Articles

Articles are a collaborative effort to provide a single canonical page on all topics relevant to the practice of radiology. As such, articles are written and edited by countless contributing members over a period of time. A global group of dedicated editors oversee accuracy, consulting with expert advisers, and constantly reviewing additions.

1,293 results found
Article

Complications of radiation therapy

Radiation therapy has the potential to cause complications in many organ systems, many of which, especially in the thorax, are important for radiologists to be aware of.  acute radiation syndrome complications of cranial radiation therapy radiation-induced cerebral vasculopathy radiation-ind...
Article

Pseudoendoleak

Pseudoendoleak is a recently described color Doppler ultrasound phenomenon caused by spurious color signal in the aneurysm sac following endovascular aneurysm repair (EVAR).  Radiographic features Pseudoendoleak is defined as flow signal on color Doppler in the aneurysm sac following EVAR. The...
Article

Carotid artery tortuosity

Carotid artery tortuosity is the elongation of the extracranial carotid arteries with redundancy and/or altered course, which may present on imaging as kinking, coiling, and/or looping 1,2. Clinical presentation Carotid artery tortuosity is mostly (~80%) asymptomatic. When symptomatic (~12.5%,...
Article

PIK3CA-related overgrowth spectrum (PROS)

PIK3CA-related overgrowth spectrum (PROS) is a broad group of segmental overgrowth disorders that can occur with or without associated vascular anomalies, caused by activating mutations in the PIK3CA gene, which are also responsible for the vast majority of isolated lymphatic malformations and s...
Article

Contraceptive implant migration

Contraceptive implant migration is a rare complication of etonogestrel implant insertion.  Clinical presentation unable to palpate device in the upper arm chest pain dyspnea non-productive cough menorrhagia irregular vaginal bleeding Pathology Contraceptive implants are most commonly in...
Article

Pulmonary valve calcification

Pulmonary valve calcification is an uncommon occurrence and usually occurs in the presence of longstanding elevation of right ventricular pressures (such as that of severe pulmonary hypertension). It can also be associated with pulmonary valve stenosis. Some authors suggest if valve calcificatio...
Article

Suboccipital cavernous sinus

The suboccipital cavernous sinuses are paired venous plexuses that surround the horizontal (distal V3) portion of the vertebral arteries at the craniocervical junction. Its name derives from its resemblance to the cavernous sinus as it is a venous cushion surrounding a large arterial loop at the...
Article

Lobular capillary hemangioma of the nasal cavity

Lobular capillary hemangioma of the nasal cavity, also known as nasal pyogenic granuloma, is an uncommon benign, rapidly growing vascular neoplasm of the nasal cavity. Terminology The term “pyogenic granuloma” is a misnomer due to lack of infectious origin according to histological and microbi...
Article

Post traumatic arteriovenous vascular malformation

Post traumatic arterio-venous vascular malformations are an uncommon acquired form arteriovenous malformations which occur following a traumatic to that site. Pathology As with other vascular malformations, they comprise multiple communicating channels between arterial and venous channels at t...
Article

Medical devices in the limbs

Medical devices in the limbs are regularly observed by radiologists on plain film, CT and MRI reporting. Most commonly they include orthopedic hardware. Orthopedic joint replacement hardware (arthroplasty) joint fusion hardware (arthrodesis) internal fixation hardware (ORIF) external fixati...
Article

Flame sign (carotid)

The flame sign refers to a gradual tapering of contrast opacification in the mid-cervical internal carotid artery, sparing the carotid bulb. The sign can be observed on angiography (digital subtraction angiography 1, CT angiography 1, or contrast-enhanced MR angiography 2) in either of two scena...
Article

Crescent sign (disambiguation)

The characteristic shape of the crescent has been given to many radiological signs over the years. crescent sign (disambiguation) crescent sign (arterial dissection) crescent sign (inguinal hernia) crescent sign (intravenous pyelogram) crescent sign (lung hydatid) crescent sign (osteonecro...
Article

