified cardiac mass and a rare variant of mitral annular calcification that is often misdiagnosed as a cardiac abscess or cardiac tumor. Epidemiology Caseous mitral annular calcification is ...
Article

Unclassified hepatic adenoma

Unclassified hepatic adenomas refer to the 5-10% of hepatocellular adenomas subtype that lack known genetic abnormalities1,2. These adenomas cannot be further categorized genetically or histologically as inflammatory adenomas, HNF 1 alpha mutated adenomas or beta-catenin mutated adenomas. The c...
Article

Adalimumab induced interstitial lung disease

Adalimumab induced interstitial lung disease is a form of anti-TNF-induced diffuse interstitial lung disease from the broader category of drug induced lung disease. The disease occurs as a response to the disease modifying anti-rheumatic drug adalimumab or HumiraTM. Pathology Exact mechanism o...
Article

Autoencoder

Autoencoders are an unsupervised learning technique in which artificial neural networks are used to learn to produce a compressed representation of the input data. Essentially, autoencoding is a data compression algorithm where the compression and decompression functions are learned automatical...
Article

CT transcatheter aortic valve implantation planning (protocol)

The transcatheter aortic valve implantation or TAVI planning CT protocol is used to plan for transcatheter aortic valve implantation. CT allows for the assessment of the aortic root and valve annulus in order to select an appropriate valve size and location-specific to the patient. An aortic ang...
Article

Paratenon

The paratenon is a membrane-like areolar structure consisting of loose connective tissue found around extraarticular tendons without a synovial sheath including the Achilles tendon, quadriceps tendon or distal biceps tendon. It allows the tendon to move more freely acting as a gliding mechanism ...
Article

Peroneus tendon injury

Peroneus tendon injuries are a common and frequently underdiagnosed spectrum of disorders seen in patients with lateral ankle pain.  The following conditions can account as or are associated with peroneus tendon injuries 1-4:    peroneal tendinosis/tendinopathy peroneus brevis tendon tears p...
Article

Peroneus longus tendon tear

Peroneus longus tendon tears can be partial or complete, longitudinal or transverse, acute or chronic and might be associated with tendon instability. Epidemiology Peroneus longus tendon tears are a frequent cause of lateral foot and ankle pain 1-3. However, they are less common than peroneus ...
Article

Popliteus injury

Popliteus injuries or injuries of the popliteus musculotendinous complex occur within the scope of posterolateral corner injuries of the knee and include avulsions, complete and partial tendinous and myotendinous tears as well as muscle injuries. Epidemiology Popliteus injuries can be found in...
Article

Anusitis

Anusitis is inflammation of the anal canal lining. Terminology Anusitis should not be confused with proctitis, which is distinguished as inflammation of rectal mucosa. Epidemiology Anusitis is associated with diet, in particular excess intake of coffee, cola, beer, citrus, spices, and/or hot...
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Popliteomeniscal fascicles

The popliteomeniscal fascicles (PMF) are synovial ligamentous structures connecting the posterior horn of the lateral meniscus to the popliteus tendon thus stabilizing the lateral meniscus. They form the popliteal hiatus and include the following: anteroinferior popliteomeniscal fascicle poste...

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