Acquired tracheo-esophageal fistula
Nodobronchial and nodobronchoesophageal are most commonly caused by mycobacterium tuberculosis infection. They are characterized by the presence of gas in cavitated hilar or mediastinal lymphadenopathy adjacent to the airways.
Malignant neoplasia, particularly esophageal, are the most common cause of tracheo-esophageal fistulas in adults.
Case contributed by Dr. Hidayatullah Hamidi and Dr. Najibullah Rasouly