Toxoplasmosis and lymphoma are frequently differential diagnoses in patients with HIV/AIDS and as treatment is substantially different distinguishing the two is important.
In many instances, the imaging appearance is classic and differentiation is not problematic; however, in 50-80% of cases, the appearances can be very similar 1. Below are helpful distinguishing features.
Primary CNS lymphoma typically demonstrates subependymal spread, whereas toxoplasmosis tends to be scattered through the basal ganglia and at the corticomedullary junction 1.
HIV lymphoma also is far more frequently a solitary lesion, whereas toxoplasmosis is usually multifocal (86%) 2,3.
On CT and MRI, both entities enhance following administration of contrast. Lymphoma may solidly enhance, whereas toxoplasmosis usually demonstrates ring or nodular enhancement 1,2.
However, in the setting of HIV/AIDS, primary CNS lymphoma may also demonstrate peripheral enhancement. Thus, the pattern of enhancement may not be helpful.
Hemorrhage is uncommon in lymphoma, especially prior to treatment, but may be seen occasionally in toxoplasmosis.
- both entities demonstrate increased lactate and lipids, although this tends to be less marked in lymphoma
- lymphoma typically demonstrates marked increase in choline, whereas it is reduced in toxoplasmosis 1,2
- both lesions demonstrate decreased creatine and NAA; however, this finding is variable
Ideally, MR spectroscopy (MRS) should be performed with both long and short TE sequences 1.
A decrease in cerebral blood volume (rCBV) centrally within lesions suggests toxoplasmosis, whereas it is increased in lymphoma 1. However, rCBV is reduced in the perilesional edema of both lesions.
Thallium 201 chloride SPECT demonstrates increased uptake in lymphoma because thallium serves as a potassium analog and is avidly taken up by hypermetabolic tumor cells 6. By contrast, thallium activity is decreased in toxoplasmosis because there is no cellular correlate 2.
Features that favor primary CNS lymphoma include:
- single lesion
- subependymal spread
- solid enhancement
- no hemorrhage before treatment
- thallium SPECT positive
- MRS: increased choline
- MR perfusion: increased rCBV
Features that favor cerebral toxoplasmosis include:
- multiple lesions
- scattered throughout the basal ganglia and corticomedullary junction
- ring or nodular enhancement
- hemorrhage occasionally occurs mostly in the periphery of the lesion
- thallium SPECT negative
- MRS: decreased choline (Cho)
- MR perfusion: decreased rCBV
- 1. Gupta RK, Lufkin RB. MR Imaging and Spectroscopy of Central Nervous System Infection. Springer Verlag. (2001) ISBN:0306465515. Read it at Google Books - Find it at Amazon
- 2. Chang L, Cornford ME, Chiang FL et-al. Radiologic-pathologic correlation. Cerebral toxoplasmosis and lymphoma in AIDS. AJNR Am J Neuroradiol. 1996;16 (8): 1653-63. Pubmed citation
- 3. Kornienko VN, Pronin I. Diagnostic Neuroradiology. Springer. (2009) ISBN:3540756523. Read it at Google Books - Find it at Amazon
- 4. Ernst TM, Chang L, Witt MD et-al. Cerebral toxoplasmosis and lymphoma in AIDS: perfusion MR imaging experience in 13 patients. Radiology. 1998;208 (3): 663-9. doi:10.1148/radiology.208.3.9722843 - Pubmed citation
- 5. Trenkwalder P, Trenkwalder C, Feiden W et-al. Toxoplasmosis with early intracerebral hemorrhage in a patient with the acquired immunodeficiency syndrome. Neurology. 1992;42 (2): 436-8. Pubmed citation
- 6. Kessler LS, Ruiz A, Donovan Post MJ, Ganz WI, Brandon AH, Foss JN. Thallium-201 brain SPECT of lymphoma in AIDS patients: pitfalls and technique optimization. (1998) AJNR. American journal of neuroradiology. 19 (6): 1105-9. Pubmed
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- immune reconstitution inflammatory syndrome (IRIS)
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