Articles

Articles are a collaborative effort to provide a single canonical page on all topics relevant to the practice of radiology. As such, articles are written and edited by countless contributing members over a period of time. A global group of dedicated editors oversee accuracy, consulting with expert advisers, and constantly reviewing additions.

15,915 results found
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Comminuted fracture

Comminuted fractures are fractures where more than 2 bone components are created. The problem with the term is that it includes a very heterogeneous group of fractures from a 3 part humeral head fracture to a multi-part fracture of the femur following a high-energy road traffic accident.
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Pellegrini-Stieda lesion

Pellegrini-Stieda lesions are ossified post-traumatic lesions at (or near) the medial femoral collateral ligament adjacent to the margin of the medial femoral condyle. One presumed mechanism of injury is a Stieda fracture (avulsion injury of the medial collateral ligament at the medial femoral c...
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Transient interruption of contrast

Transient interruption of contrast (TIC) is a common flow artifact seen in CT pulmonary angiography (CTPA) studies. The contrast opacificiation of the pulmonary arteries is suboptimal due to an increase in the flow of unopacified blood from the inferior vena cava (IVC) to the right side of the h...
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Osteoarthritis

Osteoarthritis (OA), also known as degenerative joint disease (DJD), is the most common form of arthritis, being widely prevalent with high morbidity and social cost.  Terminology Some authors prefer the term osteoarthrosis instead of osteoarthritis as some authors do not believe in an inflamm...
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Multipartite hallux sesamoid

Multipartite hallux sesamoids are a commonly seen normal variant, present in up to 33% of hallux sesamoids. They are more commonly bipartite than tripartite.  The medial (tibial) sesamoid is more likely to be multipartite than the lateral (fibular) sesamoid because it more commonly has more tha...
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Urethral stricture

Urethral strictures are relatively common and typically occur either in the setting of trauma or infection. Epidemiology The demographics of the affected population is dictated by the etiology, but in general, it is safe to say that adult males make up the vast majority of cases. Clinical pre...
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Epidural blood patch

Epidural blood patch is a treatment option for patients with craniospinal hypotension or post-lumbar puncture headaches. The procedure can be done blind or under fluoroscopic or CT guidance, and is performed predominantly by radiologists and anesthesiologists.  Indications craniospinal hypoten...
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Hereditary multiple exostoses

Hereditary multiple exostoses (HME), also known as diaphyseal aclasis or osteochondromatosis is an autosomal dominant condition, characterized by the development of multiple osteochondromas. Epidemiology Hereditary multiple exostoses demonstrate an autosomal dominant inheritance pattern, with ...
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Left pulmonary artery

The left pulmonary artery is one of the branches of the pulmonary trunk, branching at the level of the transthoracic plane of Ludwig. It is shorter than the right pulmonary artery and represents a direct posterior continuation of the pulmonary trunk. It arches posterosuperiorly over the superior...
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Right pulmonary artery

The right pulmonary artery is one of the branches of the pulmonary trunk, branching at the level of the transthoracic plane of Ludwig. It is longer than the left pulmonary artery and courses perpendicularly away from the pulmonary trunk and left pulmonary artery, between the superior vena cava a...
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Pulmonary veins

The pulmonary veins drain oxygenated blood from the lungs to the left atrium. A small amount of blood is also drained from the lungs by the bronchial veins Gross anatomy There are typically four pulmonary veins, two draining each lung: right superior: drains the right upper and middle lobes ...
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Boxer fracture

Boxer fractures are minimally comminuted, transverse fractures of the 5th metacarpal neck, and are the most common type of metacarpal fracture.  A boxer's knuckle is a separate entity, which is a tear of the metacarpophalangeal joint sagittal band that causes subluxation of the associated exten...
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Diffusion-weighted MRI in acute stroke

Diffusion-weighted imaging (DWI) is a commonly performed MRI sequence for the evaluation of acute ischemic stroke and is very sensitive in the detection of small and early infarcts. Conventional MRI sequences (T1WI, T2WI) may not demonstrate an infarct for 6 hours, and small infarcts may be hard...
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Speed test (shoulder)

