Articles

Articles are a collaborative effort to provide a single canonical page on all topics relevant to the practice of radiology. As such, articles are written and edited by countless contributing members over a period of time. A global group of dedicated editors oversee accuracy, consulting with expert advisers, and constantly reviewing additions.

193 results found
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Abdominal and pelvic anatomy

Abdominal and pelvic anatomy encompasses the anatomy of all structures of the abdominal and pelvic cavities. This anatomy section promotes the use of the Terminologia Anatomica, the global standard for correct gross anatomical nomenclature. 
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Abdominal cavity

The abdominal cavity is divided into two major compartments, the peritoneum and retroperitoneum, early in fetal development. The parietal peritoneum is reflected over the peritoneal organs to form a series of supporting peritoneal ligaments, mesenteries and omenta. The peritoneal reflections ca...
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Abdominal surface anatomy

Abdominal surface anatomy can be described when viewed from in front of the abdomen in 2 ways: divided into 9 regions by two vertical and two horizontal imaginary planes divided into 4 quadrants by single vertical and horizontal imaginary planes These regions and quadrants are of clinical imp...
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Accessory appendicular artery

The accessory appendicular artery, also known as the artery of Seshachalam, is a branch of the posterior cecal artery. It arises from the ileocolic artery, and runs in the mesoappendix. The exact prevalence of this accessory artery and its impact upon the risk of appendicitis varies among studi...
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Agenesis of the appendix

Agenesis of the appendix is extremely rare, with an incidence at surgery of approximately 1 in 100,000 laparotomies 1. It is most commonly due to a sporadic etiology. However in the rare genetic condition, familial apple peel jejunal atresia, absence of the appendix is a recognized feature. Also...
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Ampulla of Vater

The ampulla of Vater is a conical structure at the confluence of the common bile duct (CBD) and the main pancreatic duct that protrudes at the major duodenal papilla into the medial aspect of the descending duodenum. The entire structure is encased by smooth muscle fibers that compose the sphinc...
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Anal canal

The anal canal is the terminal part of the gastrointestinal tract. Anatomically, the anal canal is referred to as the terminal alimentary tract between the dentate line and anal verge. However, histologically it extends more proximally and includes the columns of Morgagni and anal sinuses. Surgi...
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Anal margin

Anal margin or perianal skin is arbitrarily defined as a skin tissue with a radius of 5 cm from the anal verge, consisting of keratinizing squamous epithelial tissue containing hair follicles. See also anal margin neoplasms
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Anal sphincter

The anal sphincter is divided into an internal and external anal sphincter. It surrounds the anal canal.  Gross anatomy Internal anal sphincter continuation of inner rectal muscle thickened, circular muscle fibers, up to 5 mm thick composed of visceral muscle External anal sphincter Compo...
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Anal triangle

The anal triangle forms the posterior half of the diamond-shaped perineum. The triangle's three corners are defined by the tip of the coccyx posteriorly and both ischial tuberosities anterolaterally. The anterior border is the transverse perineal muscles and the posterolateral borders are the sa...
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Anal verge

The anal verge is part of the anal region and consists of a band of squamous epithelial tissue which lacks hair follicles and extends from the inter-sphincteric groove to the perianal skin. 
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Anatomy curriculum

The anatomy curriculum is one of our curriculum articles and aims to be a collection of articles that represent the core anatomy knowledge for radiologists and imaging specialists. General anatomy Neuroanatomy Head and neck anatomy Thoracic anatomy Abdominal and pelvic anatomy Spinal anat...
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Annular pancreas

Annular pancreas is a morphological anomaly which can cause duodenal obstruction. This condition is important to recognize, as radiologists are frequently the first to make the diagnosis. Epidemiology The incidence is probably 1 in 250, however its incidence is not accurately reported 1. It is...
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Anterior left perihepatic space

The anterior left perihepatic (or subhepatic) space is a potential space located between the diaphragm and the anterosuperior aspect of the left lobe of the liver. Gross anatomy The anterior left perihepatic space is separated from the posterior left perihepatic space by the left lobe of the ...
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Anterior left subphrenic space

The anterior left subphrenic space is a potential space between the fundus of the stomach and the left hemidiaphragm 1,2. Gross anatomy The anterior left subphrenic space is a subcompartment of the left supramesocolic space. Boundaries medial: falciform ligament (separates it from the anter...
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Anterior pararenal space

