Articles

Articles are a collaborative effort to provide a single canonical page on all topics relevant to the practice of radiology. As such, articles are written and edited by countless contributing members over a period of time. A global group of dedicated editors oversee accuracy, consulting with expert advisers, and constantly reviewing additions.

26 results found
Article

ACR Thyroid Imaging Reporting and Data System (ACR TI-RADS)

ACR TI-RADS is a reporting system for thyroid nodules on ultrasound proposed by the American College of Radiology (ACR) 1. This uses a standardized scoring system for reports providing users with recommendations for when to use fine needle aspiration (FNA) or ultrasound follow-up of suspicious ...
Article

Assessment of thyroid lesions (ultrasound)

Ultrasound is the first line imaging modality for assessment of thyroid nodules found on clinical examination or incidentally on another imaging modality. This article is an overview on ultrasonographic features of thyroid nodules, which are used to determine the need for biopsy with fine needle...
Article

ATA guidelines for assessment of thyroid nodules

The American Thyroid Association (ATA) guidelines for assessment of thyroid nodules are meant to improve inter- and intra-reader consistency during assessment of thyroid nodules on ultrasound, and to facilitate communication with referring endocrinologists. The 2015 guidelines stress the import...
Article

Bimastoid line

The bimastoid line has been described and used to evaluate basilar invagination on frontal skull plain film and coronal reconstructed CT image. The bimastoid line is drawn between the inferior tips of the of mastoid processes bilaterally. The tip of the odontoid process of C2 normally projects ...
Article

Canadian C-spine rules

Canadian C-spine rules are a set of guidelines that help a clinician decide if cervical spine imaging is not appropriate for a trauma patient in the emergency department. The patient must be alert and stable. There are three rules: is there any high-risk factor present that requires cervical s...
Article

Cervical lymph node metastasis (radiologic criteria)

Cervical lymph node metastases refer to regional nodal involvement by cancer in the head and neck, most commonly due to squamous cell carcinoma originating from the aerodigestive tract or skin. Radiologic detection of cervical lymph node metastases is important for clinical staging and planning ...
Article

Deep brain ultrasound therapy

Deep brain ultrasound (DBUS) therapy is a form of precision medicine using a technique based on the principle of high-intensity focused ultrasound (HIFU), also referred to as focused ultrasound surgery (FUS). Technique The method combines two main components 1: guidance component MRI of the ...
Article

Denver criteria for blunt cerebrovascular injury

The Denver criteria are a set of screening criteria for blunt cerebrovascular injury (BCVI) in trauma used to reduce the need for CT angiography and its associated radiation exposure.  Screening criteria The screening protocol criteria 1,3 for BCVI are divided into signs and symptoms of BCVI a...
Article

Digastric line

The digastric line, also known as the biventer line, has been described and used to evaluate basilar invagination on frontal skull plain film and coronal CT images. The digastric line is drawn between right and left digastric grooves, which are located medial to the mastoid apices. These are co...
Article

Dolan's lines

Dolan's lines are the collective name given to three lines described by Dolan and Jacoby 1 that aid in evaluating for maxillofacial fractures on an occipitomental skull radiograph. They are usually used as an adjunct to McGrigor-Campbell lines. orbital line traces the inner margins of the later...
Article

Epistaxis

Epistaxis (plural: epistaxes) is the medical term for a nosebleed, and is very common in clinical practice with a broad differential diagnosis. Anterior epistaxes mainly bleed from Kiesselbach's plexus and posterior epistaxes (5% of all epistaxis) from Woodruff's plexus. Epidemiology Epistaxis...
Article

Functional endoscopic sinus surgery

Functional endoscopic sinus surgery (FESS) is a type of paranasal sinus surgery performed intranasally using a rigid endoscope. Its primary objective is to restore physiological ventilation and mucociliary transport 1. Paranasal sinus imaging is crucial in preoperative planning and is also incr...
Article

Head and neck cancer therapy response interpretation (Hopkins criteria)