Superficial epigastric vein

The superficial epigastric vein (TA: vena epigastrica superficialis) is an important tributary of the great saphenous vein that drains the anterior abdominal wall inferior to the level of the umbilicus. The superficial epigastric vein drains into the great saphenous vein at the saphenous openin...
Article

Lateral thoracic vein

The lateral thoracic vein (TA: vena thoracica lateralis) is a tributary of the axillary vein. It provides venous drainage for the axilla, anterolateral chest wall, including serratus anterior and pectoralis muscles and breast, and the supraumbilical abdominal wall. Terminology In some texts, t...
Article

Contrast level within inferior vena cava

A dependent contrast level within the inferior vena cava is a situation that can be observed in some cases with inferior vena caval contrast reflux. Its presence is usually associated with very poor cardiac output and can be accompanied by dependent layering of venous refluxed contrast within th...
Article

Inferior vena caval contrast reflux

Reflux of contrast into inferior vena cava can be common findings seen on CT. It is considered a specific but insensitive sign of right-sided heart disease / right heart dysfunction at low contrast injection rates although the usefulness decreases with high injection rates. Conditions associate...
Article

Egyptian eye sign

"Egyptian eye sign" or "sonographic eye sign" refers to the normal appearance of great saphenous vein on ultrasound, in transverse view 1-2. Ultrasound examination of the great saphenous vein shows echogenic fascia surrounding it, with the saphenous fascia superiorly and the muscular fascia inf...
Article

Multisystemic smooth muscle dysfunction syndrome

Multisystemic smooth muscle dysfunction syndrome is a rare genetic disorder caused by mutations in the ACTA2 gene, resulting in intracranial steno-occlusive disease and aortic dissection or aneurysm, among other complications. Epidemiology Most cases are diagnosed in childhood 1. Clinical pre...
Article

LumiFlow

LumiFlow is a postprocessing technique for color or power Doppler ultrasound, which produces a relief-like visualization of the depicted vasculature.  Physics Lumiflow can be applied to both color and power Doppler imaging. It applies a shading with an artifical light source to create a three-...
Article

Deep artery of the penis

The deep artery of the penis, also known as cavernosal artery, is one of the two terminal branches of the internal pudendal artery. Gross anatomy Origin The internal pudendal artery bifurcates terminally into the deep artery of the penis and the dorsal artery of the penis at the anterior marg...
Article

Dorsal artery of the penis

The dorsal artery of the penis is one of the two terminal branches of the internal pudendal artery.  Gross anatomy Origin The internal pudendal artery bifurcates into the deep artery of the penis and the dorsal artery of the penis at the anterior margin of the perineal membrane 1. Terminatio...
Article

Artery to the bulb

The artery to the bulb of the penis (male) or vestibule (female) is a branch of the internal pudendal artery. It differs slightly in males and females.   Artery to the bulb of the penis Origin: internal pudendal artery, distal to the perineal artery1. a common penile artery, serving as the or...
Article

Neonatal aortic thrombosis

Neonatal aortic thrombosis is a rare life-threatening condition that can affect neonates admitted to the neonatal intensive care unit (NICU). Epidemiology The incidence of neonatal aortic thrombosis is 0.2% of neonates admitted to the NICU. Risk factors umbilical arterial catheters (UAC): ~8...
Article

Perineal artery

The perineal artery arises from the internal pudendal artery and supplies some of the perineal musculature and external genitalia. Summary Origin: branches off the internal pudendal artery, arising at the level of the posterior angle of the perineal membrane Branches: it has two branches: a ...
Article

Middle genicular artery

The middle genicular artery (MGA) is one of the arteries of the knee joint and is a major supplicant of the anterior and posterior cruciate ligaments. Summary location: knee origin: popliteal artery supply: cruciate ligaments Gross anatomy The middle genicular artery originates from the an...
Article

Superior medial genicular artery

The superior medial genicular artery (SMGA) is the medial counterpart of the superior lateral genicular artery and participates in the supply of the superomedial structures of the knee and the vascularization of the patella. Summary location: knee origin: popliteal artery branches: anterior ...
Article

