Articles

Articles are a collaborative effort to provide a single canonical page on all topics relevant to the practice of radiology. As such, articles are written and edited by countless contributing members over a period of time. A global group of dedicated editors oversee accuracy, consulting with expert advisers, and constantly reviewing additions.

603 results found
Article

Feeding artery sign (endometrial polyp)

Feeding artery sign (a.k.a. pedicle artery sign) refers to the presence of a single feeding artery to endometrial lesion using color/power Doppler on ultrasonography. It is often seen in endometrial polyps 1. The feeding vessel indicates the stalk attachment of the polyp to the uterus. Endometr...
Article

Spinnbarkeit

Spinnbarkeit is a property of viscoelastic fluids that describes their capacity to be drawn out into an unbroken strand 1. Synonymous terms include spinnability and fibrosity. Human bodily fluids that can exhibit a degree of spinnbarkeit include mucus (especially cervical mucus), saliva and syno...
Article

Clitoral ultrasound

Clitoral ultrasound is a modality for imaging clitoral pathology, which can be the etiology of female sexual dysfunction. It can also be performed before and after gynecologic surgery to assess clitoral anatomy and blood flow. The exam involves a transperineal component. Normal ultrasound anato...
Article

Sea anemone sign

The sea anemone sign is a unique (but not wholly exclusive) appearance seen in ovarian serous surface papillary borderline tumors (SSPBT). It refers to its surface stroma frequently branches into exophytic papillary stalks, macroscopically 1. Radiographic features On cross-sectional imaging, p...
Article

Ovary size and volume

Ovary size and volume is frequently determined with ultrasound. The volume estimate is calculated by the formula for an ellipsoid, where D1, D2, and D3 are the three axial measurements: D1 x D2 x D3 x 0.52 The normal, adult, non-pregnant, mean ovary volume of women who are not postmenopausal i...
Article

Endometrial osseous metaplasia

Endometrial osseous metaplasia is a very rare pathological condition whereby there may be mature bone formation within the endometrium. This process may be a cause of menorrhagia and/or infertility. See also endocervical osseous metaplasia and cervical osseous metaplasia (may represent the sam...
Article

Endocervical microcalcifications

Endocervical microcalcifications can often be an incidental finding and may represent part of the same spectrum of endometrial microcalcifications. They are generally favored benign 1. They may be seen as tiny echogenic foci in the endocervical region on ultrasound. See also endocervical osse...
Article

IOTA-ADNEX model

The ADNEX (Assessment of Different NEoplasias in the adneXa) model is a risk model developed by the IOTA (International Ovarian Tumor Analysis) group to differentiate benign and malignant neoplasms of the ovary and, among them, four different subgroups (borderline, stage I cancer, stage II-IV ca...
Article

Adenomyomatous endometrial polyp

An adenomyomatous polyp of the endometrium is a rare form of endometrial polyp and comprises of a pedunculated lesion that contains smooth muscle in addition to the usual components of an endometrial polyp. On outer examination, they may be difficult to differentiate from ordinary endometrial po...
Article

Pelvic organ prolapse

Pelvic organ prolapse refers to a pathological downward herniation of various pelvic organ structures into or through the perineum. It usually results from a pelvic floor weakness by impairment of various ligaments, fasciae, and muscles that support the pelvic organs. The prolapse can include o...
Article

Subseptate uterus

A subseptate uterus is a mild form congenital uterine anomaly (often considered as a normal variant) where there is a presence of a partial septum within the uterus not extending to the cervix and with the central point of the septum at an acute (<90°) angle. The external uterine contour is unif...
Article

Myometrial arterial calcification

Myometrial arterial calcification are thought to increase with advancing age and may represent calcification of radial or arcuate arteries of the uterus.  They may have an increased association with atherosclerosis elsewhere. Radiographic features Ultrasound They may be seen as hyperechoic m...
Article

Uterine restricted diffusion

Uterine restricted diffusion refers to a hyperintense signal involving the endometrium, myometrium, or cervix on DWI images with a corresponding low signal on ADC images, with a mean cut-off ADC value for malignancy of 1.15 x 10-3 mm2/s 7. Endometrial restricted diffusion malignant endometrial...
Article

