Articles

Articles are a collaborative effort to provide a single canonical page on all topics relevant to the practice of radiology. As such, articles are written and edited by countless contributing members over a period of time. A global group of dedicated editors oversee accuracy, consulting with expert advisers, and constantly reviewing additions.

779 results found
Article

Mickey Mouse sign (anencephaly)

The Mickey Mouse sign in obstetric ultrasound denotes the characteristic "floating appearance" of the fetal cerebral lobes due to the absence of the cranium due to anencephaly.  Radiographic features The sign is best seen in the coronal plane (in relation to the fetal head), where the cerebral...
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Frog eye sign

The frog eye sign is seen when the orbital structures show a characteristic protrusion due to fetal anencephaly. The term is particularly used in point of care ultrasound (POCUS) 1.  Radiographic features On obstetric ultrasound the frog eye sign is best appreciated in the coronal plane (in re...
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Quadruple screening test

The quadruple screening test, also known as the quad screen, AFP Plus quad test or multiple marker screening test, is a maternal antenatal screening blood test that can be used in conjunction with other investigations e.g. ultrasound soft markers, to estimate the risk of aneuploidy 1.  This is ...
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The crisscross sign

The crisscross sign is a fetal ultrasound sign that describes the normal relationship between the ventricular outflows tracts of the fetal heart. The left ventricular outflow tract (LVOT); represented by the take-off of the aorta (Ao) from the left ventricle, is perpendicular (90o) to the right ...
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Adenomyomatous endometrial polyp

An adenomyomatous polyp of the endometrium is a rare form of endometrial polyp and comprises of a pedunculated lesion that contains smooth muscle in addition to the usual components of an endometrial polyp. On outer examination, they may be difficult to differentiate from ordinary endometrial po...
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Precipitous labor

Precipitous labor, also known as precipitous birth, is labor that happens too quickly, and is formally defined as fetal expulsion three hours or less after the start of regular uterine contractions. Contradictory and somewhat limited data demonstrates a higher risk of pregnancy-related complicat...
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Forceps delivery criteria (mnemonic)

A mnemonic to remember the criteria for forceps delivery is: FORCEPS Mnemonic F: fetus alive O: os dilated R: ruptured membrane / rotation complete C: cervix take-up E: engagement of head P: presentation suitable S: sagittal suture in AP diameter of inlet 
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Postpartum hemorrhage risk factors (mnemonic)

A mnemonic to remember the basic risk factors of postpartum hemorrhage is: PARTUM Mnemonic P: prolonged labor / polyhydramnios / previous C-section A: APH R: recent Hx of bleeding T: twins U: uterine fibrosis M: multiparity 
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Humeral length (obstetric ultrasound)

The humeral length (HL) is sometimes measured as an additional fetal biometric parameter in a second-trimester ultrasound scan. Its measurement can often compliment the femoral length especially in situations where there are short limb syndromes. Short humeral length have been associated with co...
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Fetal MRI

Fetal MRI allows for detailed imaging of the developing fetus in utero. Fast sequences are required due to fetal movement 1. Fetal MRI is most commonly utilized when ultrasound (USS) findings are equivocal. Fetal anatomy can be evaluated in detail including the brain, upper aerodigestive tract, ...
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Retroplacental abruption

Retroplacental abruption is a type of placental abruption where placental tissue prematurely separates from the uterus and blood accumulates between the basal plate (maternal side of the placenta) and the myometrium 1. The result is a retroplacental hemorrhage. The size of a retroplacental abru...
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Modified Golan classification of ovarian hyperstimulation syndrome

The modified Golan classification of ovarian hyperstimulation syndrome, employing clinical findings and imaging appearances, is used to categorize ovarian hyperstimulation syndrome (OHSS) into the following three categories of severity with five grades 1,2: mild OHSS: characterized by bilateral...
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Bishop score

The Bishop score is a criterion for successful induction of labor, vaginal delivery and includes the age of gestation, parity, presenting part of the fetus, previous history of childbirths and consent of the patient. This score decides whether a patient needs cervical ripening or not 1,4. Bisho...
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Cervical ripening

Cervical ripening is the softening of the cervix that needs to occur before induction of labor and delivery of the fetus. The use of appropriate interventions (e.g. isoprostol, nitric oxide, PGE2, Foley's balloon in case of low-risk females, acupuncture 1-5) can lead to satisfactory cervical rip...
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Acute non-traumatic abdominal pain in pregnancy