Superior lateral genicular artery

The superior lateral genicular artery (SLGA) is the lateral counterpart of the superior medial genicular artery and supplies the superolateral structures of the knee and participates in the vascularization of the patella. Summary location: knee origin: popliteal artery branches: anterior and...
Article

Inferior medial genicular artery

The inferior medial genicular artery (IMGA) is the medial counterpart of the inferior lateral genicular artery and supplies the inferomedial structures of the knee including the medial tibial condyle and participates in the supply of the patella. Summary location: knee origin: popliteal arter...
Article

Inferior lateral genicular artery

The inferior lateral genicular artery (ILGA) is the lateral counterpart of the inferior medial genicular artery and supplies the inferolateral structures of the knee and the patella. Summary location: knee origin: popliteal artery branches: cutaneous perforating branches supply: inferolater...
Article

Thyrolinguofacial trunk

A thyrolinguofacial trunk is a very rare pattern of branching of the anterior branches of the external carotid artery. Rather than the facial artery, lingual artery, and superior thyroid artery having their own distinct origins, all three vessels originate from a common trunk of the external car...
Article

Linguofacial trunk

A linguofacial trunk is a rare variation of the anterior branches of the external carotid artery. The lingual artery and facial artery share a common trunk rather than branching independently from the external carotid artery 1. Unlike the thyrolingual or thyrolinguofacial variations in which the...
Article

Thyrolingual trunk

A thyrolingual trunk is an anatomical variant in which the superior thyroid artery and lingual artery share a common trunk 1. This is in contrast to the typical pattern of both vessels emerging independently from the external carotid artery. Other variations of origin include a linguofacial trun...
Article

Renal artery calcification

Renal artery calcifications, also known as renovascular calcifications, are deposits of calcium salts on the wall of a renal artery, found incidentally on imaging, usually CT 1. They are associated with extrarenal atherosclerosis and linked to hypertension 2. Terminology The term “renal artery...
Article

Central vein

A central vein refers to a major vein close to the center of the circulation, i.e. the heart. It originally referred to those large veins in which the distal tip of a catheter could lie for central venous pressure monitoring. To accurately measure the central venous pressure, which is the pressu...
Article

Anasarca

Anasarca refers to a state of generalized edema.  Terminology Some definitions of anasarca focus on the presence of subcutaneous (body wall and/or extremity) edema 1,2,7, while others focus on pleural effusions and ascites 3. An overarching definition is the accumulation of fluid (water retent...
Article

Implant migration

Implant migration or hardware migration refers to the displacement of an implant or component away from its designated position and is associated with hardware failure and loosening. Examples of implant migration include screw break out or screw back out, cage extrusion, inlay extrusion, choledo...
Article

Splenic vein thrombosis

Splenic vein thrombosis (plural: thromboses) is an uncommon condition in which the splenic vein becomes thrombosed, that most frequently occurs in the context of pancreatitis or pancreatic cancer. Whilst, for the most part asymptomatic, splenic vein thrombosis increases risk of gastric varices a...
Article

Absent azygos vein

An absent azygos vein is a very uncommon variant in which the azygos vein fails to develop. In cases of agenesis of the azygos vein, the hemiazygos and accessory hemiazygos veins play an important role in venous drainage, accounting for drainage of both the right and left intercostal veins 1-3. ...
Article

Bronchomediastinal trunk

The bronchomediastinal trunks (a.k.a. bronchomediastinal lymphatic trunks) are lymphatic trunks, one on each side of the body. On the left, the bronchomediastinal trunk is a tributary of the thoracic duct, and on the right, it is a tributary of the right lymphatic duct. Although, in some individ...
Article

CT pelvis (protocol)

The CT pelvis protocol serves as an outline for the acquisition of a pelvic CT. As a separate examination, it might be performed as a non-contrast or contrast study or might be combined with a CT hip or rarely with a CT cystogram. A pelvic CT might be also conducted as a part of other scans such...
Article