CT abdomen-pelvis (protocol)

The CT abdomen-pelvis protocol serves as an outline for an examination of the whole abdomen including the pelvis. It is one of the most common CT protocols for any clinical questions related to the abdomen and/or in routine and emergencies. It forms also an integral part of trauma and oncologic ...
Article

CT pelvis (protocol)

The CT pelvis protocol serves as an outline for the acquisition of a pelvic CT. As a separate examination, it might be performed as a non-contrast or contrast study or might be combined with a CT hip or rarely with a CT cystogram. A pelvic CT might be also conducted as a part of other scans such...
Article

Differential diagnosis for PV bleeding (non-pregnant patients)

Per vaginal (PV) bleeding in a non-pregnant patient is a common clinical presentation with a multitude of causes. The potential causes vary with the patient's menstrual status. A well-known mnemonic is found here. Premenopausal fibroids cervical cancer adenomyosis endometriosis polycystic...
Article

Urogenital diaphragm

The urogenital diaphragm is an incorrect historic term describing a structure or structures in the perineum. The term is still in occasional use despite not appearing in Terminologia Anatomica. Most descriptions of the diaphragm relate to a discoid space between the superficial and deep fasciae...
Article

Modified Golan classification of ovarian hyperstimulation syndrome

The modified Golan classification of ovarian hyperstimulation syndrome, employing clinical findings and imaging appearances, is used to categorize ovarian hyperstimulation syndrome (OHSS) into the following three categories of severity with five grades 1,2: mild OHSS: characterized by bilateral...
Article

Ectopic ovary

Ectopic ovaries are a rare ovarian abnormality. Supernumerary ovaries contain normal ovarian tissue in an ectopic location with a ligamentous attachment 1. Epidemiology  A few of the etiological explanations of ectopic ovary include embryologic origin, post-inflammatory implantation of ovarian...
Article

Adnexa (female pelvis)

The adnexa, or more formally the adnexa uteri, and also known as the uterine appendages, is a collective term for the: ovaries fallopian tubes broad ligaments Some texts also include the associated blood vessels, nerves and other supporting tissues in the definition. It is interesting to not...
Article

Viscera

The viscera (singular: viscus) refers to all the internal organs within the major cavities of the thorax, abdomen and pelvis. Therefore it does not include organs of the CNS, head and neck or musculoskeletal compartments nor does it encompass non-internal organs (e.g. the skin) 1. Splanchnology...
Article

Accessory and cavitated uterine mass (ACUM)

Accessory and cavitated uterine mass (ACUM) is a rare uterine anomaly comprised of an accessory uterus-like mass in the uterus along the wall but with no communication to the main uterus. Clinical presentation This pathology generally presents at a young age (before 30 years) with pelvic pain ...
Article

Acute non-traumatic abdominal pain in pregnancy

Acute non-traumatic abdominal pain in pregnancy requires a considered imaging approach due to the increased risks of fetal demise associated with undiagnosed diseases such as perforated acute appendicitis. Ultrasound is the first-line modality due to its wide availability and ability to diagnose...
Article

Abdominal pain in pregnancy protocol (MRI)

The abdominal pain in pregnancy MRI protocol encompasses a set of MRI sequences for assessment of causes of non-traumatic abdominal pain in pregnancy. Note: This article aims to frame a general concept of an MRI protocol for the assessment of the abdomen in pregnancy. Protocol specifics will va...
Article

Couvelaire uterus

Couvelaire uterus is a rare, non-fatal but severe complication of placental abruption.  Epidemiology Its incidence is ~5% in all cases of placental abruption 1.  Pathology It is caused by the seeping of blood/hematic infiltrate into the decidua basalis emerging as massive hematoma retroplace...
Article

Suspensory ligament of the ovary

The suspensory ligament of the ovary is a thin fold of the parietal peritoneum which attaches to the lateral margin of the ovary and extends to the lateral pelvic sidewall. It is also referred to as the infundibulopelvic ligament 1,2. It should not to be confused with the ovarian ligament which ...
Article

