Articles

Articles are a collaborative effort to provide a single canonical page on all topics relevant to the practice of radiology. As such, articles are written and edited by countless contributing members over a period of time. A global group of dedicated editors oversee accuracy, consulting with expert advisers, and constantly reviewing additions.

4,007 results found
Article

Monkeypox

Monkeypox is a rare zoonosis caused by an orthopoxvirus and in general, produces a mild flu-like illness and rash in humans. Virologically and clinically the condition is similar to smallpox, the first viral disease to be eradicated by humans. In 2022, a new outbreak of monkeypox was identified ...
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Speed test (shoulder)

A speed test is a clinical tests in assessing the shoulder.  In this test examiner places the patient's arm in shoulder flexion, external rotation, full elbow extension, and forearm supination. Manual resistance is then applied by the examiner in a downward direction or the patient is asked to ...
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Cyanosis

Cyanosis (plural: cyanoses) is a physical sign represented by bluish discolouration of the skin. It indicates there is reduced oxygen bound to red blood cells in the bloodstream. Diagnosis of the underlying cause of cyanosis is based on a thorough history and physical examination. Pathology Et...
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Holstein-Lewis fracture

Holstein-Lewis fractures represent a special type of humeral shaft fracture. It is a simple spiral fracture of the distal humerus with a radial displacement of the distal fragment 1,3,4. These fractures are reported to have a higher rate of radial nerve palsy when compared to other humeral shaft...
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Complications of radiation therapy

Radiation therapy has the potential to cause complications in many organ systems, many of which, especially in the thorax, are important for radiologists to be aware of.  acute radiation syndrome complications of cranial radiation therapy radiation-induced cerebral vasculopathy radiation-ind...
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Tetanus

Tetanus is a rare vaccine-preventable disease caused by Clostridium tetani, a ubiquitous soil bacterium which contaminates open wounds. It secretes a powerful neurotoxin which degrades neuromuscular junction function, producing muscle spasms and, despite intensive intervention, is often fatal. ...
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Tronzo classification of trochanteric fractures

The Tronzo classification of trochanteric fractures is a classification system used when assessing intertrochanteric fractures. The Tronzo classification is proposed to provide a guide to the management of these fractures. Due to its simplicity, the Tronzo classification has become the preferr...
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Vinyl chloride toxicity

Vinyl chloride toxicity (and polyvinyl chloride) may rarely result from occupational exposure, most notably manifesting as chronic liver disease and rare hepatic malignancies. However due to strict regulation of the industrial manufacturing and processing of vinyl chloride since the 1970s, signi...
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Herbert classification of scaphoid fractures

The Herbert classification of scaphoid fractures, also known as the Herbert and Fisher classification, is one of the most frequently used classification systems when assessing scaphoid fractures. The Herbert classification is proposed to provide a guide to the management of these fractures. Cl...
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Ground glass (disambiguation)

The term ground glass may be used to refer to: ground glass opacity (lungs) ground glass matrix of fibrous dysplasia
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Matrix (bone)

The matrix (plural: matrices) of the bone is used in a general pathological context to refer to the extracellular material in which the cellular components of the bone lie. Indeed the term extracellular matrix, often shortened to matrix, is used for the secreted extracellular components of any t...
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Bone Reporting and Data System (Bone-RADS)

The Bone Reporting and Data System (Bone-RADS) is an algorithm developed and proposed by the Practice Guidelines and Technical Standards Committee of the Society of Skeletal Radiology for the diagnostic workup of incidentally encountered solitary bone lesions in adults on MRI and/or CT 1. Class...
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Subperiosteal hematoma

A subperiosteal hematoma occurs between the periosteum and the cortex of a bone and is therefore geographically limited to the affected bone. Clinical presentation Clinical presentation varies with location. Subperiosteal hematomas have been described in the calvarium, iliac bone, humerus, fem...
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Pudendal nerve entrapment syndrome

Pudendal nerve entrapment (PNE) syndrome is a rare and under-diagnosed condition associated with chronic pain, sexual dysfunction and impaired sphincter control due to compression of the pudendal nerve.   Anatomy The pudendal nerve arises from S2-S4 roots of the sacral plexus, carrying both s...
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Practical classification of forearm fractures

The practical classification of forearm fractures is a simple descriptive classification system commonly used when assessing forearm fractures, especially in the pediatric population. Although simple, the classification provides a good guide to the management. These characteristics allow for a ...
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V sign of interphalangeal joint dislocation

