Abscesses are focal confined collections of suppurative inflammatory material and can be thought of as having three components 1:
a central core consisting of necrotic inflammatory cells and local tissue
peripheral halo of viable neutrophils
surrounded by a 'capsule' with dilated blood vessel...
The accessory ossicle of the anterior arch of the atlas is a normal variant and is best appreciated on a lateral cervical/sagittal study. It is observed as a circular and corticated osseous density that articulates with the inferior aspect of the anterior arch of the atlas.
It is not associate...
Acute spinal cord ischaemia syndrome (ASCIS) is uncommon, but usually presents with profound neurological signs and symptoms, and the prognosis is poor.
Acute spinal cord ischaemia syndrome represents only 5-8% of acute myelopathies 4,5 and <1% of all strokes 7. The demographic o...
The alar ligaments join the lateral margins of the sloping upper posterior margin of the dens of C2 to the lateral margins of the foramen magnum (adjacent to the occipital condyles) and lie on either side of the apical ligament. They may be oblique or vertical and are thickest at the occipital a...
Allen and Ferguson classification is used for research purposes to classify subaxial spine injuries. It is based ofn the mechanism of injury and position of the neck during injury. This classification was proposed by Allen and Ferguson in 19823 and at the time of writing (July 2016) remains the ...
The anatomy curriculum is one of our curriculum articles and aims to be a collection of articles that represent the core anatomy knowledge for radiologists and imaging specialists.
Head and neck anatomy
Abdominal and pelvic anatomy
Ancient schwannomas are long-standing, benign (WHO grade I) slow growing schwannomas with advanced degeneration. These can have calcification, hyalinization, and cystic cavitation that can be identified on imaging. The term “ancient” has been traditionally used to describe schwannomas showing de...
The Anderson and D'Alonzo classification is the most commonly used classification of fractures of the odontoid process of C2.
fracture of the upper part of the odontoid peg
above the level of the transverse band of the cruciform ligament
usually considered stable...
Andersson lesions refer to an inflammatory involvement of the intervertebral discs by spondyloarthritis.
Rheumatic spondylodiscitis is a non-infectious condition that has been shown to occur in about 8% of patients with ankylosing spondylitis, as detected at radiography.
Angiolipomas (also sometimes known as haemangiolipomas, vascular lipomas, and fibromyolipomas) are rare soft tissue tumours composed of mature adipocytes and vessels. They can occur essentially anywhere and can be subclassified into infiltrating and non-infiltrating variants 1.
Please refer to...
Ankylosing spondylitis (less commonly known as Bechterew disease and Marie Strümpell disease) is a seronegative spondyloarthropathy, which, as the name suggests, results in fusion (ankylosis) of the spine and sacroiliac (SI) joints, although involvement is also seen in large and small joints.
Annular fissures are a degenerative deficiency of one or more layers that make up the annulus fibrosus of the intervertebral disc.
Many authors prefer the term annular fissure over annular tear, as the latter seems to imply acute injury 1,2. In the setting of severe trauma with di...
The annulus fibrosus surrounds the nucleus polposus and together they form the intervertebral disc.
The annulus comprises 15 to 20 collagenous (type I) laminae which run obliquely from the edge of one vertebra down to the edge of the vertebra below. The direction of the fibres al...
Anterior angulation of the coccyx may be a normal variant but poses a diagnostic challenge for those considering coccygeal trauma.
Four types of coccyx have been described:
type I: the coccyx is curved slightly forward, with its apex pointing caudally (~70%)
type II: the coccy...
The anterior atlanto-occipital membrane is a thin membrane that joins the upper border of the anterior arch of the atlas (C1) to the anterior inferior surface of the foramen magnum. It is a continuation of the anterior longitudinal ligament above the C1 level. It is immediately posterior to the ...
Anterior cord syndrome (also known as Beck's syndrome or anterior spinal artery syndrome) is a clinical subset of spinal cord injury syndromes, due to ischaemia/infarction of the anterior two-thirds of the spinal cord, typically sparing the posterior third.
The anterior corticospinal tract is formed at the level of the of the medullary pyramids, where the majority (90%) of descending corticospinal tract fibres decussate to form the lateral corticospinal tract. The majority of the remaining non-decussating 10% of fibres form the much smaller anterio...
Anterior horn syndrome is a fairly generic term used to refer to flaccid paralysis and areflexia due to involvement of the anterior grey matter horns of the spinal cord. Sensation is typically preserved.