Neuroendocrine carcinoma of the cervix

Neuroendocrine carcinoma of the cervix is a rare type of invasive cervical cancer. These are very aggressive tumors with rapid lymph nodal metastasis 1,2. Epidemiology Neuroendocrine carcinomas of the cervix account for approximately ~2% of tumors of the cervix seen in the females of reproduct...
Article

Ovarian-Adnexal Reporting and Data System (O-RADS)

The Ovarian-Adnexal Imaging Reporting and Data System, (O-RADS), aims to ensure that there are uniform unambiguous sonographic and MRI evaluations of ovarian or other adnexal lesions, accurately assigning each lesion to a risk category of malignancy being present, and which informs the appropria...
Article

Follicular ring sign

The follicular ring sign is considered as a characteristic sonographic sign for early diagnosis of ovarian torsion 1. It is defined as prominent (1-2 mm thick) hyperechoic margin seen concentrically around the antral follicles of the torsed ovary, which are usually small (3‐ to 7‐mm) and periphe...
Article

Cellular angiofibroma

Cellular angiofibromas are benign densely vascularized fibroblastic neoplasms usually found in the lower genital tract specifically vulva, vagina or perineum in women and the scrotum or groin in men. Epidemiology Cellular angiofibromas are rare tumors found in the adult population. There is no...
Article

Angiomyofibroblastoma

Angiomyofibroblastomas are benign mesenchymal neoplasms usually found in the pelvis or perineum especially the vulva. Epidemiology Angiomyofibroblastomas are uncommon tumors predominantly found in adult women usually between menarche and menopause. Approximately 10% of these tumors have been d...
Article

Myometritis

Myometritis describes inflammation of the myometrium. It can fall under the broader umbrella term of pelvic inflammatory disease and can often be associated with endometritis. It can arise in a variety of situations with puerperal situations being the most common. In some situations, puerperal i...
Article

Ovarian-Adnexal Reporting and Data System Magnetic Resonance Imaging (O-RADS MRI)

The Ovarian-Adnexal Reporting and Data System Magnetic Resonance Imaging (O-RADS MRI) forms the MRI component of the Ovarian-Adnexal Reporting and Data System (O-RADS). This system aims to ensure that there is a uniform, unambiguous MRI evaluation of ovarian or other adnexal lesions, accurately ...
Article

Intrapelvic cup migration

Intrapelvic cup migration is a serious complication after total hip arthroplasty, in which the prosthetic acetabular cup migrates or drifts into the pelvic inlet. Epidemiology Fortunately, this complication is very rare. There seems to be a female predisposition 1-3. Risk factors Factors inc...
Article

Chevron sign (endopelvic fascial defect)

The chevron sign refers to the appearance caused on axial pelvic MR images by posterior drooping of the posterolateral wall(s) of the upper third of the vagina, due to loss of integrity of the lateral level 1 endopelvic fascia.
Article

Endopelvic fascia

The endopelvic fascia is the enveloping connective tissue network for the pelvic viscera, suspending, supporting and fusing the pelvic organs to the arcus tendineus fasciae pelvis, which itself inserts onto the pelvic sidewalls and pubic bones. The major anterior component is the pubovesical li...
Article

H and M lines (pelvic floor)

The H and M lines are reference lines for the pelvic floor on imaging studies and help detect and grade pelvic floor prolapse on defecography studies. The H line is drawn from the inferior margin of the pubic symphysis to the posterior aspect of the anorectal junction, and represents the diamet...
Article

Waist sign hydrosalpinx

The waist sign arises from the folding of a distended tube upon itself producing indentations on diametrically opposite sides. The waist sign is specific for hydrosalpinx and virtually pathognomonic when seen in association with a tubular-shaped cystic mass. See also cogwheel sign beads on a ...
Article

Vulvodynia

Vulvodynia ​is defined as chronic pain of the vulva of at least three months duration, without an obviously identifiable cause and it is a diagnosis of exclusion and a form of idiopathic pain disorder 1,2. Epidemiology The incidence of vulvodynia was reported to be ~5% (range 4-8%) in reproduc...
Article