The anterior pararenal space is the portion of the retroperitoneum that lies between the posterior surface of the parietal peritoneum and the anterior reflection of the perirenal fascia. Gross anatomy It contains the duodenum, pancreas and retroperitoneal segments of the ascending and descendi...
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Anterior right subhepatic space

The anterior right subhepatic space is a potential space between the inferior surface of the right lobe of the liver and the transverse colon. Gross Anatomy The anterior right subhepatic space is separated from Morison’s pouch (also known as the posterior right subhepatic space) by the transve...
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Aortic hiatus

The aortic hiatus is one of the three major apertures through the diaphragm and lies at the level of T12. Strictly speaking, it is not a real aperture in the diaphragm, but an osseoaponeurotic opening between it and the vertebral column.  The hiatus is situated slightly to the left of the midli...
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Appendicular artery

The appendicular artery is a branch of the ileal or posterior cecal branch of the ileocolic artery, which is from the superior mesenteric artery. It courses posteriorly to the terminal ileum in the free wall of the mesoappendix to supply the appendix.
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Appendix

The appendix or vermiform appendix is a blind muscular tube that arises from the cecum, which is the first part of the large bowel. Gross anatomy The appendix arises from the posteromedial surface of the cecum, approximately 2-3 cm inferior to the ileocecal valve, where the 3 longitudinal band...
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Arc of Riolan

The arc of Riolan, also known as the mesenteric meandering artery (of Moskowitz) or central anastomotic mesenteric artery, is an arterioarterial anastomosis between the superior and inferior mesenteric arteries. Gross anatomy It is an inconstant artery that connects the proximal superior mesen...
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Ascending colon

The ascending colon is the second part of the large bowel. Gross anatomy The ascending colon is the continuation of the cecum superior to the ileocecal valve. It is secondarily retroperitoneal, although it has its own mesentery in approximately 25% of patients and is 15 cm in length 1,2. The ...
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Asplenia

Asplenia refers to absence of the spleen thereby leading to deficient splenic function. Epidemiology Seen in 3% of neonates with structural heart disease and in 30% of patients who die from cardiac malposition. The male-to-female ratio is 2:1. Pathology Asplenia can be classified into two  t...
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Cecum

The cecum is the first part of the large bowel and lies in the right lower quadrant of the abdomen.  Gross anatomy Blind-ending sac of bowel that lies below the ileocecal valve, above which the large intestine continues as the ascending colon. The cecum measures 6 cm in length and can have a m...
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Cantlie's line

Cantlie's line is a vertical plane that divides the liver into left and right lobes creating the principal plane used for hepatectomy. It extends from the inferior vena cava posteriorly to the middle of the gallbladder fossa anteriorly. It contains the middle hepatic vein which divides the live...
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Cloaca (urogenital)

The cloaca is the terminal portion of the hindgut. It is an embryonic structure (weeks 4-7) in which the distal ends of the gastrointestinal tract and urogenital system share a common channel. The most distal aspect of the cloaca is termed the cloacal membrane. The cloaca, or portions of it, ca...
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Celiac artery

Celiac artery, also known as the celiac axis or celiac trunk, is a major visceral artery in the abdominal cavity supplying the foregut. It arises from the abdominal aorta and commonly gives rise to three branches: left gastric artery, splenic artery, and common hepatic artery.  Gross anatomy O...
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Coeliacomesenteric trunk

The coeliacomesenteric trunk represents an uncommon vascular anatomical variant where both the celiac trunk and the superior mesenteric artery have a common origin from the abdominal aorta as a single trunk. Its frequency has been reported to occur in about 1.5% of the population 1,2. A celiac-...
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Common bile duct

The common bile duct (CBD), which is sometimes simply known as the bile duct, is formed by the union of the cystic duct and common hepatic duct.  Gross anatomy The CBD is approximately 8 cm long and usually <6 mm wide in diameter but this can be dependent on a number of factors including age a...
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Common hepatic artery

The common hepatic artery (CHA) is a terminal branch of the celiac artery. Gross anatomy Origin and course The CHA is a terminal branch of the celiac artery, it passes over the top of pancreas, and downwards to the right in the lesser sac towards the first part of duodenum. It gives off the r...
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Common hepatic duct

The common hepatic duct is formed by the junction of the right and left hepatic ducts. It joins the cystic duct to form the common bile duct.  It is approximately 4 cm long and 4 mm in diameter.  Together with the cystic duct  (laterally) and cystic artery (superiorly), they form Calot's triang...
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Congenital intrahepatic portosystemic shunt classification