Acute non-traumatic abdominal pain in pregnancy requires a considered imaging approach due to the increased risks of fetal demise associated with undiagnosed diseases such as perforated acute appendicitis. Ultrasound is the first-line modality due to its wide availability and ability to diagnose...
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Abdominal pain in pregnancy protocol (MRI)

The abdominal pain in pregnancy MRI protocol encompasses a set of MRI sequences for assessment of causes of non-traumatic abdominal pain in pregnancy. Note: This article aims to frame a general concept of an MRI protocol for the assessment of the abdomen in pregnancy. Protocol specifics will va...
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Third trimester

The third trimester in a gestation is the final trimester in a human pregnancy which is usually taken as extending from 28 weeks and 0 days of gestation to term (~38-40 weeks). History and etymology Trimester was first seen in English in 1821, a direct borrowing from the French word trimestre,...
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T sign (disambiguation)

The T sign has been described in several different pathologies: T sign (obstetrics) upper T sign (brain) lower T sign (brain)
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Second trimester

The second trimester in a gestation is the middle trimester in a human pregnancy that is usually defined as lasting from 13 weeks and 0 days to 27 weeks and 6 days of gestation.  History and etymology Trimester was first seen in English in 1821, a direct borrowing from the French word trimestr...
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Myometritis

Myometritis describes inflammation of the myometrium. It can fall under the broader umbrella term of pelvic inflammatory disease and can often be associated with endometritis. It can arise in a variety of situations with puerperal situations being the most common. In some situations, puerperal i...
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Cerebellar cleft

Cerebellar clefts are rare congenital abnormalities of the posterior fossa, where cerebellar grey matter extends from the surface into the parenchyma, in some cases even reaching the fourth ventricle.  Clinical presentation Language and speech disorders, cognitive impairment, truncal ataxia, o...
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Umbilical cord abnormalities

Abnormalities of the umbilical cord can be classified into 1: Morphologic abnormalities umbilical cord coiling hypocoiled umbilical cord hypercoiled umbilical cord straight umbilical cord umbilical cord length abnormalities long umbilical cord short umbilical cord umbilical cord thickne...
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Venous lake (disambiguation)

The term venous lakes may refer to: cutaneous venous lakes, often occurring on the lower lip 1 osseous venous lakes occurring in the skull 2 placental (venous) lakes 3
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Uterine inversion

Uterine inversion is a rare condition in which the uterus is essentially turned inside out. There are two types: "puerperal" (within six weeks of childbirth) and "non-puerperal". The reason for uterine inversion is unclear. In the puerperal form, it is theorized that excessive traction on the um...
Article

Luteoma of pregnancy

Luteomas of pregnancy are a rare non-neoplastic condition in which luteinized stroll cells in the ovary markedly increase in size. Luteomas are hormonally active, and produce testosterone resulting in maternal and potentially fetal hirsutism and virilization. Epidemiology More common in both m...
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Small placenta (mnemonic)

A mnemonic to remember the causes of small placenta is: PCI 2 It can be read as percutaneous coronary intervention i.e. PCI 2 Mnemonic P: pre-eclampsia C: chromosomal anomaly e.g. Down syndrome I: intrauterine infection I: intrauterine growth retardation
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High-risk pregnancy

High-risk pregnancies are any that actually or potentially threaten either the health or life of the mother or her fetus during pregnancy, labor, or birth. From a radiological perspective, high-risk pregnancies may undergo further screening or have close follow-up with growth and well-being scan...
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Anterior cervical angle

The anterior cervical angle is a novel ultrasound parameter that is being used as a predictor of spontaneous preterm birth. Measurement The angle between the uterine wall and the cervical canal is measured during the first and the second trimester by a transvaginal ultrasound. It is measured u...
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Extrachorial placenta

Extrachorial placenta is a rare type of placenta where the chorionic vascular plate is smaller than the villous tissue, which gets uncovered in the periphery.   Radiographic features MRI Extrachorial placentation is seen as a thickening of the chorionic plate without blood vessels. An edemato...
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Radiation effects on embryonic and fetal development

Radiation effects on embryonic and fetal development are generally considered low risk compared to the normal risks of pregnancy. Most diagnostic x-ray and nuclear medicine examinations are <50 mSv and have not been demonstrated to produce any significant impact on fetal growth and development. ...
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Right ventricular outflow tract

