Articles

Articles are a collaborative effort to provide a single canonical page on all topics relevant to the practice of radiology. As such, articles are written and edited by countless contributing members over a period of time. A global group of dedicated editors oversee accuracy, consulting with expert advisers, and constantly reviewing additions.

474 results found
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Abdominal and pelvic anatomy

Abdominal and pelvic anatomy encompasses the anatomy of all structures of the abdominal and pelvic cavities. This anatomy section promotes the use of the Terminologia Anatomica, the global standard for correct gross anatomical nomenclature. 
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Abdominal aorta

The abdominal aorta is the main blood vessel in the abdominal cavity that transmits oxygenated blood from the thoracic cavity to the organs within the abdomen and to the lower limbs. Summary origin: continuation of descending thoracic aorta at T12  course: descends anterior and slightly to th...
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Aberrant internal carotid artery

Aberrant internal carotid artery is a variant of the internal carotid artery and represents a collateral pathway resulting from involution of the normal cervical portion (first embryonic segment) of the internal carotid artery 5. Gross anatomy There is consequent enlargement of the usually sma...
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Aberrant left pulmonary artery

Aberrant left pulmonary artery, also known as pulmonary sling, represents an anatomical variant characterized by the left pulmonary artery arising from the right pulmonary artery and passing above the right main bronchus and in between the trachea and esophagus to reach the left lung. It may lea...
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Aberrant right subclavian artery

Aberrant right subclavian arteries (ARSA), also known as arteria lusoria, are one of the commonest of the aortic arch anomalies .  Epidemiology The estimated incidence is 0.5-2%. Clinical presentation They are often asymptomatic, but around 10% of people may complain of tracheo-esophageal sy...
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Accessory appendicular artery

The accessory appendicular artery, also known as the artery of Seshachalam, is a branch of the posterior cecal artery. It arises from the ileocolic artery, and runs in the mesoappendix. The exact prevalence of this accessory artery and its impact upon the risk of appendicitis varies among studi...
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Accessory hemiazygos vein

The accessory (or superior) hemiazygos vein forms part of the azygos system and along with the hemiazygos vein, it is partially analogous to the right-sided azygos vein. It drains the left superior hemithorax.  Gross anatomy Origin and course The accessory hemiazygos vein is formed by the con...
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Accessory meningeal artery

The accessory meningeal artery is a branch of the maxillary artery but can also branch from the middle meningeal artery. The artery passes upwards through the foramen ovale to supply the trigeminal ganglion and the dura mater of Meckel cave and the middle cranial fossa. It also usually supplies...
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Accessory middle cerebral artery

The accessory middle cerebral artery is a variant of the middle cerebral artery (MCA) that arises from the anterior cerebral artery (ACA). It is different from a duplicated middle cerebral artery, in which the duplicated vessel originates also from the distal end of the internal carotid artery (...
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Accessory renal artery

Accessory renal arteries are a common variant and are present in ~25% (range 20-30%) and are bilateral in ~10% of the population 7. Their proper identification is of utmost importance for surgical planning prior to live donor transplantation 2,3 and renal artery embolization for various reasons ...
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Accessory right inferior hepatic vein

An accessory right inferior hepatic vein is the most common variation of the hepatic veins.  It is present in up to 48% of the population and drains the posterior part of the right lobe (mainly segments 6 and 7) directly into the inferior vena cava. Variations in hepatic vascular anatomy are pa...
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Adrenal arteries

The adrenal glands are supplied by three adrenal (suprarenal) arteries:  superior adrenal artery: arises from ipsilateral inferior phrenic artery middle adrenal artery: arises from lateral side of abdominal aorta inferior adrenal artery: arises from the ipsilateral renal artery
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Adrenal veins

The venous drainage of the adrenal (suprarenal) glands is typically comprised of a single vein draining each adrenal gland. Like the gonadal veins each side drains differently: left suprarenal vein drains into the left renal vein 1. right suprarenal vein drains directly into the inferior vena ...
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AICA-PICA dominance

AICA-PICA dominance refers to the principle that the cerebellar vascular territory supplied by the anterior inferior cerebellar artery and posterior inferior cerebellar artery have a reciprocal arrangement. That is the size of the AICA and the subsequent territory it supplies is inversely propor...
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Alar thoracic artery

The alar thoracic artery is a rare variant arterial glandular branch of the axillary artery (usually the second part) that supplies the axillary fat, lymph nodes and skin of the axilla.
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Anatomy curriculum