This congenital intrahepatic portosystemic shunt classification was proposed by Park et al. in 1990 1: type 1: single large vessel of constant diameter connecting the right portal vein to the inferior vena cava type 2: localized, peripheral shunt with one or more communications in a single hep...
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Congenital portosystemic shunt

​Congenital portosystemic shunts are rare, extrahepatic or intrahepatic, anatomical abnormalities shunting blood from the portal venous system to the systemic venous system and, thus, avoiding passage through the hepatic acinus. Terminology The term “portosystemic shunt” can be used to refer t...
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Conjoint tendon

The conjoint tendon forms when the medial fibers of the internal oblique aponeurosis unite with the deeper fibers of the transversus abdominis aponeurosis. The conjoint tendon then turns inferiorly and attaches onto the pubic crest and pecten pubis 1. It forms part of the posterior wall of the i...
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CT angiography of the splanchnic vessels

Multi-slice CT angiography of the splanchnic vessels is a powerful minimally invasive technique for evaluation of the splanchnic vascular system. Technique   The actual procedure will vary depending on institutional protocol/guidelines but below is a typical description 2, 4: patient receives...
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Cystic duct

The cystic duct connects the neck of the gallbladder to the common hepatic duct (CHD), draining bile to and from the biliary tree. Gross anatomy The confluence of the cystic duct and the common hepatic duct forms the common bile duct. The cystic duct is approximately 2-3 cm long and 2-3 mm in ...
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Descending colon

The descending colon is the continuation of the transverse colon after the left colic flexure, where the colon loses its mesentery.  Gross anatomy The descending colon measures up to 25 cm in length and is secondarily retroperitoneal. It descends down attached to the left posterior abdominal w...
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Diaphragm

The diaphragm is the dome-shaped muscle that separates the thoracic cavity from the abdominal cavity, enclosing the inferior thoracic aperture. Gross anatomy The muscular fibers of the diaphragm originate around the circumference of the inferior thorax and converge to a common insertion point ...
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Duodenojejunal flexure

The duodenojejunal (DJ) flexure or junction is the anatomical border between the duodenum and the jejunum. Gross anatomy The DJ flexure is located anterolateral to the aorta at the level of the upper border of the second lumbar vertebra. It makes a sharp turn anteroinferiorly to become the jej...
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Duodenum

The duodenum is the first part of the small intestine and is the continuation of the stomach. Gross anatomy The duodenum is a 20-30 cm C-shaped hollow viscus predominantly on the right hand side of the vertebral column. It lies at the level of L1-3 and the convexity of the duodenum (called the...
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Duplex appendix

Duplex appendix is a rare anomaly of the appendix and is usually discovered incidentally during surgery for appendicitis. Epidemiology Duplication of the vermiform appendix is extremely rare. It is found in only 1 in 25,000 patients (incidence ~0.004%) operated on for acute appendicitis. Altho...
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Ectopic pancreatic tissue

Ectopic pancreatic tissue, also known as heterotopic pancreatic tissue, refers to the presence of pancreatic tissue in the submucosal, muscularis or subserosal layers of the luminal gastrointestinal tract outside the normal confines of the pancreas and lacking any anatomic or vascular connection...
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Epiploic appendage

Epiploic appendages (or appendix epiploica, plural: appendices epiploicae) are peritoneum-lined protrusions of subserosal fat that arise from the surface of the large bowel.  Gross anatomy Epiploic appendages typically measure 1.5 x 3.5 cm but have been reported to measure up to 15 cm in lengt...
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Epiploic foramen

The epiploic foramen (also called the foramen of Winslow) is a passage between the greater (general peritoneal space) and lesser sac (omental bursa), allowing communication between these two spaces. Gross anatomy Boundaries It has the following borders: anterior: the free edge of the lesser ...
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Esophageal lymph node stations

Esophageal lymph node stations are those nodal stations in the neck, chest, and abdomen considered regional (rather than distant) for the purpose of esophageal cancer staging. This list reflects the map provided in the 8th edition of the American Joint Committee on Cancer (AJCC) Cancer Staging M...
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Falciform ligament

The falciform ligament is a broad and thin peritoneal ligament. It is sickle-shaped (Latin: "falciform") and a remnant of the ventral mesentery of the fetus. It is situated in an anteroposterior plane but lies obliquely so that one surface faces forward and is in contact with the peritoneum beh...
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Fallopian (disambiguation)