The right ventricular outflow tract (RVOT) refers to the region of blood outflow from the right ventricle between the supraventricular crest and the pulmonary valve. It is comprised of the conus arteriosus (infundibulum), ventricular septum and right ventricular free wall. It is commonly assesse...
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Trisomy 8 mosaic

Trisomy 8 mosaicism or Warkany syndrome is a less severe variant of trisomy 8 and individuals with a low proportion of affected cells may exhibit a comparatively mild range of physical abnormalities and developmental delay. They are more likely to survive into childhood and adulthood but can exh...
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Trisomy 8

Trisomy 8 is a chromosomal anomaly where there are three copies of chromosome 8. Complete trisomy 8 causes severe effects on the developing fetus and can be a cause of miscarriage. However, trisomy 8 can occur as a mosaic form, Warkany syndrome, that can be compatible with life.
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Cesarean section

Cesarean section (also known as C-section, CS and C/S) is the most frequently done major abdominal surgery in females, performed to deliver a baby as an alternative to normal vaginal delivery 1.  Surgical technique Many forms of cesarean section have been described, but the most popular variat...
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Congenital hallux valgus

Congenital hallux valgus is a very rare finding wherein a fetus or newborn shows lateral deviation of the first toe(s). When found on prenatal imaging, bilateral congenital/foetal hallux valgus is highly suggestive of fibrodysplasia ossificans progressiva 1,2.
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Early structural scan

An early structural scan is a first trimester obstetric ultrasound performed around 12-16 weeks gestation. It can have some similarity to the 11-13 week antenatal ultrasound and assess limited fetal anatomy. However, a formal evaluation of nuchal translucency is not part of this ultrasound asses...
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Maternal serum alpha fetoprotein

Maternal serum alpha fetoprotein (MSAFP) is a screening test that examines the level of alpha fetoprotein (AFP) in a pregnant woman. AFP is produced by both the yolk sac and foetal liver during pregnancy. Indications Ideally, all pregnant women should undergo the screening test between 15-20 w...
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Turtle sign (fetal shoulder dystocia)

Turtle sign is a clinical sign of fetal shoulder dystocia in which the fetal head retracts 3. The head bobbing, emerging and then pulling back could be conceptualised as similar to a turtle pulling its head into and out of its shell. The sign does not necessarily signify true shoulder dystocia 2.
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Fetal tricuspid regurgitation

Tricuspid regurgitation (TR) (also known as tricuspid insufficiency) is a common finding in imaging of the fetus. Tricuspid regurgitation represents the abnormal backflow of blood into the right atrium during right ventricular contraction due to valvular leakage (i.e. it is a valvulopathy).  Ep...
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Umbilical arterial systolic / diastolic ratio

Umbilical arterial systolic/diastolic (S/D) ratio is a parameter used in obstetric imaging as part of umbilical arterial (UA) Doppler assessment. It is the ratio between the systolic velocity and the diastolic velocity. Practical points Reference range varies through the stage of pregnancy. If...
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Umbilical arterial pulsatility index

Umbilical arterial pulsatility index (UA-PI) is a parameter used in umbilical arterial (UA) Doppler assessment.  It is calculated by subtracting the end-diastolic velocity (EDV) from the peak systolic velocity (PSV) and then dividing by the time-averaged (mean) velocity (TAV): PI = (PSV - EDV) ...
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Portal sinus

The portal sinus is an L-shaped venous confluence in the fetal circulation. It is located in the liver, between the left and right intrahepatic portal veins. The umbilical vein drains into the portal sinus at its medial aspect, near the left inferior intrahepatic portal vein 1,2. The ductus veno...
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Zika virus infection

Zika virus infection is a zoonosis which is associated with congenital birth defects, with microcephaly the most widely known. Epidemiology Zika was once isolated to Africa and Asia, however, it spread to the Americas in the last decade 1. There were thousands of cases confirmed in the America...
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Fetal skull vault sutures

There are four sutures in the fetal skull vault of obstetric importance: 1. frontal suture: it lies between the two frontal bones 2. sagittal suture: it lies between the two parietal bones 3. coronal suture: it lies between the parietal and frontal bones 4. lambdoid suture: it lies between t...
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Marginal placenta previa

A marginal placental previa (or grade 2 placenta previa) is a form of placenta previa where placental tissue reaches the margin of the internal cervical os, but does not cover it.
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Urinary tract dilatation classification

The urinary tract dilatation (UTD) classification system is a proposed unified classification of urinary tract dilatation for prenatal and postnatal care. This classification was formed with the collaborations from eight societies (American College of Radiology (ACR), American Institute of Ultra...
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Redating pregnancy (ultrasound)