The anatomy curriculum is one of our curriculum articles and aims to be a collection of articles that represent the core anatomy knowledge for radiologists and imaging specialists. General anatomy Neuroanatomy Head and neck anatomy Thoracic anatomy Abdominal and pelvic anatomy Spinal anat...
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Angular artery

The angular artery is the terminal branch of the facial artery. It becomes the angular artery after the lateral nasal artery branch from the facial artery. It courses superiorly along the lateral border of the external nose to the medial canthus. It is accompanied by the angular vein which drai...
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Angular vein

The angular vein drains the anterior region of the scalp 1. It is formed by the union of the supratrochlear and supraorbital veins and becomes the facial vein 1,2,3. Gross Anatomy The angular vein is formed at the medial canthus as the supratrochlear vein and supraorbital vein unite 1,2. The a...
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Anomalous course of coronary arteries

Anomalous course of a coronary artery is a type of congenital coronary artery anomaly. It may represent a benign and incidental finding, but can also be a malignant course predisposing patients to life-threatening myocardial ischemia or arrhythmias, depending on where the artery runs.  Clinical...
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Anterior cardiac veins

The anterior cardiac veins are a group of parallel coronary veins that course over the anterior surface of the right ventricle, draining it and entering directly into the right atrium. They may occasionally drain into the small cardiac vein. 
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Anterior cardinal veins

The anterior cardinal veins are paired transient embryologic venous vessels which deliver venous return to the heart starting at about 4 weeks of gestation 1. Embryogenesis The anterior cardinal veins begin their embryological development as symmetric venous channels draining blood from the cr...
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Anterior cerebral artery

The anterior cerebral artery along with the middle cerebral artery forms at the termination of the internal carotid artery. It is the smaller of the two, and arches anteromedially to pass anterior to the genu of the corpus callosum, dividing as it does so into its two major branches; pericallosa...
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Anterior choroidal artery

The anterior choroidal artery (AChA) supplies several crucial anatomical structures of the brain important for vision and motor control. Identification of AChA is important because of its strategic and extensive area of supply as well as large variations in the territorial distribution. Gross a...
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Anterior communicating artery

The anterior communicating artery (ACOM) arises from the anterior cerebral artery and acts as an anastomosis between the left and right anterior cerebral circulation. Approximately 4 mm in length, it demarcates the junction between the A1 and A2 segments of the anterior cerebral artery. Branche...
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Anterior ethmoidal artery

The anterior ethmoid artery is a branch of the ophthalmic artery. It supplies the anterior and middle ethmoidal sinuses, frontal sinus, the lateral nasal wall and the nasal septum (see nasal cavity). Gross anatomy It traverses the anterior ethmoidal foramen with the anterior ethmoidal nerve (w...
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Anterior humeral circumflex artery

The anterior humeral circumflex artery is a vessel arising from the axillary artery at the proximal part of the arm. It is smaller in size relative to the posterior humeral circumflex artery.  Summary origin: branch of the axillary artery at the proximal part of the arm location: proximal arm...
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Anterior inferior cerebellar artery

The anterior inferior cerebellar artery (AICA) is one of three vessels that provides arterial blood supply to the cerebellum. It has a variable origin, course and supply, with up to 40% of specimens not having an identifiable standard AICA. The amount of tissue supplied by the AICA is variable (...
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Anterior intercostal arteries

The intercostal spaces are supplied by pairs of posterior and anterior intercostal arteries. Gross Anatomy The 1st to 6th anterior intercostal arteries arise directly from the lateral aspect of the internal thoracic artery. The 7th to 9th arise from the musculophrenic artery, a branch of the i...
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Anterior interosseous artery

The anterior interosseous artery is one of the two branches of the short common interosseous artery (from the ulnar artery). The artery courses deep in the anterior compartment of the forearm on the anterior surface of the interosseous membrane along with the anterior interosseous nerve (from th...
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Anterior jugular vein

The anterior jugular vein is a paired tributary of the external jugular vein. Gross anatomy Location It arises beneath the chin in the region of the hyoid bone or suprahyoid neck. Origin and course The anterior jugular vein has its origin as the confluence of several small superficial subma...
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Anterior lateral malleolar artery

The anterior lateral malleolar artery is the counterpart to the anterior medial malleolar artery, supplies the lateral aspect of the ankle.  Gross anatomy Origin and course branch of anterior tibial artery runs posterior to the tendons of extensor digitorum longus and fibularis tertius to th...
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Anterior medial malleolar artery