The eponym Fallopian may refer to: Fallopian canal (facial nerve canal) Fallopian tube (uterine duct) Fallopian ligament (inguinal ligament) History and etymology It is named after Gabriele Falloppio (also known by his Latin name Fallopius), Italian anatomist (1523-1562).
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Femoral canal

The femoral canal is the medial compartment of the femoral sheath, an inverted cone-shaped fascial space medial to the common femoral vein within the upper femoral triangle. It is only 1-2 cm long and opens superiorly as the femoral ring. It serves two purposes: allows the femoral vein to expan...
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Femoral ring

The femoral ring is the superior opening of the femoral canal. Its boundaries are: medial: lacunar ligament anterior: medial part of the inguinal ligament lateral: femoral vein within the intermediate compartment of the femoral sheath posterior: pectineal ligament overlying the pectineus mus...
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Fishtail pancreas

Fishtail pancreas (also known as pancreas bifidum or bifid tail of the pancreas) is a rare anatomical variant of the pancreas produced by a branching anomaly during its development. It is named as such due to the fishtail-like appearance of the pancreas. Epidemiology It is a rare anatomical an...
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Foramen of Morgagni

The foramina of Morgagni, also known as the sternocostal triangles, are small defects in the posterior aspect of the anterior thoracic wall between the sternal and costal attachments of the diaphragm. The internal thoracic vessels descend through these foramina to become the superior epigastric ...
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Gallbladder agenesis

Agenesis of the gallbladder describes the rare congenital absence of the gallbladder. Epidemiology overall incidence is estimated <0.1% (range 0.04-0.1%) gender:  reported 3:1 female predominance of symptomatic cases equivalent gender distribution in autopsy cases Clinical presentation Mo...
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Gallbladder triplication

Gallbladder triplication is an extremely rare anomaly. There are three types of gallbladder triplication are described according to the number of cystic duct and their insertion: Three gallbladders and three cystic ducts which unite to form a common cystic duct before joining the common bile du...
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Gastric bubble

The gastric bubble is a radiolucent rounded area generally nestled under the left hemidiaphragm representing gas in the fundus of the stomach. On a lateral radiograph, the gastric bubble is usually located between the abdominal wall and spine. It can be seen on chest or abdominal plain films. I...
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Gastric lymph node stations

Gastric lymph node stations were originally divided into 16 groups proposed by the Japanese Research Society for Gastric Cancer in 1963. Gross anatomy The areas of stomach which drain into regional lymph nodes: cardia and proximal lesser curvature drain into left gastric lymph nodes, then int...
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Gastroduodenal artery

The gastroduodenal artery (GDA) is a terminal branch of the common hepatic artery which mainly supplies the pylorus of the stomach, proximal duodenum, and the head of the pancreas. Due to its proximity to the anterior wall of the first part of the duodenum, the gastroduodenal artery is one of th...
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Gastrointestinal tract

The gastrointestinal tract includes any part of the oral cavity, oropharynx, hypopharynx, esophagus, stomach, small bowel, colon, rectum and anal canal. 
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Gastro-esophageal junction

The gastro-esophageal junction (GEJ) (also known as the esophagogastric junction) is the part of the gastrointestinal tract where the esophagus and stomach are joined. Gross anatomy The GEJ is normally mostly intra-abdominal and is 3-4 cm in length. To some extent, the esophagus slides in and ...
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Gastrosplenic ligament

The gastrosplenic ligament is a peritoneal ligament which is formed by ventral part of dorsal mesentery. Gross anatomy The gastrosplenic ligament extends from the greater curvature of the stomach to the hilum of the spleen. It contains the short gastric arteries. Related anatomy During porta...
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General topography of the abdomen

To facilitate clinical description, the general topography of the abdomen is divided into four quadrants or nine regions by lines on the surface of the anterior abdominal wall. The four quadrants are created by vertical and horizontal lines passing through the umbilicus, whereas the nine regions...
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Great vessel space

The great vessel space is the fourth retroperitoneal space along with the anterior and posterior pararenal spaces, and the perirenal space 1,2. Unlike other retroperitoneal spaces, it is not well-defined by fascial planes and thus disease processes affecting other retroperitoneal spaces can also...
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Griffiths point

The Griffiths point, also known as Griffiths critical point, refers to the site of watershed anastomosis between the ascending left colic artery and the marginal artery of Drummond occurring in the region of the splenic flexure. Most anatomy texts describe the location as two-thirds along the tr...
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Haustral folds

