Articles

Articles are a collaborative effort to provide a single canonical page on all topics relevant to the practice of radiology. As such, articles are written and edited by countless contributing members over a period of time. A global group of dedicated editors oversee accuracy, consulting with expert advisers, and constantly reviewing additions.

736 results found
Article

Aortic root to right ventricle fistula

An aortic root to right ventricle fistula refers to abnormal fistulous communication between the aortic root and the right ventricle. It results from a defect of the aortic wall usually in the area above the right coronary cusp, where it separates aorta and right ventricular outflow tract. It ca...
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Heart failure with reduced ejection fraction

Heart failure with reduced ejection fraction (HFrEF) is a type of heart failure due to left ventricular dysfunction (left heart failure) classified by a left ventricular ejection fraction of 40% or less. Heart failure with reduced ejection fraction occurs when the left ventricle is unable to con...
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Ventricular tachycardia

Ventricular tachycardia is a type of ventricular arrhythmia with at least three consecutive ventricular beats occurring at greater than 100 beats per minute. If left untreated, ventricular tachycardia can lead to ventricular fibrillation and cardiac arrest. Epidemiology  Ventricular tachycardi...
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Posterior superior aortic recess

The posterior superior aortic recess, (also known as the superior pericardial recess or the superior sinus) is one of the variable invaginations of the superior aortic recess and is located posterior to the ascending aorta. It may mimic mediastinal lymphadenopathy or a bronchogenic cyst.
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Posterior pericardial recess

The posterior pericardial recess is one of the pericardial recesses forming a small space within the pericardium. It arises from the superior margin of the oblique pericardial sinus, posterior to the right pulmonary artery and medial to the bronchus intermedius. It may mimic mediastinal lymphad...
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Ventricular arrhythmia

Ventricular arrhythmias are potentially very dangerous cardiac arrhythmias arising from the cardiac ventricles that require immediate attention and medical care and include the following rhythms: premature ventricular complexes ventricular tachycardia torsades de pointes ventricular flutter ...
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Atrioventricular block

Atrioventricular block, AV block or heart block is a conduction disturbance and a type of arrhythmia where the impulse transmission between the cardiac atria and ventricles is either transiently or permanently delayed or completely blocked 1. Epidemiology Atrioventricular block can be found in...
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Reduced leaflet motion

Reduced leaflet motion refers to an abnormally decreased mobility of one or more valvular leaflets and is a phenomenon that has been observed after (transcatheter) implantation of prosthetic heart valves and gained clinical significance for the diagnosis of subclinical leaflet thrombosis. Epide...
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Arrhythmia

Arrhythmia is depicted as an irregular heartbeat. When it is too fast, it is called tachycardia i.e. more than 100 beats per minute. On the other hand, too slow of a heartbeat is called bradycardia, with less than 60 beats per minute being recorded. Clinical presentation Symptomatology compris...
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Prosthetic valve thrombosis

Prosthetic valve thrombosis, valve thrombosis or leaflet thrombosis refers to thrombus formation of any component of a prosthetic heart valve and is a cause of prosthetic valve dysfunction and a potentially reversible complication of valvular surgery 1,2. Subclinical leaflet thrombosis is an en...
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Contrast level within inferior vena cava

A dependent contrast level within the inferior vena cava is a situation that can be observed in some cases with inferior vena caval contrast reflux. Its presence is usually associated with very poor cardiac output and can be accompanied by dependent layering of venous refluxed contrast within th...
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Inferior vena caval contrast reflux

Reflux of contrast into inferior vena cava can be common findings seen on CT. It is considered a specific but insensitive sign of right-sided heart disease / right heart dysfunction at low contrast injection rates although the usefulness decreases with high injection rates. Conditions associate...
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Percutaneous mitral commissurotomy

Percutaneous mitral commissurotomy (PMC) also known as percutaneous mitral balloon commissurotomy (PMBC), percutaneous mitral valvotomy (PMV) or percutaneous mitral balloon valvuloplasty (PMBV) is a transcatheter procedure for the management of mitral stenosis. History and etymology Percutaneo...
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Coronary artery bypass graft markers