Anterior medial malleolar artery is the counterpart to the anterior lateral malleolar artery, and supplies the medial aspect of the ankle. Gross anatomy Origin and course branch of anterior tibial artery arises approximately 5 cm proximal to the ankle passes posterior to the tendons of exte...
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Anterior spinal artery

The anterior spinal artery supplies the anterior portion of the spinal cord and arises from the vertebral artery in the region of the medulla oblongata. The two vertebral arteries (one of which is usually bigger than the other) anastamose in the midline to form a single anterior spinal artery at...
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Anterior superior iliac spine

The anterior superior iliac spine is an important bony surface landmark and is the prominence is the most anterior part of the ilium. It can be palpated at the lateral end of the inguinal fold. Attachments include the inguinal ligament, sartorius and depending on which resource you read, the ten...
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Anterior temporal artery

The anterior temporal artery is usually a branch of the M1 segment of the middle cerebral artery (MCA) that curves out of the Sylvian fissure and runs over the temporal lobe to supply the anterior third of the superior, middle and inferior temporal gyri.  Variant anatomy The temporopolar arter...
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Anterior tibial artery

The anterior tibial artery is the main arterial supply of the anterior compartment of the leg.  Gross anatomy The anterior tibial artery arises from the popliteal artery in the popliteal fossa and continues distally as the dorsalis pedis artery. Course The popliteal artery usually divides at...
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Anterior tibial vein

The anterior tibial veins, continuations of the venae comitantes of the dorsalis pedis artery, leave the anterior compartment between the tibia and fibula and pass through the proximal end of the interosseous membrane. They unite with the posterior tibial veins to form the popliteal vein at the ...
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Anterior ulnar recurrent artery

The anterior ulnar recurrent artery is a recurrent branch of the proximal ulnar artery that ascends in the anterior medial aspect of the elbow, anterior to the medial epicondyle of the humerus to anastomose with the inferior ulnar collateral artery (from the brachial artery) and contribute to th...
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Aorta

The aorta, the great artery, is the largest artery of the human body and carries oxygenated blood ejected from the left ventricle to the systemic circulation. It is divided into: thoracic aorta ascending aorta aortic arch descending aorta abdominal aorta It has branches from each section a...
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Aortic annulus

The aortic annulus is a fibrous ring at the aortic orifice to the front and right of the atrioventricular aortic valve and is considered the transition point between the left ventricle and aortic root. The annulus is part of the fibrous skeleton of the heart. It is at the level of the sinus of V...
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Aortic arch

The aortic arch represents the direct continuation of the ascending aorta and represents a key area for a review of normal variant anatomy and a wide range of pathological processes that range from congenital anomalies to traumatic injury. Summary origin: continuation of the ascending aorta at...
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Aortic arch branches (mnemonic)

A useful mnemonic to remember the major branches of the aortic arch is: ABC'S ​Mnemonic A: arch of aorta B: brachiocephalic trunk C: left common carotid artery S: left subclavian artery  
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Aortic hiatus

The aortic hiatus is one of the three major apertures through the diaphragm and lies at the level of T12. Strictly speaking, it is not a real aperture in the diaphragm, but an osseoaponeurotic opening between it and the vertebral column.  The hiatus is situated slightly to the left of the midli...
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Aortic isthmus

The aortic isthmus is the part of the aorta just distal to the origin of the left subclavian artery at the site of the ductus arteriosus. This portion of the aorta is partly constricted in the fetus because of the lack of flow within the aortic sac and ascending aorta. It marks the partial sepa...
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Aortic root

The aortic root is the first part of the aorta and connects the heart to the systemic circulation.  Gross anatomy The aortic root lies between the junction of the aortic valve and ascending aorta. It has several subparts 1: three aortic valve leaflets and leaflet attachments three aortic sin...
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Aortic spindle

Aortic spindles are an anatomical variant of the proximal descending thoracic aorta. It occurs just distal to the aortic isthmus and has a circumferential smooth bulging appearance.  Differential diagnosis ductus diverticulum: not circumferential aortic pseudoaneurysm thoracic aortic aneurysm
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Appendicular artery

The appendicular artery is a branch of the ileal or posterior cecal branch of the ileocolic artery, which is from the superior mesenteric artery. It courses posteriorly to the terminal ileum in the free wall of the mesoappendix to supply the appendix.
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Arc of Barkow