The V sign is characterized on a lateral radiograph of the digit by the separation of the dorsal base of the dislocated phalanx and the head of the phalanx proximal to the incongruent joint 1,2. Before reduction, the V sign might be assessed to identify more subtle dorsal subluxations 1. If th...
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Scapulothoracic bursa

Scapulothoracic bursae refer to a number of bursae that allow for the gliding movement of the scapulothoracic joint. Two major bursae have been reliably described 1,3: infraserratus (scapulothoracic) bursa: between the serratus anterior muscle and the chest wall supraserratus (subscapularis) ...
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Green and O'Brien classification of thumb metacarpal fractures

The Green and O'Brien classification of thumb metacarpal fractures is a commonly used classification system when assessing thumb metacarpal fractures. However, since most types of fractures coincide with famous eponymous fractures, the system itself isn't usually used properly, giving preferenc...
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Subperiosteal abscess

Subperiosteal abscesses refer to the subperiosteal spread of infection characterized by purulent encapsulated fluid collections within the subperiosteal space. Epidemiology Subperiosteal abscesses are more often seen in children than in adults 1,2. Associations Subperiosteal abscesses have b...
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Ulcer (soft tissue)

An ulcer refers to the break in the skin, epithelium, or mucous membrane resulting in the discontinuity in the surface tissue, necrosis, and often pus formation 1. Risk factors immunocompromised (e.g. diabetics) 1 immobile patients 1,2 advanced age 2 poor nutrition 2 increased moisture 2 ...
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Intraosseous abscess

Intraosseous abscess refers to the pus-filled cavity within the bone with the surrounding rim of granulation tissue 1. Terminology The term intraosseous abscess should be used for fluid-signal cavities within the bone showing peripheral rim enhancement or show a penumbra sign or diffusion rest...
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Planar wort

Planar worts or plantar verruca refer to superficially based benign epithelial lesions occurring in the dermal / subdermal layers of the skin.  Pathology They are thought to be caused by infection by human papillomavirus types 1, 2, 4, 60, or 63 and sometimes by types 57, 65, 66, nd 156. Radi...
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Mayo classification of olecranon fractures

The Mayo classification of olecranon fractures is one of the most frequently used classification systems when assessing olecranon fractures. The Mayo classification can be used to aid in treatment choice. Mayo type II and III fractures usually require operative treatment. Classification The M...
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Devitalised soft tissue

Devitalised soft tissue occurs in diabetic feet or peripheral vascular disease, particularly deep to and around ulcers. Terminology Devitalised soft tissue is preferred to necrotic or ischemic soft tissue as the current understanding (c. 2022) is whether MRI appearances truly reflect necrosis ...
Article

Sinus tract

Sinus tracts are an abnormal connection between a fluid collection with a mucous mucosal surface and/or skin 1,2. It can result from acute or chronic processes and occasionally extend into the joints and bones 1. Terminology The term sinus tract is non-specific; however, when used in soft tiss...
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Floating knee

A floating knee refers to ipsilateral fractures of both femoral and tibial shafts. These are relatively rare injuries with reported poor outcomes. Clinical presentation The usual presentation is a combined closed midshaft femoral fracture and open midshaft tibial fracture. Vascular injury is p...
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Prognathism

Prognathism or mandibular prognathism refers to a type of morphological jaw positional anomaly in which the lower jaw protrudes ahead of the upper jaw. This results in an extended chin and dental malocclusion. It can be associated with certain conditions such as acromegaly syphilis - late cong...
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Subscapularis tendon tear

Subscapularis tendon tears are a less common rotator cuff tear, and have been considered more difficult to diagnose pre-operatively (both clinically and radiological) and have been known as a "hidden lesion" 5. Accurate pre-operative diagnosis is important as it affects the surgical approach and...
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Infectious tenosynovitis

Infectious or septic tenosynovitis refers to an infection of the closed synovial tendon sheath 1-3. Terminology The term ‘infectious or septic tenosynovitis’ applies for tendons with a tendon sheath, for tendons without a tendon sheath with a paratenon the term ‘infective paratenonitis’ can be...
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Soft tissue abscess

Soft tissue abscesses are focal or localized collections of pus caused by bacteria or other pathogens surrounded by a peripheral rim or abscess membrane found within the soft tissues in any part of the body 1. Soft tissue abscesses include subcutaneous abscesses, intramuscular abscesses and int...
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Foot (DP talus view)