A speed test is a clinical tests in assessing the shoulder.  In this test examiner places the patient's arm in shoulder flexion, external rotation, full elbow extension, and forearm supination. Manual resistance is then applied by the examiner in a downward direction or the patient is asked to ...
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Right gastric vein

The right gastric vein forms part of the venous drainage network of the stomach and proximal duodenum.  Gross anatomy Location May be found coursing parallel to the right gastric artery adjacent to the lesser curvature of the stomach 6. Origin The right gastric vein originates from the conf...
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Reversed halo sign (lungs)

The reversed halo sign, also known as the atoll sign, on chest CT is defined as central ground-glass opacity surrounded by denser consolidation of crescentic shape (forming more than three-fourths of a circle) or complete ring. The consolidation should be at least 2 mm in thickness 8. The sign ...
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Susceptibility weighted imaging

Susceptibility weighted imaging (SWI) is an MRI sequence that is particularly sensitive to compounds which distort the local magnetic field and as such make it useful in detecting blood products, calcium, etc. Physics SWI is a 3D high-spatial-resolution fully velocity corrected gradient-echo M...
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Amyloid related imaging abnormalities (ARIA)

Amyloid related imaging abnormalities (ARIA) represent a variety of imaging features identified in patients with Alzheimer disease being treated with novel amyloid lowering therapies such as the monoclonal antibodies bapineuzumab, solanezumab and aducanumab 1-4.  Clinical presentation In most ...
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Octreotide scintigraphy

Octreotide scintigraphy uses 111In-labeled octreotide, which is a somatostatin analog; it is also known as Octreoscan, a brand name for 111In-labeled pentetreotide. Pentetreotide is a DTPA-conjugated form of octreotide, originally manufactured by Mallinckrodt Nuclear Medicine LLC, which now form...
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Ionic cerebral edema

Ionic cerebral edema is a form of cerebral edema usually associated with cytotoxic edema, and represents the passage of water and sodium from capillaries into the brain parenchymal extracellular space. It is distinguished from vasogenic edema as the blood brain barrier (BBB) remains intact and t...
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Epilepsy

Epilepsy is a common neurological disorder that is characterized by a predisposition to having epileptic seizures. Epilepsy is defined by the International League Against Epilepsy (ILAE) as 1: at least two or more unprovoked (or reflex) seizures occurring more than 24 hours apart; or one unpr...
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Lobular capillary hemangioma of the nasal cavity

Lobular capillary hemangioma of the nasal cavity, also known as nasal pyogenic granuloma, is an uncommon benign, rapidly growing vascular neoplasm of the nasal cavity. Terminology The term “pyogenic granuloma” is a misnomer due to its lack of infectious origin according to histological and mic...
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Transient hepatic attenuation differences

Transient hepatic attenuation differences (THAD) lesions refer to areas of parenchymal enhancement visible during the hepatic artery phase on helical CT. They are thought to be a physiological phenomenon caused by the dual hepatic blood supply. Occasionally, they may be associated with hepatic t...
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Cyanosis

Cyanosis (plural: cyanoses) is a physical sign represented by bluish discolouration of the skin. It indicates there is reduced oxygen bound to red blood cells in the bloodstream. Diagnosis of the underlying cause of cyanosis is based on a thorough history and physical examination. Pathology Et...
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Holstein-Lewis fracture

Holstein-Lewis fractures represent a special type of humeral shaft fracture. It is a simple spiral fracture of the distal humerus with a radial displacement of the distal fragment 1,3,4. These fractures are reported to have a higher rate of radial nerve palsy when compared to other humeral shaft...
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Anemia

Anemia is the presence of reduced hemoglobin in the blood. Formally, the World Health Organizatiοn (WHO) defines anemia by the hemoglobin concentration in the blood according to age and sex 1: adult men: <130 g/L adult women: <120 g/L Values for pregnant women and children are different. Pat...
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Hip joint injection (technique)

