Articles

Articles are a collaborative effort to provide a single canonical page on all topics relevant to the practice of radiology. As such, articles are written and edited by countless contributing members over a period of time. A global group of dedicated editors oversee accuracy, consulting with expert advisers, and constantly reviewing additions.

557 results found
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1-2-3 rule (ovary)

The 1-2-3 rule is a simple aide memoire describing the nomenclature of any small simple anechoic structure in the ovary on ultrasound: <1 cm = follicle 1-2 cm = dominant follicle >3 cm = cyst
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2014 WHO classification of endometrial stromal tumors

Endometrial stromal tumors (EST) constitute <2% of all uterine tumors and <10% of uterine mesenchymal neoplasms 1.  Over the past four decades, EST classification has gone through various modifications, starting from the earliest study by Norris and Taylor 2. This was primarily due to the rarit...
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3D ultrasound

Three-dimensional (3D) ultrasound is a technique that converts standard 2D grayscale ultrasound images into a volumetric dataset. The 3D image can then be reviewed retrospectively. The technique was developed for problem-solving (particularly in obstetric/gynecologic exams) and to potentially re...
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Abdominal and pelvic anatomy

Abdominal and pelvic anatomy encompasses the anatomy of all structures of the abdominal and pelvic cavities. This anatomy section promotes the use of the Terminologia Anatomica, the global standard for correct gross anatomical nomenclature. 
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Abdominal distension (mnemonic)

A mnemonic for causes of abdominal distension (6 Fs) is: F: fat F: fluid  F: flatus F: feces  F: fetus F: fulminant mass
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Abdominal surface anatomy

Abdominal surface anatomy can be described when viewed from in front of the abdomen in 2 ways: divided into 9 regions by two vertical and two horizontal imaginary planes divided into 4 quadrants by single vertical and horizontal imaginary planes These regions and quadrants are of clinical imp...
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Abnormally thickened endometrium (differential)

Abnormally thickened endometrium on imaging may occur for a number of reasons which may be categorized based on whether or not they are related to pregnancy. Etiologies may also be classified based on whether the patient is premenopausal or postmenopausal. Differential diagnosis Pregnancy-rela...
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Abscess

Abscesses are focal confined collections of suppurative inflammatory material and can be thought of as having three components 1: a central core consisting of necrotic inflammatory cells and local tissue peripheral halo of viable neutrophils surrounded by a 'capsule' with dilated blood vessel...
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Acute abdominal pain

Acute abdominal pain is a common acute presentation in clinical practice. It encompasses a very broad range of possible etiologies and diagnoses, and imaging is routinely employed as the primary investigative tool in its modern management. Terminology A subgroup of patients with acute abdomina...
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Acute pelvic pain

Acute pelvic pain is a common presenting symptom to the emergency department and radiologist. Pelvic ultrasound with transabdominal and endovaginal approaches is usually the first line imaging modality. Clinical presentation non-cyclic pain pain of <3 months duration Patients also often pres...
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Adenocarcinoma (endometrium)

Adenocarcinoma of the endometrium is the commonest histological subtype of endometrial cancer and accounts for up to 90% of such cases 1. Pathology Histological sub types  endometrioid carcinoma serous type adenocarcinoma of the endometrium clear cell type adenocarcinoma of the endometrium ...
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Adenocarcinoma of the cervix

Adenocarcinoma of the cervix is a histological subtype of carcinoma of the cervix.  Epidemiology Cervical adenocarcinoma is less common than squamous cell carcinomas (SCC) of the cervix, accounting for ~12.5% of all cervical cancer. Their proportionate prevalence is thought to be increasing an...
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Adenoma malignum of the cervix

Adenoma malignum of the cervix, also referred to as minimal deviation carcinoma / minimal deviation adenocarcinoma, is considered a rare variant of cervical carcinoma. It is thought to represent ~1-3% of all cervical adenocarcinomas. Epidemiology It can present in a wide age group (~25-70 year...
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Adenomatous endometrial hyperplasia