Causes of anterior horn syndrome include:
anterior spinal artery ischaemia
The anterior longitudinal ligament (ALL) arises from the anteroinferior basilar portion of occipital bone, traverses the entire length of the spine, and ends on the anteriosuperior portion of the sacrum.
The ALL runs along the anterior surface of the vertebral bodies (firmly united to the perio...
Anterior sacral meningocoele is a congenital defect seen in the anterior aspect of the spine. It is defined as a meningeal cyst that occurs in the presacral space secondary to agenesis of a portion of the anterior sacrum.
In approximately 50% of cases, associated malfo...
The anterior spinal artery supplies the anterior portion of the spinal cord and arises from the vertebral artery in the region of the medulla oblongata. The two vertebral arteries (one of which is usually bigger than the other) anastamose in the midline to form a single anterior spinal artery at...
The anterior spinothalamic tract, also known as the ventral spinothalamic fasciculus, is an ascending pathway located anteriorly within the spinal cord, primarily responsible for transmitting coarse touch and pressure.
The lateral spinothalamic tract (discussed separately), in contrast, primar...
Anterior subluxation of cervical spine (also known as hyperflexion sprain) is a ligamentous injury to the cervical spine.
Patient presents with neck pain. There may be symptoms due to spinal cord oedema.
It results from ligamentous injury, however, there may b...
Anterior vertebral body beaking occurs in a number of conditions and may eminate from the central portion or the lower third of the vertebral body.
Morquio syndrome 1 (middle for Morquio)
Hurler syndrome 2
The term anterolisthesis refers to anterior displacement (forward slip) of vertebral body relative to one below.
The apical ligament is a small ligament that joins the apex (tip) of the dens of C2 to the anterior margin (basion) of the foramen magnum. It is the weak, fibrous remnant of the notochord and does not contribute significant stability.
The more posterior alar and cruciate ligaments are stronger ...
Arachnoid cysts are relatively common benign and asymptomatic lesions occurring in association with the central nervous system, both within the intracranial compartment (most common) as well as within the spinal canal. They are usually located within the subarachnoid space and contain CSF.
Arachnoiditis is a broad term encompassing inflammation of the meninges and subarachnoid space.
Arachnoiditis affecting the cauda equina may be referred to as spinal/lumbar adhesive arachnoiditis.
Lumbar spine arachnoiditis can result in leg pain, sensory c...
Arachnoiditis ossificans is considered a sequela of chronic arachnoiditis where there is a development of calcification-ossification of the arachnoid membrane usually of the thoracic and lumbar spines. It is an extremely rare cause of spinal canal stenosis and consequent neurological compromise....
The arcuate foramen (foramen arcuale atlantis, ponticulus posticus or posterior ponticle, or Kimerle anomaly) is a frequently encountered normal variant of the atlas and is easily appreciated on a lateral plain film of the cranio-cervical junction.
It develops by calcification of the posterior ...
The artery of Adamkiewicz, also known as the great anterior radiculomedullary artery or arteria radicularis anterior magna, is the name given to the dominant thoracolumbar segmental artery that supplies the spinal cord.
The artery of Adamkiewicz has a variable origin but ...
The ascending lumbar vein is a paired structure which forms a part of the venous drainage of the lumbar vertebral column.
location: near midline on the side of the vertebral column in the lumbar region
origin and termination: continuation of the lateral sacral veins; joins the subcost...
The atlanto-axial articulation is a complex of three synovial joints, which join the atlas (C1) to the axis (C2).
paired lateral atlanto-axial joints: classified as planar-type joint between the lateral masses of C1 and C2, though somewhat more complex in shape wit...
The atlantodental interval (ADI), as the name suggests, is the horizontal distance between the anterior arch of the atlas and the dens of the axis, used in the diagnosis of atlanto-occipital dissociation injuries and injuries of the atlas and axis.
It is the distance (in mm) between the posteri...
The atlanto-occipital articulation is comprised of a pair of condyloid synovial joints that connect the occiput (C0) to the first cervical vertebra (atlas/C1).
Each joint is comprised of two concave articular surfaces on the superior aspect of the lateral mass of a...
Atlanto-occipital assimilation is the fusion of the atlas (C1) to the occiput and is one of the transitional vertebrae.
Atlanto-occipital assimilation occurs in approximately 0.5% (range 0.25-1%) of the population 2-4.
It is typically asymptomatic but sym...
Atlanto-occipital dissociation (AOD) injuries are severe and include both atlanto-occipital dislocations and atlanto-occipital subluxations.
The tectorial membrane and alar ligaments provide most of the stability to the atlanto-occipital joint, and injury to these ligaments results i...