Coronary artery bypass graft markers are radiopaque markers placed at the proximal origin of coronary artery bypass grafts from the ascending aorta. The purpose of these is to make subsequent coronary angiography easier by indicating the location of the graft origin.  Markers may be metallic ri...
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Transcatheter mitral valve intervention

Transcatheter mitral valve interventions (TMVI) or percutaneous mitral valve interventions are less-invasive, highly technical procedures available for the management of selected patients with mitral valve regurgitation and include several transcatheter mitral valve repair (TMVr) and transcathet...
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Ischemic cardiomyopathy

Ischemic cardiomyopathy (ICM) refers to significant systolic dysfunction with a moderate to severely impaired left ventricular ejection fraction as a consequence of myocardial ischemia and/or myocardial infarction. The condition is not listed or classified as cardiomyopathy in the position state...
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Commissure (disambiguation)

A commissure (TA: commissura) is a location at which two anatomical structures are united. Though the term most commonly refers to the commissures in the brain, there are a number which exist in the human body:  central nervous system corpus callosum anterior commissure posterior commissure ...
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Right atrial appendage

The right atrial appendage, also known as the right auricule (TA) or auricle, is a trapezoidal pouch forming the anterosuperior part of the right atrium. Pacemaker/defibrillator leads are often placed at this site. Gross anatomy The right atrial appendage is delineated from the rest of the rig...
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Cardiac resynchronisation therapy

Cardiac resynchronisation therapy (CRT) refers to simultaneous biventricular or multisite pacing of the heart with a specialized biventricular cardiac pacemaker (CRT-P) with or without an implantable cardioverter-defibrillator (CRT-D) and is a treatment option in moderate to severe heart failure...
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Takotsubo cardiomyopathy (diagnostic criteria)

Takotsubo cardiomyopathy, alternatively Takotsubo syndrome, is a primary acquired cardiomyopathy characterized by transient left ventricular dysfunction. Several sets of diagnostic criteria exist and are variably utile in various clinical and research settings. International Takotsubo Diagnosti...
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Echocardiography

Echocardiography refers broadly to the use of diagnostic ultrasound as it pertains to the heart and cardiovascular system. The features of the imaging equipment used, as well as the principles underlying image generation, are analogous to other sonographic applications. It is primarily used to n...
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Atrial volume

The atrial volumes refer to the blood volumes of the left or right atrium and the atrial volume index is the respective atrial volume corrected for the body surface area (BSA). Usage Atrial volumes are measured for the assessment of many congenital and acquired cardiac conditions causing left ...
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Heart failure with preserved ejection fraction

Heart failure with preserved ejection fraction (HFpEF) is a type of heart failure with normal or near-normal ejection fraction and objective evidence of diastolic dysfunction. Terminology Heart failure with preserved ejection fraction was initially termed ‘diastolic heart failure' and was repl...
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Apical rocking

Apical rocking is a radiographic sign that might be seen either on echocardiography or cine imaging on cardiac MRI in the four-chamber view and refers to a movement of the cardiac apex in cardiac dyssynchrony. It is characterized by the following 1-3: short-timed movement of the apex towards th...
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Cardiac dyssynchrony

Cardiac dyssynchrony refers to deviations in timing and/or disturbance of the normal sequence of activation and contraction between the atria and ventricles of the heart, the right and left ventricle or among the ventricular wall segments. Dysynchrony can be subdivided into electrical and mechan...
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Development of the heart

The heart is one of the first organs in the developing embryo to form and function. By the start of week 4, a primitive heart has begun to pump blood and by week 7 most of the gross development of the heart is complete. Its development is complex, with several events occurring simultaneously. T...
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Coronary microcirculation

The coronary microcirculation comprises several anatomically and functionally different coronary vascular compartments with a small diameter (<500 µm) that play a crucial role in the regulation of myocardial perfusion. Summary location: epicardium, myocardium, endocardium blood supply: epicar...
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Aspirin

