Sinonasal mucosal melanoma

Dr Francis Deng and Dr Henry Knipe et al.

Sinonasal mucosal melanoma (SNMM) is a very rare and unique subtype of malignant melanoma.

SNMMs account for ~1% of malignant melanomas and <4% of head and neck cancers 1,2. They affect older patients (60-90 years old) 2. There is a higher incidence in Japan 5

Headache and visual symptoms are common. 

Typically SNMMs are an expansile mass centered within the nasal cavity (more common) or the paranasal sinuses. Invasion is common, in particular to the orbits, base of the skull, intracranially, or nasopharynx. Hepatic metastases are common 4

Mucosal melanoma of the head and neck, including sinonasal mucosal melanoma, is staged according to the American Joint Committee on Cancer TNM system.

Radiographic features of SNMM are variable, especially on MRI, due to varying amounts of melanin, with up to one-third of cases being amelanotic 3

  • polypoid or mass-like
  • bony remodelling +/- erosion commonly present
  • strongly contrast enhancing 5
  • T1: homogeneous T1 signal
    • high T1 signal may be seen secondary to hemorrhage or melanin 5
  • T2: low signal
  • T1C+: moderate homogeneous or heterogeneous enhancement

Metastases return the same signal characteristics as the primary lesion.

SNMM is aggressive and carries a poor prognosis with a five-year survival rate of ~30% 3

As a general differential in the sinonasal region consider other tumors such as:

As a broader differential in the nasopharyngeal region, consider other nasopharyngeal tumors such as:

Share article

Article information

rID: 33590
Synonyms or Alternate Spellings:
  • Primary sinonasal melanomas
  • Sinonasal mucosal melanomas
  • Sinonasal melanomas (SNM)
  • Sinonasal mucosal melanoma (SNMM)
  • Sinonasal mucosal malignant melanoma (MMM)

Support Radiopaedia and see fewer ads

Cases and figures

  • Case 1: T1
    Drag here to reorder.
  • Case 1: T1 C+ fat sat
    Drag here to reorder.
  • Case 2
    Drag here to reorder.
  • Updating… Please wait.

     Unable to process the form. Check for errors and try again.

     Thank you for updating your details.