Sprain refers to an injury of ligaments and capsules and should not be confused with the strain which refers to an injury to muscles and their tendons. These terms should not be used interchangeably.
Knee, ankle and acromioclavicular joints are the most common location of the ligamentous sprain.
Some authors classify sprain into the following grades
- stretching +/- minimal tearing (no macroscopic rupture)
- heals completely without any instability
- larger but incomplete tearing/partially disrupted fibers
- leads to the weakened ligament which predisposes to the recurrent injuries
- complete tearing/rupture
- leads to chronic joint instability
The imaging modalities for the diagnostic workup and grading of the sprain are ultrasound and MRI which show following features:
- thickened and hypoechoic ligament with an area of discontinuity in the fibers.
- edema along the injured ligament.
- 1. Evans JM, Schucany WG. Radiological evaluation of a high ankle sprain. Proc (Bayl Univ Med Cent). 2011;19 (4): 402-5. Free text at pubmed - Pubmed citation
- 2. Petersen W, Rembitzki IV, Koppenburg AG, Ellermann A, Liebau C, Brüggemann GP, Best R. Treatment of acute ankle ligament injuries: a systematic review. (2013) Archives of orthopaedic and trauma surgery. 133 (8): 1129-41. doi:10.1007/s00402-013-1742-5 - Pubmed
- 3. Palmer W, Bancroft L, Bonar F et-al. Glossary of terms for musculoskeletal radiology. (2020) Skeletal Radiology. 49 (1): 1. doi:10.1007/s00256-020-03465-1 - Pubmed
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