The haustral folds (Latin: haustrum, plural: haustra) represent folds of mucosa within the colon. The haustra refer to the small segmented pouches of bowel separated by the haustral folds. They are formed by circumferential contraction of the inner muscular layer of the colon. The outer longitu...
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Hepatoduodenal ligament

The hepatoduodenal ligament is a peritoneal ligament of lesser omentum containing the portal triad. 1 Gross anatomy The hepatoduodenal ligament is a thickening of the right edge of the lesser omentum and forms the anterior margin of the epiploic foramen. It extends from the porta hepatis to th...
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Hepatogastric ligament

The hepatogastric (gastrohepatic) ligament is a peritoneal ligament that together with the hepatoduodenal ligament forms the lesser omentum. It derives from the embryonic ventral mesentery. Gross anatomy The hepatogastric ligament extends from the fissure of the ligamentum venosum and porta he...
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Ileocecal valve

The ileocecal valve separates the terminal ileum from the cecum and functions to regulate flow between these two structures and prevent reflux from the cecum into the small intestine.  Gross anatomy The ileocecal valve consists of two muscular layers of ileum, an upper and lower lip, that are ...
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Ileocolic artery

The ileocolic artery is a branch of the superior mesenteric artery (SMA) that runs obliquely to the ileocecal junction. It divides into an ileal branch that supplies the terminal ileum and anastomoses with the terminal SMA and a colic branch that supplies the proximal ascending colon and anasto...
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Ileum

The ileum is the final part of the small intestine, following the duodenum and jejunum. Terminology The ileum is not to be confused with the ilium - the associated plural/adjectival forms are ilea/ileal and ilia/ilial respectively. Gross anatomy The ileum is 2-4 m in length and is separated ...
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Ilium vs ileum

The medical terms ileum and ilium have been causing great confusion to medical students and junior doctors alike for decades now. Only separated by one letter, the second vowel, the pronunciation may be identical, or differ slightly with the i sound resembling that in "bit" for ilium (ɪlɪəm) or ...
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Inferior lumbar triangle

The inferior lumbar triangle, also known as the Petit triangle, is an anatomical space through which inferior lumbar hernias can occur. Gross anatomy Boundaries inferiorly: iliac crest anteriorly: external oblique muscle  posteriorly: latissimus dorsi muscle floor: internal oblique muscle ...
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Inferior mesenteric artery

The inferior mesenteric artery (IMA) is one of the three non-paired major visceral arteries in the abdominal cavity arising from the abdominal aorta and supplying the hindgut. It is the smallest of the three anterior visceral branches of the abdominal aorta. Gross anatomy Location Located wit...
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Inferior mesenteric vein

The inferior mesenteric vein drains blood from the distal portion of the colon as well as the rectum (i.e. the hindgut).  Gross anatomy Origin and course The inferior mesenteric vein drains the mesenteric arcade of the hindgut (comprising of distal transverse, descending, and sigmoid colon). ...
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Inferior pancreaticoduodenal artery

The inferior pancreaticoduodenal artery is the first branch of the superior mesenteric artery (SMA), though it often arises from the first jejunal branch. It anastomoses with branches of the superior pancreaticoduodenal artery (from the gastroduodenal artery) and it supplies the head of the pan...
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Inferior thoracic aperture

The inferior thoracic aperture connects the thorax with the abdomen. Gross anatomy The inferior thoracic aperture is irregular in shape and is more oblique and much larger than the superior thoracic aperture. The diaphragm occupies and closes the inferior thoracic aperture, thereby separating ...
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Inframesocolic space

The inframesocolic space is the peritoneal space below the root of the transverse mesocolon. The supramesocolic space lies above the transverse mesocolon's root. Gross anatomy The compartment can be divided into two unequal spaces posteriorly by the mesentery of the small bowel as it runs from...
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Inguinal canal

The inguinal canal is a passage in the anterior abdominal wall that transmits structures from the pelvis to the perineum formed by the fetal migration of the gonad from the abdomen into the labioscrotal folds. Gross anatomy The inguinal canal has an oblique course, is 4 cm in length and has tw...
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Internal iliac lymph nodes

The internal iliac lymph nodes can be found adjacent to the internal iliac artery and its branches and drain the regions supplied by these vessels. This encompasses a large area from the genitalia anteriorly, the psoas muscle posteriorly and medial thigh inferiorly (see internal iliac artery for...
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Internal oblique muscle