Vulval varices

Vulvar varices are dilated superficial veins of the external female genitalia, which are primarily seen during pregnancy and usually resolve spontaneously postpartum. Epidemiology Vulvar varicosities are seen in up to 4% of pregnant females in the vulvar and perivulvar region, and rarely seen ...
Article

Uterine inversion

Uterine inversion is a rare condition in which the uterus is essentially turned inside out. There are two types: "puerperal" (within six weeks of childbirth) and "non-puerperal". The reason for uterine inversion is unclear. In the puerperal form, it is theorized that excessive traction on the um...
Article

Luteoma of pregnancy

Luteomas of pregnancy are a rare non-neoplastic condition in which luteinized stroll cells in the ovary markedly increase in size. Luteomas are hormonally active, and produce testosterone resulting in maternal and potentially fetal hirsutism and virilization. Epidemiology More common in both m...
Article

Deep endometriosis (transvaginal ultrasound)

Transvaginal ultrasound (TV) for deep endometriosis is a specialized ultrasound technique used for the detection of deep endometriosis (DE). It differs from a traditional pelvic ultrasound in that the scan is extended beyond the uterus and ovaries to assess the anterior and posterior pelvic comp...
Article

Pubococcygeal line

The pubococcygeal line (PCL) is a reference line for the pelvic floor on imaging studies and helps detect and grade pelvic floor prolapse in defecography studies. It is defined as a line that joins the inferior border of the symphysis pubis to the final coccygeal joint and it is drawn in a midli...
Article

Complex adnexal mass - differential diagnosis (mnemonic)

A mnemonic for the differential diagnosis of complex adnexal masses is: CHEETAH Mnemonic C: cystadenoma/cystadenocarcinoma (serous and mucinous) H: hemorrhagic ovarian cyst E: endometrioma E: ectopic pregnancy T: teratoma/torsion A: abscess (tubo-ovarian) H: hydrosalpinx/hematosalpinx (...
Article

Filling defect

A filling defect is a general term used to refer to any abnormality on an imaging study which disrupts the normal opacification (filling) of a cavity or lumen. The opacification maybe physiological, for example, bile in the gallbladder or blood in a dural venous sinus, or maybe due to the instal...
Article

Torsion of subserosal leiomyoma of the uterus

Torsion of subserosal leiomyoma of the uterus refers to the twisting of the attached pedicle of a pedunculated subserous leiomyoma of the uterus with subsequent ischemia, necrosis and gangrene 1.  Clinical presentation acute abdominal pain GIT symptoms (e.g diarrhea) tenderness in the lower ...
Article

Floating balls sign

The floating balls sign refers to the appearance of multiple mobile globules/spherules of solid, usually fatty, tissue within an adnexal cyst. It is pathognomonic for ovarian mature cystic teratoma 1,2.  Terminology Alternative names include the meatballs 3, truffle sign 4, and boba sign 13. ...
Article

Frozen pelvis

Frozen pelvis refers to a condition in which pelvic organs are distorted and tethered to each other as a consequence of adhesive processes. It is commonly seen in endometriosis. Other causes include tumors, infections including pelvic inflammatory disease, post-surgical adhesions and post-treat...
Article

Ampulla (disambiguation)

Ampulla (plural: ampullae) is an anatomical term used for tubular structures with a short segmental bulbous dilatation: ampulla (fallopian tube) ampulla (lacrimal system) ampulla (esophagus): a.k.a. phrenic ampulla ampulla (rectum) ampulla (semicircular ducts) ampulla (spleen) ampulla of ...
Article

Clitoris

The clitoris (plural: clitorides), the female homologue of the penis, and part of the female reproductive system, is situated at the anterior aspect of the labia minora. The clitoris, like the penis, is formed of a body and glans, formed respectively from the crura of the clitoris and the bulbs ...
Article

Bulbs of the vestibule

The bulbs of the vestibule (also known as the vestibular, vestibulovaginal or clitoral bulbs) are conglomerations of erectile soft tissue, collectively homologous to the bulb of the penis. However unlike in the male, the developing bulb is bisected by the vaginal opening to form two halves. The...
Article

