What are the common causes of bronchopleural fistula?
Post-operative complication of pulmonary resection: considered by far the most common cause, with a reported incidence from 1.5 to 28% after pulmonary resection. Other causes include lung necrosis complicating infection, persistent spontaneous pneumothorax, chemotherapy or radiotherapy (for lung cancer) , tuberculosis.
Right lower lateral chest wall resection with packing material in keeping with a Claggett thoracotomy. Associated right sided hydropneumothorax. Tracheobronchial stents with appearances of associated bronchopleural fistula.
Large left pleural effusion with ground glass opacity throughout the left lung with more focal collapse and consolidation in the base.
ETT and NGT noted.