The atlas is the first cervical vertebra, commonly called C1. It is an atypical cervical vertebra with unique features. It articulates with the dens of the axis and the occiput, respectively allowing rotation of the head, and flexion, extension and lateral flexion of the head. Unlike the rest o...
Of the cervical vertebrae, the atlas (C1), axis (C2) and vertebra prominens (C7) are considered atypical cervical vertebrae.
The atlas (C1) lacks a body or spinous process. It has an anterior and posterior arches with lateral masses. Its superior articular surfaces articulate with the occiput a...
Of the five lumbar vertebrae, L5 is considered atypical due to its shape. The remaining lumbar vertebrae are largely typical.
For a basic anatomic description of the structure a generic vertebra, see vertebrae.
T1 and T9 to T12 are considered atypical vertebrae. T1 bears some resemblance to low cervical vertebrae. T9 has no inferior demifacet. T10 often, but not always, shares features with T11 and T12.
For a basic anatomic description of the structure a generic vertebra, see vertebrae.
Autonomic dysreflexia (AD) is a life-threatening condition prevalent amongst patients with high spinal cord injury (SCI) and may occur any time after injury. It is a syndrome characterized by an exaggerated reflex increase in blood pressure, usually accompanied by bradycardia in response to a st...
The axis is the second cervical vertebra, commonly called C2. It is an atypical cervical vertebra with unique features and important relations that make it easily recognisable. Its most prominent feature is the odontoid process, which is embryologically the body of the atlas (C1) 1,2. It plays a...
Baastrup syndrome (also referred to as kissing spines) results from adjacent spinous processes in the lumbar spine rubbing against each other and resulting in hypertrophy and sclerosis with focal midline pain and tenderness relieved by flexion and aggravated by extension.
Bamboo spine is a radiographic feature seen in ankylosing spondylitis that occurs as a result of vertebral body fusion by marginal syndesmophytes. It is often accompanied by fusion of the posterior vertebral elements as well.
A bamboo spine typically involves the thoracolumbar and/or lumbosacr...
Basilar invagination, also called basilar impression, is a congenital or acquired craniocervical junction abnormality where the tip of the odontoid process projects above the foramen magnum.
The terms basilar invagination and basilar impression are often used interchangeably becau...
A mnemonic to help recall the causes of basilar invagination is:
P: Paget disease of bone
F: fibrous dysplasia
R: rheumatoid arthritis, rickets
O: osteogenesis imperfecta, osteomalacia
C: Chiari I and Chiari II, cleidocranial dysostosis
The basion-axial interval (BAI), as the name suggests, is the horizontal distance between the basion and the posterior cortex of the axis, used in the diagnosis of atlanto-occipital dissociation injuries.
It is the distance (in mm) between the basion and the superior extension of the posterior ...
The basion-dens interval (BDI), as the name suggests, is the distance between the basion and the tip of the dens, used in the diagnosis of atlanto-occipital dissociation injuries.
It is the distance from the most inferior portion of the basion to the closest point of the superior aspect of the ...
Batson venous plexus (or Batson veins) is a network of veins with no valves that connect deep pelvic veins draining the bladder, prostate, and rectum to the internal vertebral venous plexus 1. These veins are important because they are believed to provide a route for spread of pelvic cancer meta...
Bertolotti syndrome refers to the association between lumbosacral transitional vertebrae (LSTV) and low back pain, and can be an important cause in young patients.
It is considered controversial and has been both supported and disputed since Mario Bertolotti first described it in 1917. Some st...
A bilateral facet dislocation is a flexion distraction type of dislocation of the cervical spine, often a result of buckling force.
It has been thought to result from hyperflexion, however, recent studies suggest a buckling force to be the cause 1.
Another commonly used classification scheme used by urologists and rehabilitation specialists, described by Wein, classifies bladder impairment following spinal cord injury according to the level of injury:
suprasacral (infrapontine) bladder - upper motor neuron lesion, releasing the sacral mic...
Neuroanatomy of the bladder is complex, described here is a summary of the co-ordination of micturition.
The bladder acts as a reservoir normally storing 400-500 mL of urine under low pressure (<15 cmH2O) before voluntary voiding can occur at a socially-convenient time. Bladder filling and empt...
Block vertebra is a type of vertebral anomaly where there is a failure of separation of two or more adjacent vertebral bodies.
In a block vertebra, there is partial or complete fusion of adjacent vertebral bodies.
hemivertebrae/absent vertebra above or below block leve...