The medial oblique axial talus view, also known as the Canale view, is a specialized projection of the talus bone, more specifically the talar neck. Indications This view is specifically indicated when assessing talar neck fracture and/or their follow-up. It is particularly useful to assess va...
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Robinson classification of clavicle fractures

The Robinson classification of clavicle fractures, as well as the AO/OTA and Neer classification systems, is a frequently used classification system for assessing clavicular fractures. The Robinson classification is based on a review of a thousand patients and was developed to provide a guide t...
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Center edge angle of Wiberg

The center-edge angle (CEA) of Wiberg is a measurement in the pelvis which is the angle formed by Perkin line and a line from the center of the femoral head to the lateral edge of the acetabulum. It can be used to assess for conditions such as developmental dysplasia of the hip although only con...
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Aggressive versus non-aggressive bone lesions (radiographs)

Bone lesions are generally characterized as either aggressive versus non-aggressive bone lesions, with radiographs forming much of an initial assessment.  Imaging features When describing a bone lesion, some of its features reflect its biological activity. These characteristics include zone of...
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Cruciate ligament tears (knee)

The cruciate ligaments of the knee commonly tear: anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) tear the ACL is the most commonly torn knee ligament 1 posterior cruciate ligament (PCL) tear tears of the PCL are less common and usually less significant 2
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Talocrural angle

The talocrural angle can be used to assess for fibular shortening after a fracture. Measurement The talocrural angle is measured on the mortise view as the angle between a line along the distal tibial plafond articular surface and another line joining the tips of both malleoli 3,4.  Interpret...
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First metatarsal declination angle

The first metatarsal declination angle can be used to assess for metatarsus primus elevatus in hallux rigidus.  Measurement The first metatarsal declination angle is formed between the longitudinal axis of the first metatarsal and the supporting surface 1-4.  Interpretation normal: 20-21° 1-...
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Patellofemoral angle

The patellofemoral angle is a measure of patellar tilt and is useful in the diagnosis of patellofemoral instability and excessive lateral pressure syndrome.  Measurement The patellofemoral angle is formed between a line drawn along the bony lateral patellar facet and another line drawn along t...
Article

Regional migratory osteoporosis

Regional migratory osteoporosis is a rare arthralgia affecting the weight-bearing joints of the lower limb.  Epidemiology Regional migratory osteoporosis is most common in middle-aged men 1. Clinical presentation The classic clinical presentation is a history of non-traumatic joint pain, whi...
Article

Ilizarov apparatus

The Ilizarov apparatus (aka Ilizarov frame) is an external metallic orthopedic fixation device used to length or reshape limbs from congenital deformity or following injury. The procedure was pioneered by the Polish surgeon Gavrill Abramovich Ilizarov.  
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Comma sign of subscapularis tear

The comma sign of subscapularis tear was first described on arthroscopy but recognized later on MRI. The comma sign represents a full thickness partial width superior subscapularis tear along with torn superior glenohumeral and coracohumeral ligament insertional fibers vertically retracted via a...
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Broden's view

The Broden's view (or Broden view) is a specialized projection that accurately 1 examines the large posterior calcaneal facet and the subtalar joint 2. As technology advances, computed tomography (CT) has widely been used to better visualize and characterize fragment displacements and fracture ...
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Fourth-fifth intermetatarsal angle

The fourth-fifth intermetatarsal angle is used to assess for a bunionette deformity. It should not be confused with the first intermetatarsal angle, used to assess for hallux valgus deformity.  Measurement The fourth-fifth intermetatarsal angle is formed between the long axis of the fourth and...
Article

Friedman line

The Friedman or scapular line can be used to determine glenoid version and glenoid bone loss 4. Glenoid version angle measured by the Friedman method has better inter-reader reliability than the scapular body method 2.  Measurement The Friedman line is drawn along the long axis of the scapula ...
Article

AP Meary's angle

AP Meary's angle or AP talus-first metatarsal angle is used to assess for midfoot abduction/adduction in pes planus and pes cavus to assist with pre-operative planning 1.  Measurement On a weight-bearing AP foot radiograph, a line is drawn down the longitudinal axis of the first metatarsal to ...
Article

Posterior tibial line

The posterior tibial line is drawn along the posterior aspect of the distal tibial shaft on a lateral ankle x-ray and can be used to assess the sagittal alignment of the talus when comparing side-to-side and/or calculate the posterior tibial line-talar ratio 1,2.
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Tuli classification of occipital condyle fractures