Vaginal opening

The vaginal opening, is also known as the introitus (plural: introituses), vaginal orifice, or ostium vaginae (plural: ostia vaginarum) (TA) . Gross anatomy The entrance to the vagina lies in the vestibule of the vulva in the median plane. It has an anteroposterior orientation and is partially...
Article

Cesarean section

Cesarean section (also known as C-section, CS and C/S) is the most frequently done major abdominal surgery in females, performed to deliver a baby as an alternative to normal vaginal delivery 1.  Surgical technique Many forms of cesarean section have been described, but the most popular variat...
Article

Inguinal lymph nodes

The inguinal lymph nodes (often shortened to the inguinal nodes) are a major group of lymph nodes in the lymphatic system. They are the major drainage pathway of the lower limbs, genitals, dorsal perineum and the inferior most aspect of the anterior abdominal wall. Inguinal lymph nodes larger th...
Article

Metastases to myometrium

Metastases to the myometrium is an uncommon situation but has been occasionally reported with extrauterine cancers such as breast cancer 4  (considered commonest primary site) and colon cancer (e.g. sigmoid colon 3). Differential diagnosis Possible differential considerations include primary ...
Article

Agenesis (general)

The biological/medical term agenesis (plural: ageneses) refers to failure of an organ to grow or develop during the embryological period. Examples include: appendiceal agenesis cerebellar agenesis corpus callosum agenesis dental agenesis (anodontia) diaphragmatic agenesis dorsal pancreati...
Article

Ovarian-Adnexal Reporting and Data System Ultrasound (O-RADS US)

The Ovarian-Adnexal Reporting and Data System Ultrasound (O-RADS US) forms the ultrasound component of the Ovarian-Adnexal Reporting and Data System (O-RADS). This system aims to ensure that there are uniform unambiguous sonographic evaluations of ovarian or other adnexal lesions, accurately ass...
Article

Hernia (general)

Hernias (or herniae) are a common pathological entity, in which an anatomical structure passes into an abnormal location via an opening. The opening may be a normal physiological aperture (e.g. hiatus hernia: stomach passes through the diaphragmatic esophageal hiatus) or pathological. Iatrogeni...
Article

Urethral caruncle

Urethral caruncles are the most common urethral lesion in postmenopausal women. Epidemiology The lesion accounts for >90% of urethral masses in postmenopausal women 2. Clinical presentation Most women are asymptomatic, but caruncles can cause pain, dysuria or bleeding 4. On physical examinat...
Article

Hysterectomy

Hysterectomy (plural: hysterectomies), the surgical resection of the uterus, is the most commonly performed gynecological procedure in the USA 3. It is usually performed electively. Epidemiology Approximately 600,000 hysterectomies are performed in the United States annually. After Cesarean se...
Article

Uterine venous plexus

The uterine venous plexus is a network of veins surrounding the uterus and has extensive anastomoses with the vaginal venous plexus inferiorly and ovarian venous plexuses laterally. Gross anatomy The uterine venous plexus lies along the lateral aspects and superior angles of the uterus within ...
Article

Rectovaginal fistula

Rectovaginal fistulae are a type of colovaginal fistula where there is an abnormal fistulous connection between the rectum and the vagina. It is considered the most common gastrointestinal fistula involving the female genital tract 1. Pathology They can occur from a number of causes that inclu...
Article

Surgical positions

There are various classic surgical positions for patients to be placed in for procedures, which have been adopted/repurposed for interventional radiology and some diagnostic procedures: lithotomy position Trendelenburg position reverse Trendelenburg position lateral decubitus position Litho...
Article

Acute abdominal pain

Acute abdominal pain is a common acute presentation in clinical practice. It encompasses a very broad range of possible etiologies and diagnoses, and imaging is routinely employed as the primary investigative tool in its modern management. Terminology A subgroup of patients with acute abdomina...
Article

Uterosacral ligament

The paired uterosacral ligaments are one of the supporting structures of the uterus. Uterosacral ligaments are not infrequently affected in cases of deep infiltrating endometriosis. Gross anatomy The paired uterosacral ligaments are extraperitoneal structures which extend posteriorly from the ...
Article