Aspirin, also known as acetylsalicylic acid (ASA), is a generic non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drug and antiplatelet agent. It is one of the most-widely if not the most commonly used drug in the world and is listed on the WHO Model List of Essential Medicines 1-4. It is used as an over-the-coun...
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Endocarditis signs (mnemonic)

A mnemonic to remember the most important signs of endocarditis is: FROM JANE Mnemonic F: fever R: Roth's spots O: Osler's nodes M: murmur of heart J: Janeway lesions A: anemia N: nail hemorrhage E: embolism
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Cyanosis differential diagnosis (mnemonic)

A mnemonic to differentiate between central and peripheral cyanosis is: COLD PALMS Mnemonic C: cold (peripheral) O: obstruction (peripheral) L: LVF and shock (peripheral) D: decreased cardiac output (peripheral) P: polycythemia (central) A: altitude (central) L: lung disease (central) ...
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New onset atrial fibrillation causes (mnemonic)

A mnemonic to remember the commonest causes of new onset atrial fibrillation is: PIRATES ​Mnemonic P: pulmonary I: ischemic R: rheumatic A: atrial myxoma T: thyroid E: embolism S: sepsis
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Rosenbach sign (disambiguation)

Rosenbach sign may refer to several different clinical signs: Rosenbach sign (AV regurgitation) Rosenbach sign (eye) Rosenbach sign (hemiplegia) History and etymology Ottomar Ernst Felix Rosenbach (1851-1907), a German physician born in Prussian County in Silesia, graduated from medicine in...
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Tobacco abuse

Tobacco abuse, most commonly by smoking cigarettes, is a legal drug habit of many throughout the world. It is a significant risk factor for many malignancies, respiratory and cardiovascular diseases and is a major cause of premature mortality throughout the world. Epidemiology It has been esti...
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Rosenbach sign (aortic valve regurgitation)

Rosenbach sign is a clinical sign that is seen in severe aortic/tricuspid valve regurgitation. It is elicited as pulsation of the liver, during systole, and it is primarily due to the increased cardiac output and associated retrograde blood flow into the liver 1-3. See also Rosenbach also gave...
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Right ventricular fractional area change

The right ventricular fractional area change is a two-dimensional measure of right ventricular global systolic function usually made on an echocardiogram. It is obtained from the apical four-chamber view and is calculated as RV- fractional area change = (end-diastolic area - end-systolic area) ...
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Post cardiac arrest syndrome

The post cardiac arrest syndrome (PCAS) describes the clinicopathological state that manifests following most cardiac arrests. Clinically, it is manifested by a combination of neurological disturbance, multiorgan dysfunction and a systemic inflammatory response syndrome-like state. Pathology T...
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Hamartoma of mature cardiac myocytes

Hamartomas of mature cardiac myocytes (HMCM) are benign tumors arising from mature striated cardiac myocytes. Terminology Terms that are not recommended include ‘cardiac hamartoma’ or ‘hamartoma of adult cardiac myocytes’ 1. Epidemiology A hamartoma of mature cardiac myocytes is a very rare ...
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Cystic tumor of the atrioventricular node

Cystic tumors of the atrioventricular node (CTAVN), also known as endodermal heterotopia, refer to a benign mass lesion of the atrioventricular node that constitutes a developmental endodermal rest. Terminology A term that is no longer recommended for use is ‘mesothelioma of the atrioventricul...
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Cardiac undifferentiated pleomorphic sarcoma

Cardiac undifferentiated pleomorphic sarcomas are highly malignant mesenchymal tumors of the heart. Terminology Terms that are no longer recommended for use include ‘intimal sarcoma’, ‘undifferentiated sarcoma’ and ‘undifferentiated spindle cell sarcoma’ 1. Epidemiology Cardiac undifferentia...
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Cardiac leiomyosarcoma

