Revision 2 for 'Septic-embolic encephalitis'

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Septic-embolic encephalitis

Septic-embolic encephalitis, also referred as septic-embolic brain abscess, corresponds to a focal or diffuse brain infection, ischemic and hemorrhagic damages following an infective thromboembolism from any part of the body 1. It is usually caused by bacterial infections from endocarditis. 

Terminology

Septic-embolic encephalitis must be differentiated from sepsis-associated encephalopathy, which is a clinical syndrome related to a diffuse brain dysfunction in the context of sepsis and without overt CNS infection.

Epidemiology

In most series CNS involvement during the course of infective endocarditis occurs in 20% to 40% of cases2

Clinical presentation

Symptoms can vary from headache to unconsciousness, the most common are 1,3:

  • fever
  • toxic encephalopathy: characterized by mental status changes and psychosis  
  • brain hemorrhage: as a result of vessels damage; rarely it can be a late complication due a mycotic aneurysm rupture 
  • meningism
  • headache
  • seizures

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