Round ligament of the uterus

The round ligament is one of the supporting structures of the uterus. It has a function in uterine anteflexion. Embryology It is part of the embryologic remnant of the gubernaculum. Gross anatomy It is a rope-like fibromuscular band which extends from the anterolateral aspect of the uterus a...
Article

Abdominal distension (mnemonic)

A mnemonic for causes of abdominal distension (6 Fs) is: F: fat F: fluid  F: flatus F: feces  F: fetus F: fulminant mass
Article

Pyrexia

Pyrexia (or fever) is a clinical sign, indicated by an abnormally elevated core body temperature, which is defined by several medical societies as ≥38.3°C (≥≈101°F). The temperature elevation may be persistent or episodic. If the body temperature is greater than 41.5°C - a rare phenomenon - it i...
Article

Fallopian (disambiguation)

The eponym Fallopian may refer to: Fallopian canal (facial nerve canal) Fallopian tube (uterine duct) Fallopian ligament (inguinal ligament) History and etymology It is named after Gabriele Falloppio (also known by his Latin name Fallopius), Italian anatomist (1523-1562).
Article

String of pearls sign (ovary)

The string of pearls (or beads) sign in the ovary is the ultrasound sign of multiple small (<5 mm) follicles peripherally located in the gonad. It is typically seen in polycystic ovaries, and is thought to represent abnormal accumulation of immature follicles. This morphologic appearance howeve...
Article

Isthmus (disambiguation)

Isthmus (plural: isthmi) is an anatomical term and refers to a slender structure joining two larger components. Some of these uses of the word isthmus are now rarely used or only seen in older texts and articles: isthmus (aorta) isthmus (auditory tube) isthmus (auricle of the ear) isthmus (c...
Article

1-2-3 rule (ovary)

The 1-2-3 rule is a simple aide-mémoire describing the nomenclature of any small simple anechoic structure in the ovary on ultrasound: <1 cm = follicle 1-2 cm = dominant follicle >3 cm = cyst
Article

Metastases to the uterus

Metastases to the uterus is a rare occurrence accounting for less than 10% of all cases of metastases to the female genital tract from extragenital cancers 3. The endometrium is reported to be even less frequently affected by metastases.  Uterine metastases however can occur from a number of si...
Article

Leiomyolipoma

Leiomyolipomas are rare benign tumors of the uterus, similar to leiomyomas, except that they contain bulk fat. Epidemiology Leiomyolipomas are typically found in postmenopausal women, on a background of additional leiomyomas 1. Clinical presentation The majority are asymptomatic and discover...
Article

Kissing ovaries sign

The kissing ovaries sign refers to the appearance seen when both ovaries are located in close proximity or are touching each other in the pouch of Douglas, usually due to pelvic adhesions, and may be seen on ultrasound, CT or MRI. This sign is most frequently associated with the severe form of ...
Article

Venous intravasation

Venous intravasation is the unintended introduction of radiographic contrast material into the local venous system. It is a well-recognized phenomenon during retrograde urethrograms 1,2 and hysterosalpingograms (HSG), although can occur with other invasive procedures in the vicinity of venous pl...
Article

Beads on a string sign (chronic salpingitis)

The beads-on-a-string sign is used to refer to the classic morphologic changes in the Fallopian tubes as a result of chronic salpingitis.    Terminology The "string" alludes to the notably thin salpingeal wall, while the hyperechoic mural nodules constitute the "beads" 1. Radiographic feature...
Article

Fistula

A fistula (plural: fistulae or fistulas) is an abnormal connection between two epithelial surfaces such as between hollow organs, skin or vessels. Conventionally, the name of a specific fistula type is a combination of the two organs. For discussions of specific fistulae please refer to individu...
Article

Sliding sign

The loss of the normal sliding sign is a dynamic sonographic sign performed during transvaginal ultrasound (TVS) of women with suspected pelvic peritoneal endometriosis. It indicates pouch of Douglas (POD) involvement and obliteration and is suggestive of deep infiltrating endometriosis (DIE). ...
Article