Adenomatous endometrial hyperplasia is a type of endometrial hyperplasia. Epidemiology The peak incidence is around 40-50 years of age. Pathology Both endogenous and exogenous estrogen exposure are considered important factors in its etiology 1.
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Adenomyoma

An adenomyoma is a focal region of adenomyosis resulting in a mass, which is difficult to distinguish from a uterine fibroid, although in general the degree to which the contour of the uterus is distorted is less marked in adenomyosis 2. Additionally, the 'mass' is poorly defined and blends with...
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Adenomyosis

Adenomyosis is a common uterine condition of ectopic endometrial tissue in the myometrium, sometimes considered a spectrum of endometriosis. Although most commonly asymptomatic, it may present with menorrhagia and dysmenorrhea. Pelvic imaging (i.e. ultrasound, MRI) may show characteristic findin...
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Adenomyotic cyst

An adenomyotic cyst is an extremely rare variation of cystic adenomyosis. The lesion consists of a large hemorrhagic cyst, which is partly or entirely surrounded by a solid wall. It can be entirely within the myometrium, submucosal, or subserosal and frequently is associated with symptoms of men...
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Adenosquamous carcinoma (cervix)

Adenosquamous cell carcinoma (ASC) of the cervix is a rare histological subtype of cervical carcinoma. Pathology It has components of both cervical adenocarcinoma and cervical squamous cell carcinoma. Prognosis An adenosquamous histology appears to be an independent predictor of poor outcome...
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Adenosquamous carcinoma of endometrium

Adenosquamous carcinoma of the endometrium is a rare histological sub type of endometrial cancer.  In general it occurs in a slightly younger group when compared with pure adenocarcinoma of the endometrium 4. It contains both malignant glandular and malignant squamous components. Adenosquamous...
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Adnexal torsion

The term adnexal torsion refers to torsion of the pelvic adnexal structures. This can encompass ovarian torsion + / - tubal torsion.
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Adult granulosa cell tumor of the ovary

Adult granulosa cell tumor of the ovary is a type of ovarian sex cord / stromal tumor. They are by far the most frequent subtype of granulosa cell tumors of the ovary (95%) and are commoner than the juvenile granulosa tumor of the ovary. Epidemiology Approximately two-thirds of this subtype ar...
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Aggressive angiomyxoma

Aggressive angiomyxomas are rare tumors that arise in the pelvis and typically cross the levator ani muscles. Despite its name, it is essentially a benign tumor and the term "aggressive" is given due to a predilection for local recurrence. Only rarely does it metastasize. Epidemiology It is se...
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Anatomy curriculum

The anatomy curriculum is one of our curriculum articles and aims to be a collection of articles that represent the core anatomy knowledge for radiologists and imaging specialists. General anatomy Neuroanatomy Head and neck anatomy Thoracic anatomy Abdominal and pelvic anatomy Spinal anat...
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Androgen insensitivity syndrome

Androgen insensitivity syndrome (AIS), also known as the testicular feminisation syndrome, results from end-organ resistance to androgens, particularly testosterone. AIS may be complete or incomplete with variable imaging findings.  Epidemiology The incidence may vary depending on whether it i...
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Anorexia nervosa

Anorexia nervosa is a psychiatric disorder characterized by distorted self-perception of body weight leading to starvation, obsession with remaining underweight, and an excessive fear of gaining weight. One in five patients with anorexia dies due to complications of the disease. Epidemiology T...
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Antral follicle count

Antral follicle count (AFC) or basal antral follicle count is a test performed to check a female individual's ovarian reserve.  Principle A female is born with a lifetime supply of eggs and as she enters puberty these eggs develop. During and after puberty these follicles develop and are relea...
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Arcuate uterus