The arc of Barkow is formed by the anastomosis of the right gastroepiploic (a branch of the gastroduodenal artery) and left gastroepiploic (a branch of the splenic artery) arteries. The arc of Barkow supplies the transverse colon via multiple ascending branches. 
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Arc of Riolan

The arc of Riolan, also known as the mesenteric meandering artery (of Moskowitz) or central anastomotic mesenteric artery, is an arterioarterial anastomosis between the superior and inferior mesenteric arteries. Gross anatomy It is an inconstant artery that connects the proximal superior mesen...
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Arterial anastomosis of the elbow

The periarticular arterial anastomosis of the elbow consists of several arteries that supply the elbow joint and its supporting structures. It functions to allow blood to flow around the elbow joint no matter which position the joint is in. The arteries that contribute include:  from the brachi...
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Arterial supply of the head and neck

The arteries of the head and neck are branches of the common carotid and subclavian arteries. common carotid artery carotid body carotid bifurcation internal carotid artery (segments) caroticotympanic artery persistent stapedial artery ophthalmic artery supraorbital artery lacrimal arte...
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Arterial supply of the lower limb

The arterial supply of the lower limbs originates from the external iliac artery.  The common femoral artery is the direct continuation of the external iliac artery, beginning at the level of the inguinal ligament. The common femoral artery becomes the superficial femoral artery at the point wh...
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Arterial supply of the upper limb

The arterial supply of the upper limb is derived from the subclavian artery. The right subclavian artery originates from the brachiocephalic artery, which is the first branch of the aortic arch. The left subclavian artery originates directly from the aortic arch, being the third branch. The sub...
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Arterial supply to the foot

Arterial supply to the foot can be divided into plantar and dorsal components. Plantar arterial supply Medial plantar artery branch off the posterior tibial artery smaller caliber vessel supplies the medial side of the foot, abductor hallucis and flexor digitorum brevis. provides the arter...
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Arterial supply to the hand

The arterial supply to the hand is comprised of a complex vascular network formed from the branches and distal continuations of the radial and ulnar arteries. This rich vascular network can be divided into palmar and dorsal components. Palmar arterial supply The palmar arterial supply can be d...
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Arterial vasocorona

The arterial vasocorona is part of the spinal cord blood supply and is formed by pial anastomoses between the anterior and posterior spinal arteries on the surface of the spinal cord. It encircles the cord and supplies the peripheral lateral aspect of the spinal cord. 
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Artery of Adamkiewicz

The artery of Adamkiewicz, also known as the great anterior radiculomedullary artery or arteria radicularis anterior magna, is the name given to the dominant thoracolumbar segmental artery that supplies the spinal cord. Gross anatomy Origin The artery of Adamkiewicz has a variable origin but ...
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Artery of Bernasconi and Cassinari

The artery of Bernasconi and Cassinari, also known as medial or marginal tentorial artery (of Bernasconi–Cassinari), commonly arises from the cavernous segment of the internal carotid artery. Gross anatomy The artery of Bernasconi and Cassinari is ~2 cm long and is an important branch of the m...
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Artery of Percheron

The artery of Percheron is a rare variant of the posterior cerebral circulation characterized by a solitary arterial trunk that supplies blood to the paramedian thalami and the rostral midbrain bilaterally. From the original classification of arterial patterns at the origin of the paramedian art...
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Artery to the ductus deferens

The artery to the ductus deferens (deferential or vesiculodeferential artery) is a branch of the superior vesical artery, which in turns arises from the internal iliac artery via the umbilical artery. Gross anatomy origin: superior vesical artery main branch: no named branches course: accomp...
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Ascending aorta

The ascending aorta is the first part of the aorta, and begins at the aortic valve, located obliquely just to the left of the midline at the level of the the third intercostal space. It terminates as it exits the fibrous pericardium where it becomes the aortic arch, in the plane of Ludwig, a hor...
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Ascending cervical artery

The ascending cervical artery is 1 of the 4 branches of the thyrocervical trunk (off the first part of the subclavian artery). It is a small artery that ascends medial to the phrenic nerve on the prevertebral fascia. It contributes many small spinal branches into the intervertebral foramina of ...
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Ascending lumbar communicant vein

The ascending lumbar communicant vein is a communication between the left ascending lumbar vein and the left renal vein. Because of its retroperitoneal location, when dilated, it may be mistaken for a lymph node on non-contrast studies with thick collimation. The image shows the left renal vein...
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Ascending lumbar vein