The Tuli classification of occipital condyle fractures is a clinically-oriented system for describing these injuries based on fracture displacement and ligamentous injury. It is newer than the more well-known Anderson and Montesano classification of occipital condyle fractures and allows the inc...
Article

Hair

Hair (TA: pilus/pili) remains important physiologically and psychologically for humans. The hair shaft develops from a structure known as the hair follicle. Each hair has an arrector pili muscle and both sensory and sympathetic neural connections. Gross anatomy The hair shaft (TA: stipes pili)...
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Tram-track sign (knee)

The tram-track sign refers to the posterior cruciate ligament (PCL) appearance when it has a diffuse or partial thickening of the anteroposterior diameter greater than 7 mm. It is associated with longitudinal intraligamentous signal abnormalities showing fluid signal characteristics (hyperintens...
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Medial cuneiform to second metatarsal distance

Medial cuneiform to second metatarsal distance is the measurement of the distance between the lateral aspect of the medial cuneiform and the medial aspect of the base of the second metatarsal bone 1,2. Usage Medial cuneiform to second metatarsal distance is an important measurement used in ass...
Article

Post-traumatic pseudolipoma

Post-traumatic pseudolipomas, also known as post-traumatic lipohypertrophy, are prominent increases in the volume of subcutaneous adipose tissue or even benign tumors arising at the location of a preceding blunt soft tissue trauma 1. Clinical presentation Focal palpable mass, not tender and wi...
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Lateral tibiotalar distance

Lateral tibiotalar distance is a measurement on an ankle anterior drawer lateral view to assess for ankle instability.  Measurement On an ankle anterior drawer lateral view (typically performed using a Telos device 2-4), the distance between the posterior tip of the distal tibial articular sur...
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Furuncle

A furuncle, also known as a boil, is an infected hair follicle with extension through the dermis into the subcutaneous soft tissues (cf. folliculitis, a more superficial hair follicle infection, with pus limited to the epidermis). Epidemiology Risk factors Outbreaks of furunculosis are seen, ...
Article

Eburnation

Eburnation describes the appearance of bone following a degenerative process in which subchondral or otherwise exposed bone acquires a non-anatomical sclerotic, microimpacted, and "polished" articular surface. This phenomenon typically arises in one of two situations: hypertrophic non-union of...
Article

Folliculitis

Folliculitis (plural: folliculitides) is an inflammation of the hair follicle, which is usually infective and due to bacteria, most commonly Staphylococcus aureus.  Epidemiology Folliculitis is more common in men 1. Risk factors shaving hot tubs, especially Pseudomonas aeruginosa hot clima...
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Nunley-Vertullo classification

The Nunley-Vertullo classification is one of several classification systems used for the categorization of Lisfranc injuries. It is based on clinical, x-ray and bone scan findings and also associates the stages with management options or recommendations regarding those injuries 1-3. Usage The ...
Article

Long axial hindfoot alignment view

The long axial hindfoot alignment view is a specialized, weight-bearing radiographic view that examines the hindfoot alignment as part of a foot and ankle instability investigation.  The long axial view requires no equipment and has higher inter-observer reliability compared to the standard hin...
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Hindfoot alignment view

The hindfoot alignment view is a specialized, weight-bearing radiographic view that examines the hindfoot alignment as part of a foot and ankle instability investigation.  The long axial view requires no equipment and has higher inter-observer reliability when measuring angular hindfoot alignme...
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Foot (weight-bearing medial oblique view)

The weight-bearing medial oblique view of the foot is a specialized projection that places the foot under normal weight-bearing conditions.  The projection is utilized to assess the foot under stress and better demonstrate structural and functional deformities.  Indications This projection is ...
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Ankle (weight-bearing mortise view)

The weight-bearing mortise (mortice is equally correct) view of the ankle is a specialized projection that places the joint under normal weight-bearing conditions.  The projection is utilized to assess the joint under stress and better demonstrate structural and functional deformities.  Termino...
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Ankle (weight-bearing AP view)

The weight-bearing AP view of the ankle is a specialized projection that places the joint under normal weight-bearing conditions.  The projection is utilized to assess the joint under stress and better demonstrate structural and functional deformities.  Indications This projection is utilized ...
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Ankle (weight-bearing lateral view)