Cardiac leiomyosarcomas are malignant smooth muscle tumors of the heart. Epidemiology Cardiac leiomyosarcomas are rare primary malignant tumors of the heart accounting for less than one-fifth of cardiac sarcomas. They have been found in a wide age range from 6 months to 86 years with a mean ag...
Article

Gastropericardial fistula

Gastropericardial fistulas are rare abnormal communications between the stomach and the pericardial sac. This is a life-threatening condition that can lead to impaired cardiac function, sepsis and eventually death. Clinical presentation Patients with gastropericardial fistula may present with ...
Article

Phase-sensitive inversion recovery

Phase-sensitive inversion recovery (PSIR), also known as phase-corrected inversion recovery (PCIR), refers to an inversion recovery MRI pulse sequence that accounts for the positive and negative polarities and preserves the information of tissue magnetization during the recovery from the initial...
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Burned-out phase of hypertrophic cardiomyopathy

The burned-out phase of hypertrophic cardiomyopathy refers to the end-stage of hypertrophic cardiomyopathy and is characterized by myocardial fibrosis, systolic dysfunction and left ventricular wall thinning. Epidemiology The burned-out phase can be seen in 3-5% of patients with hypertrophic c...
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Cardiac wall motion abnormalities

Cardiac wall motion abnormalities describe kinetic alterations in the cardiac wall motion during the cardiac cycle and have an effect on cardiac function. Cardiac wall motion abnormalities can be categorized with respect to their degree and their distribution pattern that is whether they are glo...
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Caseous calcification of the mitral annulus

Caseous calcification, liquefactive necrosis or ‘toothpaste tumor’ of the mitral annulus refers to a calcified cardiac mass and a rare variant of mitral annular calcification that is often misdiagnosed as a cardiac abscess or cardiac tumor. Epidemiology Caseous mitral annular calcification is ...
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Marginal artery (disambiguation)

The marginal artery may refer to several different arteries in the body, including two different coronary vessels: callosomarginal artery (CNS) marginal artery (of Drummond) obtuse marginal artery (cardiac) right marginal artery (cardiac)
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Cardiac gating (CT)

Cardiac gating or ECG gated angiography in CT is an acquisition technique that triggers a scan during a specific portion of the cardiac cycle. Often this technique is conveyed to obtain high-quality scans void of pulsation artefact. Technique Via the attachment of ECG leads, cardiac gating aim...
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Infiltrative cardiomyopathy

Infiltrative cardiomyopathies are a group of diseases characterized by the deposition of different substances either within the cells or the extracellular space of the myocardium leading first to altered ventricular filling and diastolic dysfunction and eventually to overt systolic dysfunction 1...
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Myocardial fiber disarray

Myocardial disarray, myocardial fiber disarray or cardiac myocyte disarray refers to bizarre disorganization and texture of cardiac myocyte bundles, individual cardiomyocytes and contractile elements within the sarcomeres. It is an important histological feature of hypertrophic cardiomyopathy wh...
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Mass-like hypertrophic cardiomyopathy

Mass-like or tumefactive hypertrophic cardiomyopathy is a morphological variant or phenotype of hypertrophic cardiomyopathy (HCM). Epidemiology Mass-like or tumefactive hypertrophic cardiomyopathy is rare and accounts for less than 2% of cases 1-4. Associations Mass-like or tumefactive hyper...
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Concentric hypertrophic cardiomyopathy

Concentric or symmetric hypertrophic cardiomyopathy is a morphological variant or phenotype of hypertrophic cardiomyopathy (HCM) characterized by fairly symmetrical or diffuse thickening of the myocardium and a reduction of the left ventricular cavity. Terminology The term ‘concentric left ven...
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Midventricular hypertrophic cardiomyopathy

Midventricular hypertrophic cardiomyopathy is a phenotype or morphological variant of asymmetric hypertrophic cardiomyopathy (HCM) characterized by hypertrophy in the midventricular segment that might result in midventricular obstruction. Epidemiology Midventricular hypertrophic cardiomyopathy...
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Asymmetric hypertrophic cardiomyopathy

