Surveillance in epidemiology refers to the active systematic collection and analysis of data related to diseases or conditions in a population to inform public health actions.
In epidemiology, surveillance may be either active or passive:
- passive surveillance: collection of data from established reporting systems
- active surveillance: a proactive search for cases of a disease
Surveillance need not involve directly diagnostic data. Over the last few decades, methods, sometimes based on machine learning, have appeared that use digital data created by a population such as internet searches 1,2 or even Twitter tweets 3.
In some countries, radiologists are directly involved in disease surveillance programs e.g. hepatocellular carcinoma surveillance.
NB: The term surveillance is often, but not always, used differently in radiology reports to imply the follow up on a pathological finding.
- 1. Yuzhou Zhang, Gabriel Milinovich, Zhiwei Xu, Hilary Bambrick, Kerrie Mengersen, Shilu Tong, Wenbiao Hu. Monitoring Pertussis Infections Using Internet Search Queries. (2017) Scientific Reports. 7 (1): 1. doi:10.1038/s41598-017-11195-z - Pubmed
- 2. Zhang Q, Chai Y, Li X, Young SD, Zhou J. Using internet search data to predict new HIV diagnoses in China: a modelling study. (2018) BMJ open. 8 (10): e018335. doi:10.1136/bmjopen-2017-018335 - Pubmed
- 3.Vasileios Lampos, Tijl De Bie, Nello Cristianini. Flu Detector - Tracking Epidemics on Twitter. (2010) doi:10.1007/978-3-642-15939-8_42
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Terms used in radiology
- corner of the film
- diagnosis of exclusion
- filling defect
- forme fruste
- gold standard
- heterogeneous vs heterogenous
- in extremis
- natural history
- sine qua non
- subclinical disease