Cephalic arch stenosis

Cephalic arch stenosis is considered one of the commonest cause of dysfunction in a brachiocephalic fistula which involves the cephalic vein in the region of the cephalic arch prior to junction with the axillary vein. Epidemiology Has an average reported prevalance of around 15% in all autogen...
Article

Brachiocephalic fistula

A brachiocephalic fistula is a form of acquired arm arteriovenous fistula usually performed for chronic haemodialysis. Criteria for adequate vasculature Reported criteria include: arterial diameter of >2 mm vein diameter of >2.5 mm, while a tourniquet or blood pressure cuff is applied Drawb...
Article

Idiopathic aortitis

Idiopathic aortitis is a rare form of non-infective aortitis with a lack of any known systemic disease. Epidemiology There may be a greater predilection in females 1. Clinical presentation While many patients can be asymptomatic, it may present with symptoms of aortic inflammation such as ba...
Article

Superior mesenteric artery stenosis

Superior mesenteric artery stenosis refers to any form of narrowing involving the superior mesenteric artery and may result from a number of factors. It can result in acute or chronic mesenteric ischemia.  Radiographic features Ultrasound Several values on doppler ultrasound have been propose...
Article

Retropectoralis minor space

Retropectoralis minor space or subpectoralis minor space is the lateral most space traversed by brachial plexus and adjacent artery and vein as they pass from the axilla to the thorax, and is thus a location of potential compression leading to thoracic outlet syndrome.  It is best seen in the s...
Article

McCleery syndrome

McCleery syndrome is a subtype of venous thoracic outlet syndrome with symptoms resulting from compression of the subclavian vein without thrombosis (in contrast to Paget-Schroetter syndrome).  Clinical presentation Patients with McCleery syndrome present with intermittent obstruction of the s...
Article

Ulcer-like projection (aorta)

Ulcer-like projections (ULPs) are sometimes seen on contrast-enhanced CTs obtained in patients with a recent intramural aortic hematoma. They represent new intimal disruption and have a negative effect on prognosis.  Ulcer-like projections are seen in approximately 40% of patients with intramur...
Article

Intramural blood pool (aorta)

Intramural blood pools (IMBPs), also known as aortic branch artery pseudoaneurysms, are small foci of contrast enhancement within a recent aortic intramural hematoma seen on contrast-enhanced CT 2. They are more common in patients whose intramural hematoma thickness exceeds 10 mm. Radiographic ...
Article

Viscera

The viscera (singular: viscus) refers to all the internal organs within the major cavities of the thorax, abdomen and pelvis. Therefore it does not include organs of the CNS, head and neck or musculoskeletal compartments nor does it encompass non-internal organs (e.g. the skin) 1. Splanchnology...
Article

Calcification of joints and arteries

Calcification of joints and arteries (CALJA) is a rare autosomal recessive disorder caused by a mutation of the NT5E gene. It is characterized by extensive calcifications in the limb arteries and in the joints of the hands and feet. Epidemiology CALJA is a very rare disorder; up to now, less t...
Article

Walnut kernel microbleed pattern

The walnut kernel microbleed pattern along with the starfield pattern and corpus callosum diffusion restriction appears to be the most important imaging markers of cerebral fat embolism 1-3. In this pattern, there is a diffuse presence of round microbleeds (punctate focal hypointensities) of si...
Article

Medial marginal vein

The medial marginal vein is one of two main veins of the dorsum of the foot, the lateral marginal vein being the other. The medial marginal vein is the principle tributary forming the great saphenous vein.
Article

Cystic artery pseudoaneurysm

Cystic artery pseudoaneurysms are rare and most commonly related to acute cholecystitis 1. Epidemiology Associations cholecystitis liver biopsy 6 biliary interventions pancreatitis laparoscopic cholecystectomy 3-5 Clinical presentation The most common clinical manifestations are 4-5,9: ...
Article