An arcuate uterus is a mildly variant shape of the uterus. It is technically one of the Müllerian duct anomalies, but is often classified as a normal variant. It is the uterine anomaly that is least commonly associated with reproductive failure. Arcuate uterus can be characterized with ultrasoun...
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Asherman syndrome

Asherman syndrome, also known as uterine synechiae, is a condition characterized by the formation of intrauterine adhesions, which are usually sequela from injury to the endometrium, and is often associated with infertility. Epidemiology There is a tendency for the condition to develop soon af...
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Bartholin gland abscess

Bartholin gland abscess is a complication that may result from an infected Bartholin gland cyst.  Radiographic features Abscesses are usually in a similar location to Bartholin gland cysts. Features of Bartholin gland abscess are otherwise similar to Bartholin gland cyst described in separate ...
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Bartholin gland cyst

Bartholin gland cysts are located in the posterolateral inferior third of the vagina and are associated with the labia majora.  Clinical presentation Most patients are asymptomatic 4. Complications infection: may turn into Bartholin gland abscesses rare instances of development of adenocarc...
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Bartholin glands

The Bartholin glands, also known as greater vestibular glands, are paired pea-sized structures, lying on either side of the vaginal opening, and are homologous to the bulbourethral (Cowper) glands in the male. They form part of the vulva. Gross anatomy These glands are described as less than 1...
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Bartholin gland tumors

Bartholin gland tumors represent neoplasms of the Bartholin glands. They include: squamous cell carcinoma of the Bartholin gland: tends to be the most common histological subtype adenocarcinoma of the Bartholin gland adenoid cystic carcinoma of the Bartholin gland
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Beads on a string sign (chronic salpingitis)

The beads-on-a-string sign is used to refer to the classic morphologic changes in the Fallopian tubes as a result of chronic salpingitis.    Terminology The "string" alludes to the notably thin salpingeal wall, while the hyperechoic mural nodules constitute the "beads" 1. Radiographic feature...
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Benign metastasizing leiomyoma

Benign metastasizing leiomyomas (or leiomyomata) are a rare non-malignant metastatic phenomenon that may be observed with a pelvic leiomyoma. Epidemiology Women who have undergone hysterectomy for leiomyomas are most commonly affected. Clinical presentation Patients are usually asymptomatic ...
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Benign metastasizing tumors

There are a number of benign metastasizing tumors: benign metastasizing meningioma 1,2 benign metastasizing leiomyoma 3 primary adenoma of thyroid 4 giant cell tumor of bone 5
Article

Bicornuate uterus

A bicornuate uterus is a type of uterine duplication anomaly. It can be classified as a class IV Mullerian duct anomaly. Epidemiology Overall, congenital uterine anomalies occur in ~1.5% of females (range 0.1-3%). Bicornuate uteri are thought to represent ~25% (range 10-39%) of Mullerian duct ...
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Body imaging

Body imaging is the term assigned to cross-sectional imaging of the body, which radiologically refers to the chest, abdomen and pelvis. It is often used by radiologists who report this region (sometimes known as body imagers/radiologists) to differentiate their primary area of interest from othe...
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Body packing

Body packing refers to the internal concealment of drugs within the gastrointestinal tract or other orifices. People who do this may be called body packers, (drug) mules, stuffers, couriers or swallowers. Drugs may be concealed within condoms, foil, latex or cellophane.  Epidemiology There is ...
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Borderline ovarian serous cystadenoma

Borderline ovarian serous cystadenomas lie in the intermediate range in the spectrum of ovarian serous tumors and represent approximately 15% of all serous tumors. Epidemiology They present at a younger age group 1-2 than the more malignant serous cystadenocarcinomas with a peak age of present...
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Brenner tumor

Brenner tumors are an uncommon surface epithelial tumor of the ovary. It was originally known as a transitional cell tumor due to its histological similarity to the urothelium. Brenner tumors account for ~3% of ovarian epithelial neoplasms. They can very rarely occur in other locations, includin...
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Bridging vessel sign