Redating a pregnancy may occur when there is a discrepancy between the estimated due date (EDD) calculated by the last menstrual period (LMP) and that by ultrasound. Care should be taken when redating a pregnancy, especially in the third trimester, as there may be other reasons for a fetus to be...
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Acute abdominal pain

Acute abdominal pain is a common acute presentation in clinical practice. It encompasses a very broad range of possible etiologies and diagnoses, and imaging is routinely employed as the primary investigative tool in its modern management. Terminology A subgroup of patients with acute abdomina...
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Bands in gestational sacs

Band like structures in the gestational sac is not an uncommon finding in the first trimester or second trimester ultrasound scans and can represent a number of varying conditions These include uterine synechiae amniotic bands amniotic shelf circumvallate placenta chorio-amniotic separatio...
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Acardius acormus

Acardius acormus is a morphologic subtype of an acardiac twin in a twin reversed arterial perfusion (TRAP) sequence.  This entity is the least common of the four subtypes, comprising of cephalic structures only. It is seen in approximately 5% of cases.  
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Acardius anceps

Acardius anceps is a morphologic subtype of the acardiac twin in a twin reversed arterial perfusion (TRAP) sequence.  This entity is the most well differentiated of the four subtypes, with a partly formed head, thorax, and abdomen. It is seen in approximately 10% of cases.
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Acardius anephus

Acardius anephus is a morphologic subtype of an acardiac twin in the twin reversed arterial perfusion (TRAP) sequence.  In this entity, no cephalic or structures are present, but the lower limbs are preserved. This is the most common subtype, seen in 60-75% of cases1.  
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Dichorionic triamniotic triplet pregnancy

A dichorionic triamniotic (DCTA) triplet pregnancy is a type a multifetal pregnancy where two of the triplets are monochorionic. This type of pregnancy can carry a unique set of complications. See also triplet pregnancy
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Abdominal distension (mnemonic)

A mnemonic for causes of abdominal distension (6 Fs) is: F: fat F: fluid  F: flatus F: feces  F: fetus F: fulminant mass
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Umbilicus

The umbilicus is the fibrous remnant of the fetal attachment of the umbilical cord after birth. Gross anatomy All layers of the anterior abdominal wall fuse at the umbilical ring, a small round defect in the linea alba located just inferior to the midpoint between the xiphoid process of the st...
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Fetal ventricular tachycardia

A rare entity, fetal ventricular tachycardia presents with a rapid ventricular rate exceeding, and occurring independently from, the atrial rate.  The ventricular rate is typically over 180 beats per minute 1. Atrioventricular dissociation is characteristic; two separate pacemakers dictate the a...
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Fallopian (disambiguation)

The eponym Fallopian may refer to: Fallopian canal (facial nerve canal) Fallopian tube (uterine duct) Fallopian ligament (inguinal ligament) History and etymology It is named after Gabriele Falloppio (also known by his Latin name Fallopius), Italian anatomist (1523-1562).
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Pseudo-TORCH syndrome

Pseudo-TORCH syndrome is a term used to denote cases that clinically resemble congenital infection (see congenital TORCH infections) but where no organisms or serological, microbiological or immunological evidence of infection can be identified 1. It is now believed that pseudo-TORCH syndrome is...
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Fetus vs foetus

The spelling fetus is the preferred spelling in the medical world, regardless of location. It is used by virtually all biomedical journals. Therefore it is also the preferred spelling on Radiopaedia and we never use the spelling foetus. This latter spelling is still often used by lay-people in t...
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Fetal omental cyst

A fetal omental cyst is a type of fetal enteric cyst.  Pathology The most common type of omental cyst is considered a lymphangioma 2. Radiographic features Antenatal ultrasound May be seen in an intra-abdominal cyst without any associated color flow. Omental cysts tend to be typically found...
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Aortic arch view (fetal echocardiogram)

An aortic arch view is one of the additional views performed on fetal obstetric ultrasound - fetal echocardiography. It is an oblique sagittal view which is obtained similar to a left anterior oblique angiogram or the sagittal arch view obtained in CT arteriography. The isthmus, after the origin...
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Fetal macrocephaly

Fetal macrocephaly is a term given when the fetal head circumference lies above 2 standard deviations for the expected stage of gestation. While it can be associated with certain syndromic anomalies, in the absence of associated anomalies, it does not appear to be a significant risk factor for a...
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Alpha-fetoprotein