Paravalvular leak

A paravalvular leak, paravalvular leakage or paravalvular regurgitation are an abnormal flow between the valvular annulus and the prosthetic heart valve and is a common complication after valvular replacement surgery due to inadequate sealing. Epidemiology Paravaluvar leaks are common, with an...
Article

Vasospastic angina

Vasospastic angina (VSA), variant angina or Prinzmetal angina is a clinical entity that refers to a hyper-reactive response of the epicardial coronary arteries to vasoconstrictor stimuli. Epidemiology Incidence and prevalence seem not entirely explored and are highly variable between certain p...
Article

Cruciate anastomosis

The cruciate anastomosis 1 forms part of the blood supply of the femoral head along with the trochanteric anastomosis and the ligamentum teres.  The medial circumflex femoral artery and the lateral circumflex femoral artery form a ring around the femoral neck. The transverse branches of these t...
Article

Coronary microvascular dysfunction

Coronary microvascular dysfunction (CMD) or coronary microvascular disease refers to a wide spectrum of clinical situations with an impairment of the coronary microcirculation and myocardial blood flow in subjects with respective risk factors. It can contribute to or induce myocardial ischemia. ...
Article

Lumbar trunk

The lumbar trunks (TA: truncus lumbalis) are paired lymphatic trunks that join to form the cisterna chyli, forming an integral part of the lymphatic system. The lumbar trunks carry lymph from the infraumbilical abdominal wall, pelvis and lower limbs 1,2. The intestinal trunk in the majority of p...
Article

Chronic coronary syndrome

Chronic coronary syndrome (CCS) is a term that defines coronary artery disease as a chronic progressive course that can be altered, stabilized or improved by lifestyle modifications, pharmacotherapy and coronary revascularization. It has been introduced to replace the previous term ‘stable coron...
Article

Intestinal trunk

The intestinal trunk (TA: truncus intestinalis) is an unpaired lymphatic trunk which drains lymph (and chyle) from those portions of the GI tract which receive their blood supply from the celiac and superior mesenteric arteries. In the majority of individuals, the intestinal trunk drains into t...
Article

Aortic arch aneurysm

An aortic arch aneurysm is a less common form of thoracic aortic aneurysm and may account for around 10% of such aneurysms. Epidemiology There is a recognized male predilection with most patient's presenting around to 6th to 7th decades of life. Clinical presentation It can be clinically sil...
Article

Anastamoses between internal and external carotid arteries

Multiple, highly-variable anastomoses exist between the internal and external carotid arteries. These anastomoses may not be evident on non-invasive imaging or even catheter angiography, and may only be demonstrable with elevated intra-arterial pressures or high-flow states. Internal carotid ar...
Article

Acute mesentric ischemia

Acute mesenteric ischemia accounts for the majority (around 95%) of cases with mesenteric ischemia and comprises of: arterial occlusive mesenteric ischemia (60-85%) embolic acute mesenteric ischemia (EAMI) thrombotic acute mesenteric ischemia (TAMI) non-occlusive mesenteric ischemia (NOMI) (...
Article

Arterial tortuosity syndrome

Arterial tortuosity syndrome (ATS) is a very rare autosomal recessive connective tissue disease. It is similar to Ehlers-Danlos syndrome (EDS), the major differentiator being the general tortuous nature of the larger arteries. Clinical presentation It presents similarly to other collagen disor...
Article

Particulate material pulmonary embolism

Particulate material pulmonary embolism (PE) is a type of non-thrombotic pulmonary embolism caused by a variety of non-organic particulate materials. These can include  talc embolism cement embolism: comprised of polymethyl methacrylate (PMMA) iodinated oil embolism metallic pulmonary embol...
Article

Winslow pathway

The Winslow pathway is a type of collateral vessel communication which connects the mammary arteries through the internal thoracic arteries to the inferior epigastric arteries and then into the external iliac arteries. It may recanalize in conditions such as aortoiliac occlusive disease.
Article