Asymmetric hypertrophic cardiomyopathy is the most common morphological variant or phenotype of hypertrophic cardiomyopathy (HCM). Epidemiology Approximately 60-70% of cases with hypertrophic cardiomyopathy make up for the asymmetric phenotype 1-3. Associations Asymmetric hypertrophic cardio...
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Taenia sagittalis

The taenia sagittalis or sagittal bundle is a prominent pectinate muscle and a band-like structure in the right atrium and constitutes a mimic for right atrial thrombi or masses. Gross anatomy The taenia sagittalis originates from the crista terminalis and extends upwards and anteriorly dividi...
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Cardiac cycle

The cardiac cycle describes the electrical and mechanical actions of the heart, contraction and relaxation of the atria and ventricles during every heartbeat. The cardiac cycle consists of the following phases 1-3: Systole isovolumetric contraction and closure of the atrioventricular valves  ...
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CT triple rule out (protocol)

A triple rule out (TRO) protocol is a cardiac CT protocol that aims to assess for different problems at the same time in one single examination: obstructive coronary artery disease, aortic dissection or pulmonary embolism. The approach itself has been continuously under discussion due to diffic...
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Coronary CT angiography (protocol)

The coronary CT angiography or cardiac CT angiogram protocol is the most common dedicated cardiac CT examination and is a non-invasive tool for the evaluation of the coronary arteries. Note: This article is intended to outline some general principles. Protocol specifics especially medications, ...
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Structural heart disease

Structural heart disease refers to any non-coronary congenital or acquired cardiac defect in a broad sense. In a narrower sense, it refers to any type of non-coronary heart disease for which there are therapeutic percutaneous interventional or catheter-based options available. Typical examples ...
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Cardiac CT (retrospective acquisition)

A retrospective ECG-gated cardiac CT is usually conducted in cases in which adequate control of heart rate cannot be achieved or in which additional information on ventricular or valvular function is required. Indications Please refer to our coronary CT angiography article for general indicati...
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Cardiac CT (prospective acquisition)

A prospective ECG gated cardiac CT angiogram, also known as the step and shoot method, is considered the default or ‘bread and butter’ protocol for coronary CTA and combines a reasonably low radiation dose with diagnostic results in most situations. Nowadays, this protocol is available on most C...
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Mitral annular dilation

Mitral annular dilation refers to an increased mitral annulus in relation to the size of the mitral valvular leaflets and is a potential cause for mitral regurgitation. Epidemiology Associations Mitral annular dilation is seen in the following clinical conditions 1-3: secondary mitral regurg...
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Flail leaflet

Flail leaflet or leaflet flail refers to an abnormally increased leaflet mobility of the atrioventricular valves associated with valvular prolapse and a systolic excursion of the leaflet tip or edge into the atria. Pathology Flail leaflet can be seen in leaflets of the mitral and tricuspid val...
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Papillary muscle rupture

Papillary muscle rupture (PMR) is a dangerous complication that can evolve as a consequence of myocardial infarction or infective endocarditis leading to severe acute mitral or tricuspid regurgitation leading to left or right-sided heart failure. Epidemiology Papillary muscle rupture is rare a...
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Mitral valve repair

Mitral valve repair or mitral valvuloplasty is a surgical method for treatment of a deficient mitral valve, which comprises removal of redundant valvular tissue and fixation of ruptured/elongated chordae tendineae rather than the whole replacement of the valve. History and etymology The first ...
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Cardiac CT (prospective high-pitch acquisition)

The prospective ECG-gated high-pitch dual-source CT cardiac angiogram is a high pitch helical acquisition of the heart that is able to capture a single phase of the cardiac cycle, a dual-source scanner is required to perform it. Although this is the CT cardiac angiogram with the lowest dose it a...
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Mitral valve replacement