The ascending lumbar vein is a paired structure which forms a part of the venous drainage of the lumbar vertebral column. Summary location: near midline on the side of the vertebral column in the lumbar region origin and termination: continuation of the lateral sacral veins; joins the subcost...
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Ascending pharyngeal artery

The ascending pharyngeal artery, the smallest branch of the external carotid artery, is a long, slender vessel, deeply seated in the neck, beneath the other branches of the external carotid and under the stylopharyngeus. Summary origin: a branch of the external carotid artery course: vertical...
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Axillary artery

The axillary artery represents the continuation of the subclavian artery and is a major artery of the upper limb. Summary origin: continuation of the subclavian artery as it passes under the midpoint of the clavicle on the outer edge of the first rib  termination: continues as the brachial ar...
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Axillary artery branches (mnemonic)

Useful mnemonics to remember the branches of the axillary artery are: S AL SAP Screw the lawyer, save a patient! Mnemonics S AL SAP The gap between the 'S' and the 'AL' to emphasize that 'S' is 1st part and 'AL' are 2nd part S: superior thoracic artery (from 1st part) A: acromiothoracic (...
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Axillary vein

The axillary vein is one of the major veins of the upper limb. It is formed by the union of the paired brachial veins and the basilic vein and contributes to the drainage of the axilla, arm and superolateral chest wall. Summary origin: formed by the union of the paired brachial veins and the b...
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Azygos anterior cerebral artery

An azygos anterior cerebral artery is an uncommon to rare variant of the circle of Willis where the two A1 segments of the anterior cerebral artery (ACA) join to form a single trunk. As a result, there is no anterior communicating artery. This organization is similar to that seen in lower primat...
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Azygos continuation of the inferior vena cava

Azygos continuation of the inferior vena cava (also known as the absence of the hepatic segment of the IVC with azygos continuation) is an uncommon vascular anomaly and is a cause of a dilated azygos vein. Epidemiology Azygos continuation of the IVC has a prevalence ~1.5% (range 0.2-3%) 1. Cl...
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Azygos vein

The azygos vein is a unilateral vessel that ascends in the thorax to the right side of the vertebral column, carrying deoxygenated blood from the posterior chest and abdominal walls. It forms part of the azygos venous system. Terminology Spelling it "azygous" when referring to the vein is inco...
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Azygos venous system

The azygos (venous) system is a collective term given to the H-shaped configuration of the azygos, hemiazygos, accessory hemiazygos veins and left superior intercostal vein. It is responsible for draining the thoracic wall and upper lumbar region via the lumbar veins and posterior intercostal v...
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Basal vein of Rosenthal

The basal veins, also known as the veins of Rosenthal, are paired, paramedian veins which originate on the medial surface of the temporal lobe and run posteriorly and medially. It passes lateral to the midbrain through the ambient cistern to drain into the vein of Galen with the internal cerebra...
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Basilar artery fenestration

Basilar artery fenestration (or more simply, basilar fenestration) is the most common intracranial arterial fenestration. It refers to duplication of a portion of the artery, thought to occur due to failed fusion of plexiform primitive longitudinal neural arteries 4. Its reported prevalence is h...
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Basilar venous plexus

The basilar venous plexus lies between the endosteal and visceral layers of the dura on the inner surface of the clivus. It connects the: inferior petrosal sinuses cavernous sinuses intercavernous sinuses superior petrosal sinuses internal vertebral venous plexus marginal sinus (around the...
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Basilic vein

The basilic vein, along with the cephalic vein, is one of the primary superficial veins that drain the upper limb 1. It courses through both the forearm and arm, and contributes to the formation of the axillary vein. Summary origin: ulnar aspect of the superficial venous network of the dorsum ...
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Batson venous plexus

Batson venous plexus, also known as Batson veins, are a network of veins with no valves that connect deep pelvic veins draining the bladder, prostate, and rectum to the internal vertebral venous plexus 1. These veins are important because they are believed to provide a route for spread of pelvic...
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Bouthillier classification of internal carotid artery segments

Bouthillier et al. described (in 1996) 1 a seven segment internal carotid artery (ICA) classification system. It remains the most widely used system for describing ICA segments at the time of writing (mid-2016). There are a few other classifications systems including those proposed by Fisher (1...
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Bovine arch

Bovine arch is the most common variant of the aortic arch and occurs when the brachiocephalic (innominate) artery shares a common origin with the left common carotid artery.  A bovine arch is apparent in ~15% (range 8-25%) of the population and is more common in individuals of African descent. ...
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Brachial artery