Hip joint injections can be performed with a variety of image guidance, including fluoroscopy and ultrasound, which are used to administer MRI arthrogram injectate, or a steroid containing anesthetic arthrogram injectate.   Indications MRI labral injury anesthetic pain / arthropathy, i.e. o...
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Dinner fork deformity (wrist)

A dinner fork deformity, also known as a bayonet deformity, occurs as the result of a malunited distal radial fracture, usually a Colles fracture. The distal fragment is dorsally angulated, displaced and often also impacted. The term is descriptive, as the lateral view of the wrist is similar to...
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Intrauterine growth restriction

Intrauterine growth restriction (IUGR) or fetal growth restriction (FGR)  is defined as an estimated fetal weight (EFW) and/or abdominal circumference (AC) at one point in time during pregnancy being below 3rd percentile or EFW and/or AC below the 10th percentile for gestational age with derange...
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Symphyseal fundal height

Symphyseal fundal height (SFH) is commonly used measurement practiced primarily used to detect fetal intrauterine growth restriction (IUGR). For fetuses after 24 weeks' gestation, it is measured using a tape as the distance from - the pubic symphysis (by identifying the upper border of the sy...
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Congenital absence of the internal carotid artery

Congenital absence of the internal carotid artery (ICA) is a rare anomaly that occurs in less than 0.01% of the population. It encompasses agenesis, aplasia, and hypoplasia 1. The most common type of collateral flow is through the circle of Willis, through the anterior communicating artery (ACo...
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Stroke

A stroke is a clinical diagnosis that refers to a sudden onset focal neurological deficit of presumed vascular origin. Stroke is generally divided into two broad categories 1,2: ischemic stroke (87%) hemorrhagic stroke (13%) Terminology The term "stroke" is ambiguous and care must be taken ...
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Chiari II malformation

Chiari II malformations are relatively common congenital malformation of the spine and posterior fossa characterized by myelomeningocele (lumbosacral spina bifida aperta) and a small posterior fossa with descent of the brainstem, cerebellar tonsils, and vermis through the foramen magnum. Numerou...
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Splenunculus

Splenunculi, also known as supernumerary spleens, accessory spleens, or splenules, are small nodules of spleen that are separate from the rest of the organ.  Epidemiology They are common, seen in up to 16% of CTs of the abdomen and up to 30% of autopsies 2.  Pathology Accessory spleens are c...
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Cyanosis differential diagnosis (mnemonic)

A mnemonic to differentiate between central and peripheral cyanoses is: COLD PALMS Mnemonic C: cold (peripheral) O: obstruction (peripheral) L: LVF and shock (peripheral) D: decreased cardiac output (peripheral) P: polycythemia (central) A: altitude (central) L: lung disease (central) ...
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Diffusion-negative acute ischemic stroke

Diffusion-negative acute ischemic stroke refers to a clinically diagnosed acute ischemic stroke without cerebral restricted diffusion on DWI on brain MRI. Although DWI is highly sensitive for acute ischemic strokes, it fails in a minority of cases in its detection 1,2. Epidemiology It is not ...
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Ischemic stroke

Ischemic stroke is an episode of neurological dysfunction due to focal infarction in the central nervous system attributed to arterial thrombosis, embolization, or critical hypoperfusion. While ischemic stroke is formally defined to include brain, spinal cord, and retinal infarcts 1, in common u...
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Febrile infection-related epilepsy syndrome (FIRES)

Febrile infection-related epilepsy syndrome (FIRES) is a severe postinfectious neurological disorder that presents with new-onset refractory status epilepticus in a previously normal child (or less commonly adult) after a febrile illness. Terminology FIRES has received several names in the lit...
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Polyarteritis nodosa

Polyarteritis nodosa (PAN) is a systemic inflammatory necrotizing vasculitis that involves small to medium-sized arteries (larger than arterioles).  Epidemiology PAN is more common in males and typically presents around the 5th to 7th decades. 20-30% of patients are hepatitis B antigen positiv...
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Accessory navicular