The weight-bearing lateral view of the ankle is a specialized projection that places the joint under normal weight-bearing conditions.  The projection is utilized to assess the joint under stress and better demonstrate structural and functional deformities.  Indications This projection is util...
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Anterior to posterior fibular gap

The anterior to posterior fibular gap illustrates the displacement of the proximal and distal fibular fragments in trans-syndesmotic lateral malleolar fractures on the lateral view of the ankle and might indicate a medial injury. Usage The anterior to posterior fibular gap can be used in the s...
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Tibiotalar angle

The tibiotalar angle is between the anatomic axis of the tibia and the superior articular surface of the talar dome. Differently from the talar tilt, the tibiotalar angle uses the tibial longitudinal axis instead of the distal articular surface as a tibial reference point. Usage The tibiotalar...
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First to second metatarsal distance

The first to second metatarsal distance or M1-M2 distance is the length between the bases of the first and second metatarsal bone and a measurement for the evaluation of midfoot instability. Usage The first to second metatarsal distance is used for the evaluation and classification of midfoot ...
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Distal metatarsal articular angle

The distal metatarsal articular angle (DMAA) evaluates the relationship between the longitudinal axis and the articular surface of the first metatarsophalangeal joint and thus metatarsophalangeal coverage or joint congruity on a weight-bearing dorsoplantar radiograph of the foot. Usage The dis...
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Medial cuneiform-fifth metatarsal height

Medial cuneiform-fifth metatarsal height is the distance between the most inferior part of the medial cuneiform and the most inferior part of the base of the 5th metatarsal and is used to evaluate the height and integrity of the medial vertical arch 1. Usage Medial cuneiform-fifth metatarsal h...
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Bow-tie sign

"Bow-tie sign" refers to the appearance of rotated facets in unilateral facet joint dislocation. Facet joint displacement coupled with a rotational deformity gives a bow-like like appearance on a lateral view radiograph of spine 1.
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Talar shift

Talar shift is a concept, sign and/or measurement describing a displacement of the talus in relation to the articular surface of the distal tibia and the malleolar end segment. The direction of the talar shift is further described in the medical literature and lateral talar shift receives the mo...
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Talar tilt

Talar tilt is a measurement of the angle between the talus and the distal tibia, used in the assessment of ankle instability and ankle osteoarthritis (OA). Usage Talar tilt is an important measurement in the assessment of ankle osteoarthritis. It is measured as part of the Kellgren and Lawrenc...
Article

Landells classification of atlas fractures

The Landells (and van Peteghem) classification of fractures of the atlas is one of the commonly used systems to describe C1 vertebral injuries. Classification Fractures are classified by their involvement of the C1 anterior arch, posterior arch, and/or lateral mass 1: type I: confined to eith...
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Lead pipe fracture

The term lead pipe fracture is the term for a radiographic appearance given to a simultaneous greenstick fracture of one side of the bone (usually metaphysis) with a buckle fracture of the opposing cortex of the same bone.  There are differing opinions in texts as to whether this term should be...
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Calcinosis of chronic renal failure

Calcinosis of chronic renal failure is a rare cause of soft tissue calcifications in hemodialysis patients with chronic renal failure. This condition is characterized by the deposition of calcium phosphate crystals in the periarticular soft tissues, resulting in large calcified masses. Terminol...
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Posterior ligamentous complex injury

Posterior ligamentous complex injury refers to tears/ruptures of the spinal posterior ligamentous complex, which consists of the ligamentum flavum, interspinous ligaments, supraspinous ligament, and facet joint capsules. Posterior ligamentous complex disruption is a central part of the currently...
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Medical devices in the limbs

Medical devices in the limbs are regularly observed by radiologists on plain film, CT and MRI reporting. Most commonly they include orthopedic hardware. Orthopedic joint replacement hardware (arthroplasty) joint fusion hardware (arthrodesis) internal fixation hardware (ORIF) external fixati...
Article

Crescent sign (disambiguation)

The characteristic shape of the crescent has been given to many radiological signs over the years. crescent sign (disambiguation) crescent sign (arterial dissection) crescent sign (inguinal hernia) crescent sign (intravenous pyelogram) crescent sign (lung hydatid) crescent sign (osteonecro...
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Joint mouse

A joint mouse (plural: joint mice) is a historical synonym for an intra-articular loose body. This evocative term predates the discovery of x-rays and originated in orthopedics. It derives from the way in which some intra-articular osteochondral fragments appeared to move rapidly around the insi...
Article