Mitral valve replacement refers to the substitution of the mitral valve either by a mechanical valve or bioprosthesis. Indications Mitral valve replacement has been superseded by mitral valve repair in most situations of mitral valve dysfunction 1-3. Further existing indications of operative m...
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Years criteria for pulmonary embolism

The YEARS criteria is a diagnostic algorithm that determines the risk of pulmonary embolism (PE) derived from three items in the Wells score that are most predictive of PE1. Unlike the Wells score, it uses a variable D-dimer threshold based off clinical pre-test probability. The YEARS criteria i...
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Mitral valve leaflet calcification

Mitral valve leaflet calcification or mitral leaflet calcification refers to the deposition of calcium on the mitral valvular leaflets as opposed to mitral annular calcification in the mitral annulus. It has been associated with mitral stenosis 1,2.  Epidemiology Mitral leaflet calcification h...
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Myxomatous mitral valve degeneration

Myxomatous mitral valve degeneration, myxomatous degeneration of the mitral valve, myxomatous mitral valve disease or simply myxomatous mitral valve is a non-inflammatory progressive alteration of the mitral valve structure associated with mitral valve prolapse and mitral insufficiency. Termino...
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Mitral annulus

The mitral annulus (MA) or mitral annular ring refers to a membrane-like structure of the atrioventricular junction, that forms a hinge for the mitral leaflets and separates the left atrial and ventricular myocardial walls. Gross anatomy The mitral annulus is a ‘D-shaped’ structure resembling ...
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D sign (right ventricle)

A D-shaped left ventricle or flattening of the interventricular septum with a D-shaped configuration is a feature described with significant right ventricular (RV) overload / right heart strain such as that occurring with complications of a sizable pulmonary embolic event. It was initially descr...
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Mitral annulus disjunction

Mitral annulus disjunction (MAD) is an anatomic mitral annular abnormality characterized by a separation of the mitral annulus the left atrial wall and the basal portion of the left ventricular myocardium. Epidemiology Mitral annulus disjunction has been reported in 42-90% of patients with myx...
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Tuberculous pericarditis

Tuberculous pericarditis is an infection of the pericardium with tubercle bacilli that features different pathological stages and is the most common form of cardiac tuberculosis. Epidemiology Tuberculous pericarditis makes up for ≤4% of pericardial disease in developed countries but is the maj...
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Paravalvular leak

A paravalvular leak, paravalvular leakage or paravalvular regurgitation are an abnormal flow between the valvular annulus and the prosthetic heart valve and is a common complication after valvular replacement surgery due to inadequate sealing. Epidemiology Paravaluvar leaks are common, with an...
Article

Vasospastic angina

Vasospastic angina (VSA), variant angina or Prinzmetal angina is a clinical entity that refers to a hyper-reactive response of the epicardial coronary arteries to vasoconstrictor stimuli. Epidemiology Incidence and prevalence seem not entirely explored and are highly variable between certain p...
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Coronary microvascular dysfunction

Coronary microvascular dysfunction (CMD) or coronary microvascular disease refers to a wide spectrum of clinical situations with an impairment of the coronary microcirculation and myocardial blood flow in subjects with respective risk factors. It can contribute to or induce myocardial ischemia. ...
Article

Chronic coronary syndrome

Chronic coronary syndrome (CCS) is a term that defines coronary artery disease as a chronic progressive course that can be altered, stabilized or improved by lifestyle modifications, pharmacotherapy and coronary revascularization. It has been introduced to replace the previous term ‘stable coron...
Article

Coronary in-stent restenosis

Coronary in-stent restenosis (ISR) is referred to as an increasing loss of the stented arterial lumen after a percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI) and coronary stent placement which requires revascularization. Terminology However, there are different clinical and angiographic definitions: ...
Article

Roesler sign

Roesler sign is the name given to the inferior rib notching seen in coarctation of the aorta. Although by no means pathognomonic, the sign is fairly specific. Although many other causes of inferior rib notching have been recorded most of them are very rare 1. Strictly-speaking it is only called...
Article