An accessory navicular is a large accessory ossicle that can be present adjacent to the medial side of the navicular bone. The tibialis posterior tendon often inserts with a broad attachment into the ossicle. Most cases are asymptomatic but in a small proportion, it may cause painful tendinosis ...
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Azygos continuation of the inferior vena cava

Azygos continuation of the inferior vena cava (also known as the absence of the hepatic segment of the IVC with azygos continuation) is an uncommon vascular anomaly and is a cause of a dilated azygos vein. Terminology Spelling it "azygous" when referring to the vein is incorrect, regardless of...
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Salt and pepper sign (disambiguation)

The salt and pepper sign is used to refer to a speckled appearance of tissue on imaging. It is used in many contexts, but most commonly for the appearance of certain lesions on MRI, especially paragangliomas. salt and pepper noise (MRI artifact) 9 salt and pepper sign (ARPCKD) 8 salt and pepp...
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Lumbar hernia

Lumbar hernias (alternative plural: herniae) are a rare form of posterior abdominal hernia.  Epidemiology Most common in patients aged between 50 and 70 years with a male predominance 1.  Clinical presentation Patients with lumbar hernias can present with a variety of symptoms, including a p...
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Intraosseous lipoma

Intraosseous lipomas are rare benign lesions that account for about 0.1-2.5% of all bone tumors. It is, however, the most common lipogenic tumor in bone 6. Epidemiology It can present in an extremely wide age range (5-85 years) although the peak age at discovery is usually in the 4-5th decades...
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Osteochondroma

Osteochondromas are a relatively common imaging finding, accounting for 10-15% of all bone tumors and ~35% of all benign bone tumors. Although usually thought of as a benign bone tumor, they may be thought of as a developmental anomaly. They are frequently asymptomatic and have very low malignan...
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Pancreatic lipomatosis

Pancreatic lipomatosis refers to fat accumulation in the pancreatic parenchyma. This finding is most often associated with obesity and aging.  It tends to be the commonest pathological condition involving the pancreas. The condition may occasionally simulate a mass-like lesion particularly when...
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Calcific tendinitis of the longus colli muscle

Calcific tendinitis of the longus colli muscles is an inflammatory/granulomatous response to the deposition of calcium hydroxyapatite crystals in the tendons of the longus colli muscle. It is sometimes more generically known as calcific prevertebral tendinitis or, less accurately, as retropharyn...
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Long head of biceps brachii tendon pathology

Long head of biceps brachii tendon pathology can be examined both with ultrasound and/or MRI. Both instability and tears can result in pain and decreased function.  Clinical presentation Clinical tests Speed test (shoulder) Pathology Long head of biceps can be affected by numerous pathologi...
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Gliomatosis cerebri

Gliomatosis cerebri is an uncommon growth pattern of diffuse gliomas that involves at least three lobes by definition, have frequent bilateral growth and may extend to infratentorial structures 8. There often is an important discordance between clinical and radiological findings, as it may be cl...
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Free-floating thrombus of the internal carotid artery

Free-floating thrombus of the internal carotid artery is an uncommon entity placing the patient at high risk for acute ischemic stroke. It is characterized by intraluminal thrombus within the internal carotid artery (ICA) and aggressively managed with surgical, medical, or combined therapy.  Ep...
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Pheochromocytoma

Pheochromocytomas are an uncommon tumor of the adrenal gland, with characteristic clinical, and to a lesser degree, imaging features. The tumors are said to follow a 10% rule: ~10% are extra-adrenal ~10% are bilateral ~10% are malignant ~10% are found in children ~10% are familial ~10% are...
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Facial bones (Waters view)

The occipitomental (OM) or Waters view is an angled PA radiograph of the skull, with the patient gazing slightly upwards. Indications It can be used to assess for facial fractures, as well as for acute sinusitis. In general, radiographs of the skull and facial bones are rapidly becoming obsole...
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Duodenal diverticulum