Alpha-fetoprotein (AFP) is an important plasma protein synthesized by the yolk sac and fetal liver. In adults, its main utility is as a tumor marker, primarily for hepatocellular carcinoma or teratoma. Functionally it is the fetal homologue of albumin i.e. it acts as a major carrier protein in t...
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Folate deficiency

Folate deficiency (hypovitaminosis B9) is the most common vitamin deficiency in the Western world. It is especially important in pregnant women and common amongst alcoholics.  Epidemiology Deficiency arises in two distinct populations: increased demand (pregnancy and lactation) decreased abs...
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Gestational age

The gestational age (GA) of an embryo/fetus is most accurately determined by measuring the crown rump length (CRL) in the first trimester. The later the pregnancy, the larger the standard deviation of the estimated gestational age and thus estimated date of delivery (EDD) is. Mean sac diameter (...
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Umbilical vein

The umbilical vein is the conduit for blood returning from the placenta to the fetus until it involutes soon after birth. The umbilical vein arises from multiple tributaries within the placenta and enters the umbilical cord, along with the (usually) paired umbilical arteries. Once it enters the...
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Cesarean scar niche

The term Cesarean scar niche (defect) refers to the presence of a hypoechoic area within the myometrium in the isthmus (lower uterine segment) with discontinuation of myometrium at the site of previous Cesarean section scar. A niche has been described as the indentation of myometrium of around 1...
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Labeled imaging anatomy cases

This article lists a series of labeled imaging anatomy cases by body region and modality. Brain CT head: non-contrast axial CT head: non-contrast coronal CT head: non-contrast sagittal CT head: angiogram axial CT head: angiogram coronal CT head: angiogram sagittal CT head: venogram axial...
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Transverse view of abdomen

A transverse abdominal view is one of the standard views on fetal echocardiography and is very useful for assessing situs abnormalities. In case of situs solitus (normal situs), the stomach is on the left and liver on the right. The descending aorta lies anterior and to the left of the spine whi...
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Congenital goiter

Congenital goiter is a rare cause of neck swelling in neonates and is demonstrated as diffuse/nodular thyroid gland enlargement. Epidemiology It is a common endocrine disease in newborns and affects approximately 1:2000-4000 live births. Clinical presentation There may be a difficult vaginal...
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Arhinia

Arhinia refers to congenital failure of the external nose, nasal cavity, and olfactory apparatus to develop. It is an extremely rare condition that can be detected on prenatal ultrasound or MRI. Epidemiology Arhinia may occur in a syndromic setting (such as ethmocephaly), but it has been repor...
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Eclampsia

Eclampsia is a condition involving seizures and hypertension in pregnancy. It is thought to result from hypertensive encephalopathy 1. Radiographic features MRI MR imaging has shown that cytotoxic edema and posterior reversible encephalopathy syndrome are common in eclampsia. The severity of ...
Article

Pre-eclampsia

Pre-eclampsia is a disorder of pregnancy involving new-onset hypertension (systolic BP ≥140 mmHg or diastolic BP ≥90 mmHg) and involvement of one or more other organ systems. Epidemiology Pre-eclampsia affects up to 8% of pregnancies 1. Risk factors diabetes mellitus 2 chronic hypertension ...
Article

Aorto-ventricular tunnel

Aorto-ventricular tunnel (AVT) is an extremely rare form of congenital heart disease, representing an anomalous extracardiac communication between the ascending aorta and the left or right ventricles. Terminology In most cases the anomalous communication is between the aorta and the left ventr...
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Cockade sign (disambiguation)

There are several described cockade signs in radiology: cockade sign (aorto-left ventricular tunnel) 1 cockade sign (appendicitis) 2 cockade sign (GI tumors) 4 cockade sign (hypertrophic pyloric stenosis) 3 cockade sign (intraosseous lipoma) History and etymology It is named after a cocka...
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Craniorachischisis

Craniorachischisis, also known as craniorachischisis totalis, is a rare birth defect and the most severe of the neural tube defects. It refers to the presence of both anencephaly and spina bifida. Epidemiology In one study the prevalence of craniorachischisis was 0.51 per 10,000 live births in...
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Obstetrics and gynecology imaging for students (curriculum)

This is a basic article for medical students and other non-radiologists Obstetrics and Gynecology imaging for students curriculum represents a core set of common pathologies seen on the wards, in theater and in the emergency O&G patient. Fundamental to most imaging of the O&G patient is an und...
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Angular pregnancy