The head and neck cancer therapy response interpretation (Hopkins criteria) is a qualitative system of interpretation for therapy response assessment using PET-CT. Background Widely used options for therapy response assessment are clinical examination, histopathology, CT and MR imaging, howeve...
Article

Incidental thyroid nodules

Incidental thyroid nodules, sometimes called thyroid incidentalomas, are discrete lesions in the thyroid gland found on cross-sectional imaging performed for indications other than thyroid evaluation. They are common but occasionally represent thyroid cancer 1. This article discusses the epidemi...
Article

Localization of parotid lesions

The parotid gland consists of a superficial and deep lobe. Determining the location and extent of the lesions affecting the gland is an essential aspect of imaging and vital information which needs to be conveyed to the surgeon. Method of evaluation The following lines are proposed for differe...
Article

McGill Thyroid Nodule Score (MTNS)

The McGill Thyroid Nodule Score (MTNS) is a scoring system developed to estimate the risk of malignancy of thyroid nodules.1 Scoring system The MTNS is based on 22 parameters: eight clinical or laboratory parameters gender (male): 1 point age (>45 years old): 1 point palpable nodule (prese...
Article

Multiphase CT angiography in acute ischemic stroke

Multiphase CT angiography is an evolving imaging technique in acute ischemic stroke. The technique aims to quickly and reliably identify brain which is potentially salvageable with intervention. Brain tissue viability depends on many factors, with this technique assessing collateral leptomeninge...
Article

NEXUS criteria

NEXUS (National Emergency X-Radiography Utilization Study) is a set of validated criteria used to decide which trauma patients do not require cervical spine imaging. Trauma patients who do not require cervical spine imaging require all of the following: alert and stable no focal neurologic de...
Article

Patterns of sinonasal obstruction

Recognizing patterns of sinonasal obstruction is useful to help localize the area of pathology and narrow the differential diagnosis.  Radiographic features Babbel et al described five pattern of sinonasal obstruction 1, which are readily apparent on CT: Infundibular pattern opacification of...
Article

Point-of-care ultrasound (curriculum)

The point-of-care ultrasound (PoCUS) curriculum is one of our curriculum articles and aims to be a collection of articles that represent the core applications of ultrasonography in a point-of-care setting. Point-of-care ultrasound refers to ultrasonography which may be simultaneously performed,...
Article

Sonographic features of malignant lymph nodes

Lymphadenopathy is quite common, and it can be very difficult to differentiate malignant lymphadenopathy from reactive nodal enlargement. Several gray scale and color Doppler features favor malignancy in a lymph node. Gray scale parameters that favor malignancy size: larger-more likely malign...
Article

Tentorial angle

The tentorial angle is measured between a line connecting the nasion with the tuberculum sellae and the the angle of the straight sinus. Normally it should measure between 27° and 52°. Abnormalities of the posterior fossa / base of skull can alter this. For example this angle is elevated in ach...
Article

Tumors of the base of skull (differential diagnosis)

Tumors of the base of skull are histologically varied and are often challenging to preoperatively diagnose and treat. Exactly which tumors are considered to be tumors of the base of skull is debatable. The broadest definition would include any tumor that involves or abuts the base of skull, thu...
Article

Ultrasound-guided FNA of the thyroid

Ultrasound-guided fine needle aspiration (FNA) of the thyroid refers to a minimally invasive procedure where in which tissue samples are collected from a thyroid nodule or other suspicious thyroid lesion. It is usually done on a outpatient basis and generally complications are very minimal. Pro...
Article

Ventral cord syndrome

Ventral cord syndrome (also known as anterior cord syndrome) is one of the incomplete cord syndromes and affects the anterior parts of the cord resulting in a pattern of neurological dysfunction dominated by motor paralysis and loss of pain, temperature and autonomic function. Anterior spinal ar...
Article

Videofluoroscopic swallow study

Videofluoroscopic swallow studies (also often called modified barium swallow studies) are a variation on traditional barium swallow studies. Although typical barium swallow studies / esophagrams evaluate the pharynx, the goal in these studies is to even more closely evaluate the oral cavity, pha...

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