Duodenal diverticula are outpouchings from the duodenal wall (intraluminal diverticulum discussed separately). They may result from mucosal prolapse or the prolapse of the entire duodenal wall and can be found at any point in the duodenum although are by far most commonly located along the media...
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Gain of function

Gain of function represents the set of laboratory techniques thanks to which it is possible to genetically modify a pathogen (for example a virus) in order to provide it with new capabilities.
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Osteoporosis

Osteoporosis is a metabolic bone disease characterized by decreased bone mass and skeletal fragility. The World Health Organization (WHO) operationally defines osteoporosis as a bone mineral density T-score less than -2.5 SD (more than 2.5 standard deviations under the young-adult mean), which ...
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Paget disease (bone)

Paget disease of the bone is a common, chronic metabolic bone disorder characterized by excessive abnormal bone remodeling. The classically described radiological appearances are expanded bone with a coarsened trabecular pattern. The pelvis, spine, skull, and proximal long bones are most frequen...
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Monostotic

Monostotic is typically used to refer to a condition that involves only one bone. Examples of conditions that can be monostotic include fibrous dysplasia and melorheostosis. See also polyostotic monomelic
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Polyostotic

Polyostotic, less commonly polystotic, is a term used to describe a condition involving multiple bones. Examples of conditions that can be polyostotic include Paget disease of the bone, fibrous dysplasia and melorheostosis. See also monostotic monomelic
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Vertebral anomalies

The vertebral column is affected by a range of anatomical variants of the body and/or neural arch as well as accessory ossicles. Knowledge of basic vertebral anatomy and ossification is essential for describing and understanding the range of anomalies. Variant anatomy Vertebral body hemiverte...
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Alexander disease

Alexander disease, also known as fibrinoid leukodystrophy, is a rare fatal leukodystrophy, which usually becomes clinically evident in the infantile period, although neonatal, juvenile and even adult variants are recognized. As with many other diseases with variable age of presentation, the earl...
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Single contrast enema

Single contrast enema is a method of imaging the colon with fluoroscopy and is similar in concept to the double contrast barium enema. "Single contrast" refers to imaging with either barium or water-soluble contrast, without the addition of air or CO2. Indications The single contrast technique...
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Enlarged azygos vein

An enlarged/dilated azygos vein may result from a number of physiological as well as pathological causes. The enlarged azygos vein may be seen as a widened right paratracheal/paraspinal stripe on a frontal chest radiograph. Terminology Spelling it "azygous" when referring to the vein is incorr...
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CSF rhinorrhea

CSF rhinorrhea refers to a symptom of cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) leakage extracranially into the paranasal sinuses, thence into the nasal cavity, and exiting via the anterior nares. It can occur whenever there is an osseous or dural defect of the skull base (cf. CSF otorrhea). Pathology Etiolog...
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Roux-en-Y gastric bypass surgery

Roux-en-Y gastric bypass is one of the most common bariatric surgeries, used to treat morbid obesity. In this laparoscopic operation, the stomach is stapled or divided to form a small pouch (typically <30 mL in volume), which is anastomosed to the Roux limb (also known as the efferent or alimen...
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DNA

DNA (deoxyribonucleic acid) is a nucleic acid that encodes the genetic information (genome) necessary for RNA (ribonucleic acid) transcription (transcriptome) and protein synthesis (proteome) 1. It is contained in the nucleus of eukaryotic cells in the form of chromatin or chromosomes 7,8. Mole...
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Diffuse midline glioma, H3 K27-altered

Diffuse midline glioma H3 K27M–mutant is a specific entity that represents the majority of diffuse intrinsic pontine gliomas, although identical tumors are also found elsewhere in the midline (e.g. brainstem, spinal cord and thalamus) 1. They are aggressive tumors with poor prognosis and are con...
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Fetal cardiothoracic circumference ratio