Sudden cardiac death

Sudden cardiac death (SCD) is a term used for an unexpected, non-traumatic fatal event in an otherwise healthy subject. Epidemiology Sudden cardiac death is estimated to account for about 50% of all cardiac deaths with first-time events making up more than 25% 1. The incidence ranges between 0...
Article

Coronary hypoplasia

Coronary hypoplasia or hypoplastic coronary artery disease (HCAD) is a congenital coronary artery anomaly of intrinsic anatomy and can be defined as one or more coronary arteries being abnormally small or underdeveloped. Epidemiology Hypoplastic coronary artery disease is described as a rare c...
Article

Venae cavae

In human anatomy, the venae cavae is the collective term for the main venous great vessels that return deoxygenated blood to the right heart from the venous side of the systemic circulation, i.e. the superior vena cava (SVC) and inferior vena cava (IVC). Both venae cavae do not contain any valve...
Article

IgG4-related arteritis and periarteritis

IgG4-related arteritis and periarteritis is a form of IgG4-related cardiovascular disease, in which multi-vessel involvement is very common. Epidemiology IgG4-related arteritis and periarteritis predominantly affect men above 60 years of age 1. Associations Conditions associated with IgG4-re...
Article

Chinese dragon sign (vascular)

The Chinese dragon sign is a radiological sign on abdominal radiograph and CT describing the radiologic appearance of calcified tortuous splenic artery that resembles a Chinese dragon. The tortuous splenic artery segment on the splenic hilum side represents the dragon head while the other arteri...
Article

Fibrin sheath

Fibrin sheaths are a common complication of central venous catheters in which a proteinaceous film encases the outer wall and endhole of the catheter, which can cause catheter malfunction and thrombosis. Clinical presentation Fibrin sheaths present as catheter malfunction, which may include in...
Article

Dorsalis pedis artery

The dorsalis pedis artery is the principal dorsal artery of the foot. Summary location: dorsal surface of the foot, running towards the first dorsal interosseous space origin: direct continuation of the anterior tibial artery termination: as the first dorsal metatarsal artery branches: deep...
Article

Epithelioid hemangioma

Epithelioid hemangiomas are benign vascular neoplasms made of epithelioid endothelial cell morphology usually seen in cutaneous and subcutaneous tissues. Terminology Epithelioid hemangiomas were known as angiolymphoid hyperplasia with eosinophilia. Epidemiology They have been observed in all...
Article

Vieussens' arterial ring

Vieussens' arterial ring is a rare anatomic variant consisting of an anastomotic connection between the conus artery and branch vessels of the left coronary artery.  Gross anatomy The artery arises from the conus artery, a branch of the right coronary artery, and connects to the proximal right...
Article

Double aorta artifact (ultrasound)

The double aorta artifact is a relatively common ultrasound artifact, which can appear both on standard B-mode and color Doppler imaging, resulting in an artifactually duplicated abdominal aorta in the transverse plane. Knowledge of this artifact is paramount as potential differential diagnoses ...
Article

Marsupial cava

Marsupial cava, also known as preaortic iliac venous confluence, is a rare anatomical variant in which the confluence of the common iliac veins is located anterior to the right common iliac artery and aortic bifurcation. Terminology The term marsupial cava is in reference to the normal anatomy...
Article

Modified Allen test

The modified Allen test (MAT) may be used to clinically assess the patency and completeness of the superficial palmar arch 1,2. Its classic use is in assessing for sufficient collateral flow to the hand, to avoid ischemia in the setting of radial artery puncture, cannulation, catheterization or ...
Article

Superficial palmar arch

The superficial palmar arch originates as the terminal branch of the ulnar artery, distal to the flexor retinaculum 1. It is located superficial to the long flexor tendons of the digits and deep to the palmar aponeurosis. The superficial palmar arch travels distally, then laterally across the m...
Article

Deep palmar branch of the ulnar artery

The deep palmar branch of the ulnar artery originates from the ulnar artery near the base of the fifth metacarpal. It contributes to the arterial supply of the opponens pollicis, hypothenar and interossei muscles. It also supports the supply of the palmar aspect of the metacarpus and digits, via...
Article