Lipiodol

Lipiodol (also known as ethiodized oil) is an oil-based iodinated contrast medium that was historically used for myelography and hysterosalpingography 1. It was later superseded by newer, less hazardous, agents, and now is used primarily as a therapeutic agent. Guerbet is now the sole manufactur...
Article

FIGO classification system for the causes of abnormal uterine bleeding in non-gravid women of reproductive age (mnemonic)

The FIGO classification system for the causes of abnormal uterine bleeding in non-gravid women of reproductive age has a mnemonic at its core 1: PALM-COEIN The "PALM" causes are considered structural and the "COEIN" (coin) causes are considered non-structural. Mnemonic P: polyp A: adenomyos...
Article

Venetian blind appearance (uterus)

The Venetian blind (a.k.a. rain shower 2) appearance is a sonographic finding that is typically associated with adenomyosis but can also occur in uterine fibroids. The Venetian blind appearance associated with adenomyosis is typically "thin" whereas when associated with uterine fibroids, there a...
Article

Labeled imaging anatomy cases

This article lists a series of labeled imaging anatomy cases by body region and modality. Brain CT head: non-contrast axial CT head: non-contrast coronal CT head: non-contrast sagittal CT head: angiogram axial CT head: angiogram coronal CT head: angiogram sagittal CT head: venogram axial...
Article

Whirlpool sign (ovarian torsion)

The whirlpool sign or whirl sign of ovarian torsion is characterized by the appearances of a twisted ovarian pedicle seen on US or even on CT.  Terminology The term whirlpool sign is used in other contexts: see whirlpool sign (disambiguation). Radiographic features It appears as twisting of ...
Article

CA 27-29

CA 27-29 is a tumor marker and is a soluble form of glycoprotein MUC1. It may be elevated in patients with breast cancer. Tumors of the colon, stomach, kidney, lung, ovary, pancreas, uterus, and liver may also raise CA 27-29 levels. Certain non-malignant conditions are also associated with its ...
Article

Vestibule of the vulva

The vestibule of the vulva (vestibule of the vagina in some texts 2) is the area between the labia minora, and posterior to the glans of the clitoris. It marks the boundary between the vagina and the vulva. The urethra, vagina and the greater vestibular glands open out into the vestibule.
Article

Hymen

The hymen (plural: hymens) is a thin fold of mucous membrane which extends across the vaginal opening, usually with some form of internal defect, which permits the free passage of normal menses.  It usually ruptures during coitus with the remnants, usually in the form of small tags of tissue ar...
Article

Frenulum (disambiguation)

Frenulum (plural: frenula) is an anatomical term and refers to a small fold of soft tissue that checks the movement of an anatomical part. frenulum (clitoris) frenulum (ileocecal valve) frenulum (labia minora) frenulum (penis) frenulum (tongue) History and etymology Frenulum derives from ...
Article

Labia minora

The labia minora (singular: labium minus) are small glabrous cutaneous folds lying between and just superior to the labia majora. At their posterior margin the labia may be conjoined by a thin cutaneous fold of skin, the frenulum of the labia (also known as the fourchette or posterior commissure...
Article

Labia majora

The labia majora (singular: labium majus) form the anteroinferior most part of the vulva, they are continuous with the mons pubis anteriorly and the perineum posteriorly. The labia are apposed in the midline forming the, externally-visible, pudendal cleft.  Gross anatomy The labia majora have ...
Article

Paraurethral duct

The paraurethral ducts (or Skene ducts) drain the paraurethral glands of the female urethra. There is one duct, draining each gland, on each side, just proximal to the external urethral meatus. History and etymology  Skene ducts are named after the Scottish-American gynecologist Alexander John...
Article

Mons pubis

The mons pubis (plural: montes pubis) refers to the rounded protuberant skin-covered soft tissue overlying the symphysis pubis (in both sexes). It is most prominent in adult females. In females it forms the most superior part of the vulva and it is also called the mons Veneris (plural: montes V...

Updating… Please wait.

 Unable to process the form. Check for errors and try again.

 Thank you for updating your details.