Fetal cardiothoracic (C/T) circumference ratio is a parameter that can be used in the assessment of fetal cardiac and thoracic/chest wall anomalies. It is the ratio of the cardiac circumference to the thoracic circumference and may be easily measured on fetal ultrasound/echocardiography.  Radio...
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Humeral shaft fracture

Humeral shaft fractures are readily diagnosed and usually, do not require internal fixation.  Epidemiology Humeral shaft fractures account for 3-5% of all fractures 1,3. Although they occur in all age groups, a bimodal distribution is noted. The first peak is seen in the third decade in males ...
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Aortic valve prolapse

Aortic valve prolapse refers to the improper closure of aortic valve leaflets. Aortic valve prolapse can result in aortic regurgitation, aortic root dilatation, and eccentric remodeling of the left ventricle.  Pathology  Etiology  pulmonary atresia rheumatic aortic valve disease bicuspid ao...
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Prostate

The prostate gland is part of the male reproductive system and is the largest male accessory gland. It typically weighs between 20-40 grams with an average size of 3 x 4 x 2 cm. The prostate is comprised of 70% glandular tissue and 30% fibromuscular or stromal tissue 1-3 and provides ~30% of the...
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Transition zone (disambiguation)

Transition zone may refer to the: transition zone of a nerve transition zone of the lens 2 zone of transition of a bone lesion transition zone (TZ) of the prostate transition zone of a bowel obstruction 3 transition zone of Hirschsprung disease 4 It is important to note that the correct t...
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Uterus

The uterus is an extraperitoneal hollow, thick-walled, muscular organ of the female reproductive tract that lies in the lesser pelvis. Gross anatomy The uterus has an inverted pear shape. It measures about 7.5 cm in length, 5 cm wide at its upper part, and nearly 2.5 cm in thickness in adults....
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Bowel obstruction

Bowel obstructions are common and account for 20% of admissions with "surgical abdomens". Radiology is important in confirming the diagnosis and identifying the underlying cause. Bowel obstructions are usually divided according to where the obstruction occurs, and since imaging appearances, und...
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Globe rupture

Globe rupture is an ophthalmologic emergency. A ruptured globe or an open-globe injury must be assessed in any patient who has suffered orbital trauma because open-globe injuries are a major cause of blindness. In blunt trauma, ruptures are most common at the insertions of the intraocular muscl...
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Colorectal cancer

Colorectal cancer is the most common cancer of the gastrointestinal tract and the second most frequently diagnosed malignancy in adults. CT and MRI are the modalities most frequently used for staging. Surgical resection may be curative although five-year survival rate is 40-50%.  Epidemiology ...
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Subacute invasive pulmonary aspergillosis

Subacute invasive pulmonary aspergillosis (previously known as chronic necrotizing aspergillosis or semi-invasive aspergillosis) is subacute to chronic localized and indolent form of invasive aspergillosis. It is also sometimes grouped under the term chronic pulmonary aspergillosis. Epidemiolog...
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Achalasia

Achalasia (primary achalasia) is a failure of organized esophageal peristalsis causing impaired relaxation of the lower esophageal sphincter, and resulting in food stasis and often marked dilatation of the esophagus.  Obstruction of the distal esophagus from other non-functional etiologies, not...
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Esophageal web

Esophageal webs refer to an esophageal constriction caused by a thin mucosal membrane projecting into the lumen. Epidemiology Esophageal webs tend to affect middle-aged females. Clinical presentation Patients are usually asymptomatic and the finding may be incidental and unimportant. However...
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Esophageal diverticulum

Esophageal diverticula are sac or pouch projections arising from the esophagus. Epidemiology They can occur in all ages but more frequent in adults and elderly people. Pathology Esophageal diverticula are either: true diverticula: include all esophageal layers false diverticula: contain on...
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Colonic transit study

The colonic transit study is an older technique to estimate colonic transit time.  Terminology Various names are used for this type of study including shapes study, colon motility test, Sitz marker study and Transit-Pelletsmethod, and variations thereof.  Indications In constipation, it can ...
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Pulmonary mycobacterium malmoense infection