Palmar carpal branches

The two palmar carpal branches originate from the radial and ulnar arteries, respectively. They anastomose centrally, supporting the arterial supply of the anterior aspect of the wrist via their contribution to forming the palmar carpal arch 1. The palmar carpal branch of the ulnar artery trave...
Article

Proper dorsal digital arteries

The proper dorsal digital arteries arise from the dorsal metacarpal arteries at the level of the metacarpophalangeal joint. They contribute to the dorsal arterial supply of the digits. The proper dorsal digital arteries travel along the medial and lateral side of the dorsal aspect of each digit...
Article

Intracranial atherosclerotic disease

Intracranial atherosclerotic disease (ICAD) is the term applied to atherosclerosis of the large intracranial arteries and is a cause of ischemic stroke. Epidemiology ICAD is an important cause of stroke in certain racial groups particularly Asians, but also Hispanics and Black people. ICAD is ...
Article

Holodiastolic flow reversal

Holodiastolic flow reversal (HDR) refers to a backward flow typically observed in the descending aorta during the whole diastolic phase and has been observed in the setting of moderate to severe aortic regurgitation. Usage It has been found to predict severe aortic regurgitation with high sens...
Article

Velocity encoding

Velocity encoding or Venc is referred to as an operator-controlled parameter for the determination of the maximum velocity within a velocity encoded phase contrast imaging study. Usage Velocity-encoding (Venc) gradients are used to generate a phase shift in magnetic resonance phase contrast im...
Article

Posterior nutcracker syndrome

Posterior nutcracker syndrome is a rare vascular compression disorder, in which a retroaortic left renal vein is trapped between the aorta and the vertebral column. Clinical presentation The most reported clinical manifestation is microscopic or macroscopic hematuria. See also vascular compr...
Article

Venous drainage of the hand

Venous drainage of the hand is predominantly via the dorsal venous network in the superficial fascia, which extends proximally across the dorsal aspect of the metacarpus to drain laterally into the cephalic vein, and medially into the basilic vein 1. An accessory cephalic vein commonly drains pa...
Article

Cerebral varix

Cerebral varices, also known as cerebral venous aneurysms or isolated cerebral varices are uncommon cerebral vascular malformations, rarely found in isolation, hence the name isolated cerebral varix. They are more commonly encountered in association with other vascular malformations, such as dur...
Article

Crural arteries

Crural arteries are the arteries of the leg, distal to the popliteal artery. Usage Typically used in the context of peripheral arterial disease, the term is used to describe distal lesions, as distinct from those in the aortoiliac or femoropopliteal segments of the arterial tree. Crural arteri...
Article

Grey Turner sign

The Grey Turner sign refers to the clinical finding of atraumatic flank ecchymosis, which is occasionally associated with retroperitoneal hemorrhage, classically due to hemorrhagic pancreatitis 2. It is thought to occur when blood extravasates from the posterior pararenal space and crosses throu...
Article

Carotid pseudo-occlusion

Carotid pseudo-occlusion refers to apparent occlusion of the cervical internal carotid artery on CT angiography or digital subtraction angiography due to a stagnant column of unopacified blood proximal to terminal T-junction occlusion by thromboembolism 1,2.  It is important not to mistake this...
Article

Tandem lesion (cerebrovascular)

Tandem lesion (or tandem occlusion) is a term used in cerebrovascular imaging and intervention to refer to the simultaneous presence of high-grade stenosis or occlusion of the cervical internal carotid artery and thromboembolic occlusion of the intracranial terminal internal carotid artery or it...
Article

Intrapelvic cup migration

Intrapelvic cup migration is a serious complication after total hip arthroplasty, in which the prosthetic acetabular cup migrates or drifts into the pelvic inlet. Epidemiology Fortunately, this complication is very rare. There seems to be a female predisposition 1-3. Risk factors Factors inc...

Updating… Please wait.

 Unable to process the form. Check for errors and try again.

 Thank you for updating your details.