The internal oblique muscle (IOM) is one of the muscles that form the anterior abdominal wall. Inferiorly, it contributes towards the formation of the inguinal ligament. Summary origin: originates along the whole length of the lumbar fascia, from the anterior two-thirds of the iliac crest and ...
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Ischioanal fossa

The ischioanal (or ischiorectal) fossa is a fat-filled space of the perineum.  Gross anatomy The ischioanal fossa is a paired triangular-shaped space lateral to the anal canal with an apex directed anteromedially towards the pubic symphysis. Each ischioanal fossa is separated from the other by...
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Isthmus (disambiguation)

Isthmus (plural isthmi) is an anatomical term and refers to a slender structure joining two larger components. Some of these uses of the word isthmus are now rarely used or only seen in older texts and articles: isthmus (aorta) isthmus (auditory tube) isthmus (auricle of the ear) isthmus (ci...
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Jejunal and ileal branches of the superior mesenteric artery

The jejunal and ileal branches of the superior mesenteric artery are variable in number. They pass in the two layers of the mesentery to the jejunum and ileum and progressively divide and join in a series of anastomosing arcades. From the arcades, straight arteries (also known as the vasa recta...
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Jejunum

The jejunum is arbitrarily defined as the proximal two-fifths of the small intestine and is, on average, about 3 m in length. Gross anatomy Compared to the ileum, the jejunum has more valvulae conniventes and fewer folds per unit length. Like the ileum, the normal jejunal wall thickness is les...
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Jejunum vs ileum

There are a few differences that can help differentiate jejunum and ileum 1-3: location jejunum: upper left part of the peritoneal cavity ileum: lower right part of the peritoneal cavity gross appearance jejunum: greater caliber (<3 cm), thicker walls and more vascular  ileum: lesser calib...
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Kommerell diverticulum

Kommerell diverticula occur in some anomalies of the aortic arch system. It usually refers to the bulbous configuration of the origin of an aberrant left subclavian artery in the setting of a right-sided aortic arch. However, it was originally described as a diverticular outpouching at the origi...
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Labeled imaging anatomy cases

This article lists a series of labeled imaging anatomy cases by system and modality. Brain CT head: non-contrast axial CT head: non-contrast coronal CT head: non-contrast sagittal CT head: angiogram axial CT head: angiogram coronal CT head: angiogram sagittal CT head: venogram axial CT ...
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Large intestine

The large intestine (or large bowel) is a 1.5 meter muscular tube that extends from the cecum to the rectum. It has three outer longitudinal muscular layers called taenia coli, which are about 30 cm shorter than the length of the large bowel causing characteristic sacculations interrupted by inc...
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Lateral fossa

The lateral fossae are concave depressions of peritoneum in the paravesical space that lie between the lateral umbilical folds and the lateral parietal peritoneum. The lateral fossae are the smallest of the anterior paravesical fossae, and typically partially contain the cecum and/or sigmoid col...
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Lateral umbilical folds

The lateral umbilical folds are bilateral raised ridges of parietal peritoneum in the deep aspect of the anterior abdominal wall overlying the inferior epigastric vessels. The paired folds originate medial to the deep inguinal ring and end at the arcuate line on the posterior aspect of the anter...
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Left colic artery

The left colic artery is the first branch of the inferior mesenteric artery. Course It ascends retroperitoneally, dividing into two branches: ascending branch passes anteriorly to the left kidney, then enters the transverse mesocolon, and passes superiorly to supply the upper part of the...
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Left colic flexure

Left colic flexure (or splenic flexure) is the bend in the large intestine in the left upper quadrant of the abdomen as the transverse colon continues as the descending colon. The phrenicocolic ligament attaches the the splenic flexure to the left hemidiaphragm. It lies more cranial than the rig...
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Left gastric artery

The left gastric artery is the smallest and first branch of the celiac artery.   It passes superiorly over the left crus of the diaphragm, approaching the esophageal opening of the diaphragm, giving off an esophageal branch to the distal esophagus, then enters the lesser omentum to pass along t...
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Left gastric vein

The left gastric vein (also known as the coronary vein) drains both gastric walls. It forms a loop with the right gastric vein at the lesser curvature of the stomach. The left gastric vein travels in the lesser omentum to drain in the portal vein. It also communicates with the lower esophageal v...
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Left gastroepiploic artery

The left gastroepiploic artery (LGA) is one of the branches of the splenic artery. Gross Anatomy Course The LGA runs within the two layers of the greater omentum to the right along the greater curvature of the stomach, approximately 1 cm from the gastric wall before it anastomoses with the ri...

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