Pulmonary mycobacterium malmoense infection is a form of pulmonary non-tuberculous mycobacterial infection occurring related to Mycobacterium malmoense. It is among the most frequently isolated and clinically relevant non-tuberculous mycobacteria (NTM) in northern Europe (e.g. Netherlands). His...
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Morgagni hernia

Morgagni hernias (alternative plural: herniae) are one of the congenital diaphragmatic hernias (CDHs) and are characterized by herniation through the foramen of Morgagni. When compared to Bochdalek hernias, Morgagni hernias tend to be: anterior more often right-sided (~90%) small rare (~2% o...
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Robinson classification of clavicle fractures

The Robinson classification of clavicle fractures, as well as the AO/OTA and Neer classification systems, is a frequently used classification system for assessing clavicular fractures. The Robinson classification is based on a review of a thousand patients and was developed to provide a guide t...
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Adynamic ileus

Adynamic ileus is the failure of passage of enteric contents through the small bowel and colon that are not mechanically obstructed; i.e. it represents a paralysis of intestinal motility. Clinical presentation Patients may be asymptomatic or present with symptoms similar to mechanical bowel ob...
Article

Mature cystic ovarian teratoma

Ovarian dermoid cyst and mature cystic ovarian teratoma are terms often used interchangeably to refer to the most common ovarian neoplasm. These slow-growing tumors contain elements from multiple germ cell layers and can be assessed with ultrasound or MRI.  Terminology Although they have very ...
Article

Rokitansky nodule

A Rokitansky nodule or dermoid plug refers to a solid protuberance projecting from an ovarian cyst in the context of mature cystic teratoma. It often contains calcific, dental, adipose, hair, and/or sebaceous components 1. This region has the highest propensity to undergo malignant transformatio...
Article

Nerve injury classification (MRI)

Nerve injury classification describes the various features of nerve injury on MRI with respect to pathological events. Classification neuropraxia grade I: there is increased T2/STIR signal in the nerve, however, the muscle appears normal recovery occurs within a few days to 3 months axono...
Article

Phyllodes tumor

Phyllodes tumor, also known as cystosarcoma phyllodes, is a rare fibroepithelial tumor of the breast which has some resemblance to a fibroadenoma. It is typically a large, fast growing mass that forms from the periductal stroma of the breast 13. Epidemiology Phyllodes tumors account for less t...
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Medical abbreviations and acronyms (G)

This article contains a list of commonly used medical abbreviations and acronyms that start with the letter G and may be encountered in medicine and radiology (please keep both the main list and any sublists in alphabetic order). A - B - C - D - E - F - G - H - I - J - K - L -M - N - O - P - Q ...
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Bone infarction

Bone infarction is a term used to refer to osteonecrosis within the metaphysis or diaphysis of a bone. Necrosis is a type of cell death due to irreversible cell injury, which can be recognized microscopically by alterations in the cytoplasm (becomes eosinophilic) and in the nucleus (swelling, py...
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Pulmonary non-tuberculous mycobacterial infection

Pulmonary non-tuberculous mycobacterial (NTM) infection refers to pulmonary infection caused by one of the large number (at least 150) mycobacterial species other than Mycobacterium tuberculosis. However, certain species are much more common than others. Epidemiology Risk factors chronic lung...
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Hepatic epithelioid hemangioendothelioma

Hepatic epithelioid hemangioendothelioma (HEHE) is a rare, low to intermediate grade malignant hepatic vascular tumor. Epidemiology There may be a greater female incidence (with reported male-to-female ratio, 2:3), with peak incidence thought to be around the age of 30-40 years. Pathology Hi...
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Cone beam CT

Cone beam CT (CBCT) is a variant type of computed tomography (CT), and is used particularly in dental and extremity imaging but has recently found new application in dedicated breast imaging 4,5. It differs from conventional CT in that it uses a cone-shaped x-ray beam and two dimensional detecto...

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