The bridging vessel sign refers to an appearance of vessels coursing from the uterus into an adjoining pelvic mass (a vascular bridge). This sign helps to differentiate a pedunculated subserosal uterine leiomyoma from other juxtauterine masses of ovarian, adnexal or bowel origin. Color and powe...
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Broad ligament

The broad ligament is the lateral folds of the parietal peritoneum which reflect over the upper genital tract. Gross anatomy The broad ligament extends from the lateral aspect of the uterus to the lateral pelvic wall and can be divided into three main components - the mesosalpinx, mesovarium a...
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Broad ligament contents (mnemonic)

A mnemonic for the contents of the broad ligament is: BROAD Mnemonic B: bundle (ovarian neurovascular bundle) R: round ligament O: ovarian ligament A: artifacts (vestigial structures) D: duct (oviduct)
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Broad ligament leiomyoma

Broad ligament leiomyomas are extra-uterine leiomyomas that occur in relation to the broad ligament.  Terminology Broad ligament leiomyomas are also referred as a type of parasitic leiomyomas 5. Clinical presentation While in most cases broad ligament leiomyomas are asymptomatic, patients ma...
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CA-125

CA-125 is a high-molecular-weight glycoprotein found on the surface of Mullerian and coelomic epithelial-derived cell types, and is the best known tumor marker for epithelial ovarian cancer 6. Importantly, it may also be elevated in several other conditions (see differential diagnosis section be...
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CA 27-29

CA 27-29 is a tumor marker and is a soluble form of glycoprotein MUC1. It may be elevated in patients with breast cancer. Tumors of the colon, stomach, kidney, lung, ovary, pancreas, uterus, and liver may also raise CA 27-29 levels. Certain non-malignant conditions are also associated with its ...
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Canal of Nuck

The canal of Nuck is an abnormal patent pouch of parietal peritoneum extending anteriorly from the round ligament of the uterus into the labia majora through the inguinal ring into the inguinal canal. Incomplete obliteration of this canal is known as a patent processus vaginalis and can result i...
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Carcinoma of the cervix

Carcinoma of the cervix is a malignancy arising from the cervix. It is the third most common gynecologic malignancy (after endometrial and ovarian). Epidemiology It typically presents in younger women with an average age of onset at around 45 years.  Risk factors human papillomavirus (HPV) 1...
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Carcinosarcoma

Carcinosarcomas are highly malignant biphasic tumors with both carcinomatous (epithelial) and sarcomatous (bone, cartilage, or skeletal muscle) components.  Pathology It can arise in many organs: lung 5: pulmonary carcinosarcoma esophagus 1: esophageal carcinosarcoma genitourinary tract 2 ...
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Carneous degeneration of a leiomyoma

Red or carneous degeneration is one of four main types of degeneration that can involve a uterine leiomyoma. While it is an uncommon type of degeneration, it is thought to be the most common form of degeneration of a leiomyoma during pregnancy 3. Clinical presentation Patients with a leiomyoma...
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Catamenial pneumothorax

Catamenial pneumothorax is a rare type of pneumothorax and is characterized by the recurrent accumulation of air in the thoracic space related to menstruation. Epidemiology It may represent up to one-third of women with spontaneous pneumothoraces 1. Patient history may or may not be positive f...
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Cervical cancer (staging)

Staging of cervical cancer can either be based on the TNM or FIGO system. Revised FIGO staging of cervical carcinoma 2018 8 FIGO no longer includes Stage 0 (Tis) I: confined to cervix uteri (extension to the corpus should be disregarded) IA: invasive carcinoma only diagnosed by microscopy I...
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Cervical incompetence

Cervical incompetence refers to a painless spontaneous dilatation of the cervix and is a common cause of second trimester pregnancy failure. Epidemiology The estimated incidence varies geographically and generally thought to be around 1-1.5% of all pregnancies 1,15. Clinical presentation Typ...
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Cervical length