The brachial artery is the main supply of arterial blood to the arm, forearm and hand.  Summary origin: continuation of the axillary artery distal to teres major location: medial upper arm supply: muscles of the arm, forearm and hand main branches: profunda brachii terminal branches: radia...
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Brachial vein

The brachial vein is a component of the deep venous system of the upper limb. After forming from the radial and ulnar veins1, the brachial vein travels from the cubital fossa superiorly to become the axillary vein. Summary origin: union of the ulnar and radial veins in the cubital fossa1 loca...
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Brachiocephalic trunk

The brachiocephalic trunk (BCT) is a major vessel that supplies the head, neck and right arm. The BCT has previously been known as the innominate artery.  Gross anatomy The brachiocephalic trunk is the first of the three main branches of the aortic arch, which originates from the upward convex...
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Brachiocephalic vein

Brachiocephalic veins (BCV), previously the innominate veins are large paired valveless asymmetric veins that drain the head, neck, upper limbs and part of the thorax and mediastinum. Gross anatomy Origin In the root of the neck, the internal jugular and subclavian veins unite to form the bra...
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Branches of internal carotid artery (mnemonic)

Useful mnemonics to remember the branches of the internal carotid artery is: A VIP'S COMMA calming voices make intra-operative surgery pleasurable and almost memorable Mnemonics A VIP'S COMMA A: anterior choroidal artery (C7) V: Vidian artery (C2) I: inferolateral trunk (C4) P: posterior...
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Branches of internal iliac artery (mnemonic)

A useful mnemonic to remember the branches of the internal iliac artery is: I Love Going Places In My Very Own Underwear! Mnemonic I: iliolumbar artery L: lateral sacral artery G: gluteal (superior and inferior) arteries P: (internal) pudendal artery I: inferior vesical (vaginal in female...
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Branches of maxillary artery (mnemonic)

A mnemonic for remembering the branches of the maxillary artery is: DAM I AM Piss Drunk But Stupid Drunk I Prefer, Must Phone Alcoholics Anonymous Mnemonic D: deep auricular artery A: anterior tympanic artery M: middle meningeal artery I: inferior alveolar artery A: accessory meningeal ar...
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Branches of ophthalmic artery (mnemonic)

A useful mnemonic to remember the branches of the ophthalmic artery is: DR MCLESSI Mnemonic D: dorsal nasal artery R: (central) retinal artery M: muscular artery C: ciliary arteries (long, short and anterior) L: lacrimal artery E: ethmoidal arteries (anterior and posterior) S: supraorbi...
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Branches of the anterior division of the internal iliac artery (mnemonic)

Mnemonics to remember the branches of the anterior division of the internal iliac artery are: SOI VU MR PIG (it can be remembered as SO fourth (IV) U MR PIG) Oranges Under Some Ice Might Peel Instantly Mnemonics SOI VU MR PIG S: superior vesical artery O: obturator artery IV: inferior ves...
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Branches of the thoracoacromial artery (mnemonic)

Useful mnemonics to remember the four branches of the thoracoacromial artery are: ABCD CAlifornia Police Department Cadavers Are Dead People PACkeD Mnemonics ABCD A: acromial B: breast (pectoral) C: clavicular D: deltoid CAlifornia Police Department C: clavicular A: acromial  P: pe...
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Bronchial artery

The bronchial arteries are the major supply of high-pressure oxygenated blood to the supporting structures of the lung, including the pulmonary arteries, yet they are responsible for only 1% of the lung blood flow overall. Bronchial artery anatomy is variable, most commonly classified according...
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Bronchial vein

The bronchial veins are counterparts to the bronchial arteries and drain the bronchi, hilar structures and the mid-portion of the esophagus. Gross anatomy There is typically a single bronchial vein at each hilum, formed from the superficial bronchial veins with deep bronchial veins draining in...
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Buccinator artery

The buccinator artery is a small branch from the second part of the maxillary artery. It runs obliquely forward, between the medial pterygoid and the insertion of the temporalis, to the outer surface of the buccinator, to which it is distributed, anastomosing with branches of the facial artery a...
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Calcarine artery

The calcarine artery, named according to its course in the calcarine fissure, is a branch of the posterior cerebral artery, usually from the P3 segment. It may also arise from the parieto-occipital artery or posterior temporal branches. It courses deep in the fissure, giving branches both to the...

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