Adenosine

Adenosine is a vasodilating agent, which acts on the vascular smooth muscle surface and leads to vasodilation and a considerable increased vascular flow. NB: This article aims to give a summarized description of adenosine. For detailed and exact information please refer to the information and d...
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Coronary stent thrombosis

Coronary stent thrombosis or scaffold thrombosis refers to a recent acute thrombus or occlusion in a coronary segment previously treated with a coronary stent or scaffold. It is a severe complication of percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI) and a major adverse cardiovascular event. Epidemiol...
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Neoplastic pericardial disease

Neoplastic pericardial disease, neoplastic pericardial involvement or neoplastic pericarditis refers to a pericardial infiltration by tumor cells usually associated with a variably sized pericardial effusion and is a form of non-infectious pericarditis. It needs to be differentiated from other c...
Article

Cardiac ischemia protocol (MRI)

The cardiac MRI ischemia or stress protocol encompasses a set of different MRI sequences for the assessment of myocardial ischemia. Note: This article aims to frame a general concept of a cardiac MRI protocol in the setting of vasodilator stress perfusion testing. Protocol specifics will vary ...
Article

Purulent pericarditis

Purulent pericarditis or pericardial empyema is a serious form of a bacterial, fungal or parasitic infection of the pericardium associated with a neutrophilic pericardial effusion. Epidemiology Purulent pericarditis is rare nowadays and makes up for <1% of pericarditis cases. Risk factors Fa...
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Coronary stent

Coronary stents or coronary artery stents are expandable tubular medical meshwork devices used for interventional treatment of coronary artery disease and prevention of negative remodeling and vascular recoil, restenosis as well as abrupt vessel occlusion from local coronary artery dissection af...
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Cardiac arrest

Cardiac arrest is the term used for the abrupt loss of cardiac pump function such that an adequate circulation cannot be maintained. Despite recent modest improvements in survival, it usually leads to death, if not immediately treated. Arrests may be in-hospital or out-of-hospital.  Epidemiolog...
Article

Valve of Vieussens

The valve of Vieussens is one of two valves of the coronary sinus, which can be found at the junction to the great cardiac vein in the majority of individuals and might be of clinical importance for specific cardiac catheterization procedures. Variant anatomy It can be found in 60-90% of indiv...
Article

Left marginal vein

The left marginal vein also known as the left obtuse marginal vein is one of the tributary veins of the coronary sinus and belongs to the greater coronary venous system. Gross anatomy The left marginal vein drains the lateral wall of the left ventricle and usually courses with one of the obtus...
Article

Tricuspid annular plane systolic excursion

Tricuspid annular plane systolic excursion (TAPSE) also known as tricuspid annular motion refers to the displacement of the tricuspid valvular plane in the z-direction, reflects right ventricular longitudinal contraction or shortening. Usage Tricuspid annular plane systolic excursion can be me...
Article

Sudden cardiac death

Sudden cardiac death (SCD) is a term used for an unexpected, non-traumatic fatal event in an otherwise healthy subject. Epidemiology Sudden cardiac death is estimated to account for about 50% of all cardiac deaths with first-time events making up more than 25% 1. The incidence ranges between 0...
Article

Rheumatoid arthritis (cardiac manifestations)

Cardiac manifestations of rheumatoid arthritis are an extra-articular feature of rheumatoid arthritis and are considered prognostically more severe. For a general discussion of rheumatoid arthritis and a particular discussion of its respiratory and musculoskeletal manifestations, please refer t...
Article

Subendocardial fat infiltration

Subendocardial fat infiltration is a finding that can be seen with thoracic and cardiac imaging. It forms a part of myocardial fat infiltration and can sometimes be seen in the setting of a long-gone myocardial infarction 1 especially if seen in the distribution territory of a coronary artery an...
Article

Atrial septum

The atrial or interatrial septum (IAS) is a fibromuscular anatomical structure dividing the left and right atrium and is of substantial importance for intra- and interatrial conduction. Gross anatomy The true atrial septum is defined by the septal area which could be pierced or crossed without...

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