In obstetric and gynecological imaging, the cervical length is defined as the distance between the internal cervical os and the external cervical os. Radiographic assessment Ultrasound the cervical length is most accurately assessed on a transvaginal scan with an empty bladder in a normal gr...
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Cervical plicae palmatae

Cervical plicae palmatae are normal folds seen on the anterior and posterior walls of the cervical canal. They are often described as longitudinal ridges or oblique elevation. Sometimes they are identified on MRI, and one must make sure not to misinterpret this finding as abnormal. Studies repo...
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Cervical polyp

Cervical polyps are polypoid growths projecting into the cervical canal. They can be one of the most common causes of intermenstrual vaginal bleeding.  Epidemiology Most patients are perimenopausal at the time of presentation, especially in the 5th decade of life. They are the most common mass...
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Cervical stenosis (disambiguation)

The term cervical stenosis can refer to: stenosis of the uterine cervix bony cervical canal stenosis (cervical spinal stenosis)
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Cervix

The cervix or uterine cervix is the lower constricted segment of the uterus providing the passage between the uterus proper and the vagina.  Gross anatomy The cervix is somewhat conical in shape, with its truncated apex directed posteriorly and inferiorly. The inferior aspect of the cervix pro...
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Cesarean section scar diverticulum

Cesarean section scar diverticulum is a form of outpouching located in the anterior lower uterine cavity at the site of cesarean section scar.  There is some similarity with the term Cesarean scar niche. Clinical presentation mostly asymptomatic postmenstrual spotting Radiographic features ...
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Choriocarcinoma

Choriocarcinoma is an aggressive, highly vascular tumor. When it is associated with gestation, it is often considered part of the spectrum of gestational trophoblastic disease; it is then termed gestational choriocarcinoma. When it occurs in the absence of preceding gestation, it is termed non-g...
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Choriocarcinoma (staging)

The staging system for choriocarcinoma (usually refers to uterine choriocarcinoma) is the FIGO staging system and is as follows 1: stage I:  disease limited to the uterus stage II: disease out of the uterus but limited to the female genital tract stage III: metastasis in the lung with or with...
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Christmas inspired signs

There are many signs in radiology that are related to Christmas: snowcap sign in avascular necrosis snowman sign in total anomalous pulmonary venous return in pituitary macroadenomas snowstorm appearance in complete hydatidiform and testicular microlithiasis holly leaf sign in calcified pl...
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Chronic pelvic pain

Chronic pelvic pain is a common presenting symptom to primary care physicians and to radiologists. Pelvic ultrasound with transabdominal and endovaginal approaches are usually the first line imaging modality. MRI may be performed afterwards. Clinical presentation non-cyclic pain pain of >6 mo...
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Clear cell carcinoma of the cervix

Clear cell carcinoma of the cervix (CCCC) is a rare adenocarcinoma subtype of cervical cancer. Epidemiology Due to association with diethylstilbestrol (DES) exposure in some patients, this subtype may have a younger age at presentation than other histological subtypes. This subtype can sometim...
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Clear cell carcinoma of the endometrium

Clear cell carcinoma (CCC) of the endometrium is an uncommon histological subtype of endometrial cancer. It only accounts for 1-5.5% of all endometrial carcinomas, and it is often associated with an aggressive clinical behavior and a poorer outcome 4-5. Only occasional case reports have describe...
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Clear cell ovarian carcinoma

Clear cell carcinoma of the ovary is a type of malignant ovarian epithelial tumor. Epidemiology They represent ~2-5% of all ovarian carcinomas and ~3.7%-12% of epithelial ovarian neoplasms. The mean age at presentation is ~10 years younger than for other ovarian epithelial tumors (peaks ~55 ag...
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Coexistent molar pregnancy

Coexistent molar pregnancy refers to an extremely rare situation where there is a molar pregnancy occurring simultaneously with normal intra-uterine pregnancy. Epidemiology The estimated incidence is at ~1:10,000-100,000 gestations (for a complete hydatidiform mole and a normal pregnancy) 2. ...
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Cogwheel sign