Blunt cerebrovascular injury (BCVI) is an uncommon but serious consequence of blunt trauma to the head and neck.
It is often part of multi-trauma with a significant series of blunt trauma CTA reporting an incidence of approximately 1% 3. A large systematic review and meta-analysis...
Bone within a bone is a descriptive term applied to bones that appear to have another bone within them. There are numerous causes including:
thoracic and lumbar vertebrae (neonates and infants)
growth recovery lines (after infancy)
cortical splitting and new periostitis
sickle cell d...
A useful mnemonic to remember the possible aetiologies of a bone within a bone appearance is:
G: growth arrest lines
H: heavy metal, hypoparathryoid, hypothyroid
S: sickle cell anaemia, scurvy, syphilis
T: thalassamia, tuberculosis
D: disease of Caf...
Boogard's angle is measured by drawing a line from basion to opisthion and another line along the plane of the clivus to the basion intersecting the first line - the angle between these two lines is measured .
The normal angle is 126° +/- 6°. If the angle measures more than 136° it is indicativ...
The Borden classification of dural arteriovenous fistulas (DAVF) groups these lesions into three types based upon the site of venous drainage and the presence or absence of cortical venous drainage. It was first proposed in 1995 1. At the time of writing (July 2016), it is probably less popular ...
The brachial plexus is a complex neural network formed by lower cervical and upper thoracic ventral nerve roots which supplies motor and sensory innervation to the upper limb and pectoral girdle. It is located in the neck extending into the axilla posterior to the clavicle.
Brown-Séquard syndrome is the result of a hemicord lesion (i.e. damage or impairment to the left or right side of the spinal cord).
Due to some fibres crossing within the cord whilst others cross in the brainstem, the neurology is bilateral, namely 1:
Bullet-shaped vertebra refers to the anterior beaking of the vertebral body.
It is seen in the following conditions:
mucopolysaccharidosis (Morquio disease, Hurler disease)
weapons and munitions inspired signs
Burst fractures are a type of compression fracture related to high-energy axial loading spinal trauma that results in disruption of the posterior vertebral body cortex with retropulsion into the spinal canal.
They usually present as back pain and or lower limbs neurologi...
Butterfly vertebra is a type of vertebral anomaly that results from the failure of fusion of the lateral halves of the vertebral body because of persistent notochordal tissue between them.
an anterior spina bifida, with or without an anterior meningocele
can be part of...
C7, also known as the vertebra prominens, is the seventh cervical vertebra and looks like vertebra C3-C6, but has some distinct features making it one of the atypical vertebrae. The name vertebra prominens arises from its long spinous process, which is easily palpable.
Calcific tendinitis of the longus colli muscles is an inflammatory/granulomatous response to the deposition of calcium hydroxyapatite crystals in the tendons of the longus colli muscle.
This condition typically occurs in adults in middle age (20-50 years of age) with a slight pred...
Camptocormia (bent spine syndrome) is a rare syndrome characterised by involuntary flexion of the thoracolumbar spine with weight-bearing which reduces when laying down, and is due to isolated atrophy of the paraspinal muscles.
This condition may be associated
Parkinson disease: ...
The Castellvi classification is used for lumbosacral transitional vertebra (LSTV):
type I: enlarged and dysplastic transverse (at least 19 mm)
type II: pseudoarticulation of the transverse process and sacrum with incomplete lumbarisation/sacralisation; enlargemen...
Catheter-associated mass, also known as catheter tip granuloma, is a relatively rare complication related to an intrathecal catheter.
Although the term catheter tip granuloma is commonly found in the literature, some favour the more general term catheter-associated mass as they act...
The cauda equina is the collective term given to nerve roots distal to the conus medullaris, which occupy the lumbar cistern.
It's name comes from the Latin for "horse's tail".
Cauda equina syndrome refers to a collection of symptoms and signs that result from severe compression of the descending lumbar and sacral nerve roots. It is considered a diagnostic and surgical emergency.
Cauda equina syndrome is rare with prevalence estimated at approximately 1...
Caudal epidural injections, or sacral hiatus epidural injections, are one of several possible spinal epidural injections.
Typically, epidural injections are performed in patients who are currently not surgical candidates. The caudal injection can be performed when patients are on ...
Caudal regression syndrome (CRS) represents a spectrum of structural defects of the caudal region. Malformations vary from isolated partial agenesis of the coccyx to lumbosacral agenesis.
Caudal regression syndrome is rare, with an estimated incidence of 1:7500-100,000 7,10.