Superficial epigastric vein

The superficial epigastric vein (TA: vena epigastrica superficialis) is an important tributary of the great saphenous vein that drains the anterior abdominal wall inferior to the level of the umbilicus. The superficial epigastric vein drains into the great saphenous vein at the saphenous openin...
Article

WHO classification of skin tumors

The World Health Organizatiοn classification of skin tumors is the most widely used pathologic classification system for skin tumors. The most recent edition is the 4th, which was published in 2018 1.  The radiologically relevant and common entities are reflected below. Classification  1. Kera...
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Syndesmotic screw fixation

Syndesmotic screw fixation is a rigid fixation technique for stabilization of distal tibiofibular syndesmosis injury. Depending on the injury and the surgeon's preference it can involve the placement of one or two syndesmotic screws and can be combined with an antiglide plate. Indications Indi...
Article

Acromioclavicular distance

The acromioclavicular (AC) distance or joint space is an important measurement in the evaluation of acromioclavicular joint injury. Measurement The AC distance is assessed on the frontal radiograph of the shoulder as the distance between the medial cortex of the acromion and the lateral cortex...
Article

Ulnar neuropathy

An ulnar nerve neuropathy can refer to pathology and associated symptoms pertaining to the ulnar nerve anywhere along its course (i.e. from C8/T1 roots to the hand). It can occur at any site along its course and commonly occurs due to pathology at the elbow/cubital tunnel region or in the Guyon ...
Article

Finger pathology

Finger pathology is wide and includes all lesions involving the tendons, ligaments, muscles, bone, and articulations of the hand and foot digits. Congenital brachydactyly - short digits arachnodactyly - elongated, thin "spider-like" digits 1 polydactyly (hyperdactyly) - supernumerary digits ...
Article

Rice signs (disambiguation)

Two different radiological signs are named for their similarity in size and shape to grains of rice. rice bodies (intra-articular) rice grain calcification (cysticercosis)
Article

Long head of biceps tendon

The long head of the biceps tendon (LHBT) is the proximal tendon of the long head of the biceps muscle and encircles the humeral head on its course. It has an intraarticular extrasynovial and an extraarticular portion. Summary location: shoulder insertion: supraglenoid tubercle of the scapula...
Article

Peripheral nervous system

The peripheral nervous system (PNS) consists of the nerves (cranial nerves III-XII and spinal) and their related ganglia outside the central nervous system (CNS). The latter comprising the brain and spinal cord. The central nervous system and peripheral nervous system together form the nervous s...
Article

Neurocranium

The neurocranium (plural: neurocrania) is the name given to the portion of the skull that encloses the brain. It comprises the skull base and the skull vault. The neurocranium and facial bones (viscerocranium) together form the skull.
Article

Pincer/split fracture

Pincer or split fractures are coronally oriented vertebral body fractures that involve the superior and inferior vertebral body endplates but do not involve the anterior or posterior cortices.  Clinical Presentation Pincer fractures may present in the setting of trauma, with an axial loading m...
Article

Distal biceps tendon injury

Distal biceps tendon injuries refer to strains, partial and complete tears of the distal biceps tendon complex. Epidemiology Distal biceps tendon injuries are far less common than injuries to the proximal biceps tendon with an incidence of approximately 1.2/100000 1,2. They typically occur in ...
Article

Cachexia

Cachexia is a syndrome of metabolic dysfunction secondary to an underlying disease in which there is depleted skeletal muscle (sarcopenia) which may or may not be accompanied by an absolute loss of body fat.  Terminology Cancer cachexia is specifically used to refer to the cachexia associated ...
Article

Pannus

Pannus describes an abnormal layer of granulation tissue. It is usually seen overlying joint surfaces (usually in the setting of rheumatoid arthritis, though pannus can be a feature of other inflammatory arthropathies), prosthetic heart valves, or overlying the cornea 1.  A key step in the path...
Article

Biceps tendon with accessory head

The accessory head of the biceps brachii muscle is a normal anatomical variant and incidentally seen in some individuals with shoulder problems who were referred for shoulder MRI. Epidemiology The prevalence of the condition has been reported in 9.1-22.9% of the population especially in the As...
Article

Incisivus labii inferioris muscle

The incisivus labii inferioris muscle (TA: pars labialis musculi orbicularis oris) is one of the facial muscles. It acts as a supplementary muscle to the orbicularis oris muscle. Terminology The incisivus labii inferioris muscle is often omitted from major anatomical texts or articles on the f...

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