The cogwheel sign refers to an imaging appearance in pelvic imaging of thickening loops of the Fallopian tube seen on cross-section. There are infolding projections (sometimes looking like nodules) into the Fallopian tube lumen which is likened to that of a cogwheel. The sign is typically descri...
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Collision tumor of the ovary

A collision tumor of the ovary is an uncommon ovarian neoplasm where there is co-existence of two adjacent but histologically distinct tumors with no histologic admixture at the interface. Pathology The exact pathogenesis is not well known. They are most commonly composed of ovarian teratoma (...
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Colovaginal fistula

Colovaginal fistula is one form of genitourinary fistula. It is also sometimes classed under a type of gastro-intestinal fistula. Pathology It refers to a communication between the colon (typically the rectum or sigmoid colon) with the vagina. At times, specific terms are used dependent on th...
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Common calcifying metastases (mnemonic)

A simple mnemonic to recall a list of commonly calcifying metastases is: BOTOM Mnemonic B: breast cancer O: osteosarcoma T: papillary thyroid cancer O: ovarian cancer (especially mucinous) M: mucinous adenocarcinoma (especially colorectal carcinoma)
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Congenital utero-vaginal anomalies

There are many classification systems for congenital utero-vaginal anomalies. These include: Buttram and Gibbons classification 2 American Fertility Society (AFS) classification Modified Rock and Adam - AFS classification Modified Rock and Adam - AFS classification This classification divid...
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Corpus albicans

The corpus albicans is a fibrous scar that results from the involution of the corpus luteum if fertilisation does not occur. When seen on ultrasound, it is a small, lobulated echogenic intra-ovarian lesion.  History and etymology It is Latin for "whitening body", after the white appearance of ...
Article

Corpus luteal cyst

Corpus luteal (CL) cysts are a type of functional ovarian cyst that results when a corpus luteum fails to regress following the release of an ovum. When associated with pregnancy, it is the most common pelvic mass encountered within the 1st trimester. There is also some overlap with the term "he...
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Corpus luteal cyst rupture

Ruptured corpus luteal cysts are one of the commonest causes of spontaneous hemoperitoneum in a woman of reproductive age. Clinical presentation Presentation is variable, ranging from completely asymptomatic to severe abdominal pain due to peritoneal irritation. Pathology The corpus luteum i...
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Corpus luteum

The corpus luteum (plural: corpora lutea) is a temporary endocrine structure involved in ovulation and early pregnancy. During ovulation, the primary follicle forms the secondary follicle and subsequently the mature vesicular follicle. At ovulation the follicle ruptures expelling the ovum into...
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Cumulus oophorus

Cumulus oophorus refers to an appearance in the ovary in which multiple granulosa cells enlarge around a developing oocyte. These support cells ("cumulus cells") serve multiple functions in the maturation of the oocyte. They may occasionally be seen during a pelvic ultrasound, and should not be ...
Article

Cystic adenomyosis

Cystic adenomyosis is a rare variant of adenomyosis and is believed to the result of repeated focal hemorrhages resulting in cystic spaces filled with altered blood products. Radiographic features MRI MRI is the most sensitive and specific imaging modality for this diagnosis and will demonstr...
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Cystic degeneration of a leiomyoma

Cystic degeneration is an uncommon type of degeneration that a uterine leiomyoma can undergo. Epidemiology  This type of degeneration is thought to represent ~4% of all types of degeneration. Pathology When the leiomyomas increase in size, the vascular supply to it becomes inadequate and lea...
Article

Cystic endometrial atrophy

Cystic endometrial atrophy is a benign process that can occur as part of tamoxifen-associated endometrial change.  Pathology It is diagnosed histologically when multiple cystic spaces (dilated glands) lined with atrophic epithelium are present within a dense fibrous stroma.  At hysteroscopy, ...
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Cystic endometrial hyperplasia