Angular pregnancies are those in which implantation occurs eccentrically along the fundus of the endometrial cavity, along with the lateral upper angle or cornua of the uterus. In contrast to interstitial tubal pregnancy, angular pregnancies have a more medial location and are considered an int...
Article

Telephone receiver deformity

A telephone receiver deformity is a characteristic bowing of the shaft of the long bones, usually the humeri or femora, seen in thanatophoric dysplasia.
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Ian Donald

Ian Donald (1910-1987) was a Scottish obstetrician who pioneered the diagnostic use of ultrasound in medicine. Early life Ian Donald was born in Lisgeard, Cornwall, United Kingdom on 27 December 1910 6. His father was a general practitioner. In 1925 his family moved to South Africa where he at...
Article

Vermian lobulation

Evaluation of vermian lobulation is essential in assessment of the vermian maturity. MRI is a useful tool in assessment of the fetal posterior fossa. Radiographic features Normal vermian lobulation by weeks 1: by 21 weeks: the prepyramidal fissure can be seen between the tuber and pyramis 21...
Article

Vermian maturity assessment (approach)

Radiological evaluation of the posterior fossa is an essential part of the routine fetal assessment, including vermian maturity assessment. Radiographic features Ultrasonography is a readily available diagnostic tool in the assessment of the fetal posterior fossa but is sometimes limited due t...
Article

11-13 week antenatal scan

11-13 week antenatal (nuchal translucency) scan is considered a routine investigation advised for the fetal well-being as well as for early screening in pregnancy (see antenatal screening). It includes multiple components and is highly dependent on the operator. Traditionally three factors are ...
Article

Spondylocostal dysostosis

Spondylocostal dysostosis (SCDO) is a rare condition characterized by short-trunk dwarfism secondary to developmental anomalies of the vertebrae and ribs. Previously the condition Jarcho-Levin syndrome (also known as spondylothoracic dysostosis) was grouped together with spondylocostal dysostosi...
Article

Traumatic abruptio placenta scale

The traumatic abruptio placenta scale (TAPS) was devised to stratify placental injury findings on CT. Since placental abruption is a concern in a pregnant patient who has undergone traumatic injury, CT is occasionally the first imaging modality used to evaluate the placenta. 0: normal homogeneo...
Article

Circummarginate placenta

Circummarginate placenta is an uncommon variation in placental morphology. The chorionic membranes insert inward from the margin of placental edge, similar to circumvallate placenta, but unlike circumvallate placenta, the placental edge is not thickened and rolled up, and there is no central dep...
Article

Basal plate

The basal plate is a synonym for the maternal side of the placenta. The fetal side of the placenta is termed the chorionic plate. Some pathologies and processes are localized to the basal plate, and evaluation of the basal plate is a part of placental grading.
Article

Chorionic plate

The chorionic plate is a synonym for the fetal side of the placenta. The maternal side of the placenta is termed the basal plate. Some pathologies and processes are localized to the chorionic plate, and evaluation of the chorionic plate is a part of placental grading.
Article

Increased fetal abdominal circumference

Increased fetal abdominal circumference is usually given when the abdominal circumference lies above the 90th percentile. During the second and especially the third trimester, an increased abdominal circumference usually contributes to a high estimated fetal weight (large for dates fetus), which...
Article

Neurenteric canal of Kovalevsky

The neurenteric canal or canal of Kovalevsky is the transient communication of the amnion through notochordal canal to the yolk sac during notochordal formation at day 16-17. Abnormalities during this stage produce the neurenteric cyst spectrum.
Article

Kinked brainstem

Kinking of the brainstem is a rare finding in fetal or pediatric neuroimaging, invariably seen in association with other cerebral abnormalities. It generally heralds a poor neurological outcome. Clinical presentation A kinked brainstem may be seen on fetal MRI, commonly after referral from ult...
Article

Amniotic fluid in the first trimester

Amniotic fluid in the first trimester has been estimated from weeks 7-12. Although the amniotic fluid index (AFI) is calculated in the second trimester, one can get an idea of whether the amount of amniotic fluid is too much or too little at an earlier time point. The amniotic fluid volume is r...
Article

Vitamin B9

Vitamin B9 (folate or folic acid) is a water-soluble vitamin, part of the vitamin B complex, vital for the synthesis of several amino acids, the purines adenosine and guanine and the pyrimidine thymine (three of the four nucleotide bases and hence critical for the synthesis of nucleic acids). T...

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