Central cord syndrome is the most common type of incomplete spinal cord injury, accounting for ~10% of all spinal cord injuries. As the name implies, this syndrome is the result of a contusion of the central portion of the cervical spinal cord.
Most often central cord syndrome occ...
The central sacral vertical line (CSVL) is used in the assessment of spinal scoliosis.
It is a line constructed on frontal films of the spine and pelvis as follows:
a line connecting the top of the iliac crests is drawn
a second line is drawn perpendicular to the first, which bisects the sac...
Cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) is the clear liquid that surrounds and bathes the brain and spinal cord.
CSF is produced by the epithelium of the choroid plexus within the ventricular system and flows in the direction from the lateral ventricles to the third ventricle, then fourth ventricle and then ...
Cervical degenerative changes can be graded using a very old but reliable classification given by Kellgren et al. It is based on findings on a lateral cervical spine radiograph although it can also be applied to MRI evaluation of spine.
The key parameters are osteophyte formation, intervertebra...
The cervical enlargement is the source of the spinal nerves that contribute to the brachial plexus and supply the upper limbs.
It is one of two symmetrical enlargements which occupy the segments of the limb plexuses, the other being the lumbosacral enlargement for the lumbar and ...
Cervical interlaminar epidural injections are one of some possible spinal epidural injections. For an alternative approach for the same region, please refer to the article on cervical transforaminal epidural injections.
Typically epidural injections are performed in patients with ...
The cervical plexus is formed by the ventral (anterior) rami of the C1 to C5 nerve roots and innervates the diaphragm, provides motor supply to some neck muscles and cutaneous sensation to the skin of the head, neck and chest.
anterior rami of C1 to C5 nerves
Cervical rib is a supernumerary or accessory rib arising from the seventh cervical vertebra. They occur in ~0.5% of the population, and are more common in females.
Although cervical ribs are usually asymptomatic, they are the most important anatomic rib variant clinically, because they can caus...
The cervical spine is the upper part of the spine extending from the skull base to the thorax at the level of the first vertebra with a rib attached to it. It normally consists of seven vertebrae. Its main function is to support the skull and maintain the relative positions of the brain and spin...
When assessing cervical spine alignment, look for four parallel lines connecting structures in the cervical spine:
anterior vertebral line: anterior margin of the vertebral bodies
posterior vertebral line: posterior margin of the vertebral bodies
spinolaminar line: posterior margin of the spi...
Cervical spine flexion-extension lateral views are specialised projections of the cervical spine often requested to assess for spinal stability.
Cervical spine flexion-extension lateral views should not be performed on trauma patients without strict instructions of a qualified clinician.
A floating pillar, also referred as pedicolaminar fracture-separation injury, is characterised by fractures through the pedicle and lamina of a cervical spine vertebrae creating a free-floating articular pillar fragment. It is an unstable cervical spine fracture that results from hyperflexion–la...
There are several cervical spine fracture classification systems:
Anderson and D'Alonzo classification (odontoid fracture)
Roy-Camille classification (odontoid fracture)
Levine and Edwards classification (for traumatic injuries to axis)
Allen and Ferguson classification (subaxial spine injur...
Cervical spine fractures can occur secondary to exaggerated flexion or extension, or because of direct trauma or axial loading.
The cervical spine is susceptible to injury because it is highly mobile with relatively small vertebral bodies and supports the head which is both heavy and...
Cervical spine injuries can involve the cervical vertebral column, intervertebral discs and cervical spine ligaments, and/or cervical spinal cord. The cervical spine accounts for ~50% of all spinal injuries.
5-10% of patients with blunt trauma have a cervical spine injury 1.
Cervical spine lateral view is a lateral projection of the cervical spine. It is often performed in the setting of trauma.
As technology advances, computed tomography (CT) has replaced this projection, yet there remain many institutions (especially in rural areas) where CT is not readily availa...
Cervical spine ligaments ordered from anterior to posterior include:
anterior longitudinal ligament (ALL)
anterior atlanto-occipital membrane
alar ligaments (paired)
cruciate ligament of the atlas
longitudinal band: joins the body of the axis to the foramen magnum
The odontoid or 'peg' projection is an AP projection of C1 (atlas) and C2 (axis).
patient positioned erect in AP position unless trauma the patient will be supine
patient’s shoulders should be at equal distances from the image receptor to avoid rotation, the head facing strai...
Chalk stick or carrot stick fractures are fractures of the fused spine, classically seen in ankylosing spondylitis.
Some authors define the chalk stick fracture as a fracture through a Pagetoid long bone (see Paget disease).
They usually occur through the disco-vertebra...