Cystic endometrial hyperplasia is the most common as well as the most benign form of endometrial hyperplasia. Radiographic features Ultrasound Typically shows endometrial thickening with associated cysts. Differential diagnosis For imaging appearences consider: prolonged proliferative phas...
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Cystic retroperitoneal lesions

A cystic retroperitoneal lesion can carry a relatively broad differenital which includes: retroperitoneal cystic lymphangioma retroperitoneal mucinous cystadenoma retroperitoneal cystic teratoma retroperitoenal cystic mesothelioma pseudomyxoma retroperitonei with cystic change perianal muc...
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Deepest vertical pocket method

The deepest (maximal) vertical pocket (DVP) depth is considered a reliable method for assessing amniotic fluid volume on ultrasound 1,2. It is performed by assessing a pocket of a maximal depth of amniotic fluid which is free of an umbilical cord and fetal parts. The usually accepted values are...
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Deep inguinal lymph nodes

The deep inguinal nodes are located within the femoral sheath, medial to the femoral vein. They receive afferent lymphatic drainage from the deep lymphatics of the distal lower extremity and perineum (e.g. glans penis / clitoris), and drain proximally into external iliac lymph nodes via channels...
Article

Deep perineal pouch

The deep perineal pouch is an anatomic space superior (deep) to the perineal membrane in the urogenital triangle of the perineum, anterior to the transverse line between the ischial tuberosities. Gross anatomy The deep perineal pouch is above (deep to) the perineal membrane in the urogenital t...
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Differential diagnosis of free fluid in cul de sac (pouch of Douglas)

The cul-de-sac, also known as the pouch of Douglas or rectouterine pouch, is an extension of the postero-inferior reflection of the peritoneal fold between the uterus (anteriorly) and rectum (posteriorly). It is the most inferior aspect of the peritoneal cavity and therefore the first location w...
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Diffuse peritoneal leiomyomatosis

Diffuse or disseminated peritoneal leiomyomatosis, also known as leiomyomatosis peritonealis disseminata, is an exceedingly rare benign disorder characterized by multiple vascular leiomyomas growing along the submesothelial tissues of the abdominopelvic peritoneum. Epidemiology It is usually d...
Article

Diffuse uterine adenomyosis

Diffuse uterine adenomyosis is the most common of uterine adenomyosis. For the discussion of adenomyosis, please refer to the parent article - adenomyosis of the uterus. Epidemiology Diffuse adenomyosis may account for ~2/3rd of uterine adenomyosis. Pathology Diffuse adenomyosis can be even ...
Article

Diffuse uterine leiomyomatosis

Diffuse uterine leiomyomatosis is a benign and extremely rare condition in which the uterus is symmetrically enlarged as a result of the almost complete replacement of the myometrium by innumerable poorly defined, confluent leiomyomatous nodules.  Clinical presentation Initial symptoms of the ...
Article

Disorders of gender development

Disorder of gender development refers to the spectrum of rare congenital conditions in where there is an atypical development of chromosomal, gonadal, or anatomic sex. They can be classified broadly into four categories on the basis of gonadal histologic features which include: female pseudohe...
Article

Dominant ovarian follicle

A dominant ovarian follicle refers to the follicle that enlarges to release an ovum during a menstural cycle. Usually approximately 10 Graafian follicles begin to mature where one becomes a dominant follicle and the rest become atretic ovarian follicles. After release of the ovum the remainder o...
Article

Dot dash pattern (ovarian dermoid cyst)

The dot-dash pattern (dermoid mesh) is one of the characteristic sonographic appearances of an ovarian dermoid cyst. It refers to the short and long echogenic lines which are often seen within a dermoid cyst and are due to the presence of hair.
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Dysgerminoma

A dysgerminoma refers to a class of tumor with germ cell origin. This can refer to: CNS dysgerminoma ovarian dysgerminoma See also germ cell tumors

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