Articles

Articles are a collaborative effort to provide a single canonical page on all topics relevant to the practice of radiology. As such, articles are written and edited by countless contributing members over a period of time. A global group of dedicated editors oversee accuracy, consulting with expert advisers, and constantly reviewing additions.

38 results found
Article

2005 WHO histological classification of odontogenic tumors

The 2005 WHO histological classification of odontogenic tumors lays out a classification system for neoplasms and other tumors related to the odontogenic apparatus. At the time of writing (2016), it is still the most widely used classification system although a new revision is due to come up in ...
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2014 WHO classification of endometrial stromal tumors

Endometrial stromal tumors (EST) constitute <2% of all uterine tumors and <10% of uterine mesenchymal neoplasms 1.  Over the past four decades, EST classification has gone through various modifications, starting from the earliest study by Norris and Taylor 2. This was primarily due to the rarit...
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Ann Arbor staging system

The Ann Arbor staging system is the landmark lymphoma staging classification system for both Hodgkin lymphoma and non-Hodgkin lymphoma.  It is named after the town of Ann Arbor in the US state of Michigan where the Committee on Hodgkin's Disease Staging Classification met in 1971 to agree on it...
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Bethesda criteria of hereditary non-polyposis colorectal cancer

The Bethesda criteria are an alternative to the Amsterdam criteria for the clinical diagnosis of hereditary non-polyposis colorectal cancer (HNPCC).  Diagnosis of HNPCC is made if any of the following criteria are fulfilled: Amsterdam criteria are met 2 or more HNPCC related malignancies  pa...
Article

BI-RADS 4

A BI-RADS 4 lesion under the breast imaging reporting and data system refers to a suspicious abnormality. BI-RADS 4 lesions may not have the characteristic morphology of breast cancer but have a definite probability of being malignant. A biopsy is recommended for these lesions. If possible, the ...
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Breast imaging-reporting and data system (BI-RADS)

BI-RADS (Breast Imaging-Reporting and Data System) is a risk assessment and quality assurance tool developed by American College of Radiology that provides a widely accepted lexicon and reporting schema for imaging of the breast. It applies to mammography, ultrasound, and MRI. This article refle...
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Choi response criteria

Use only the size of the tumor during evaluation of response to chemotherapy has some pitfalls and limitations, especially when the estimated response for specific tumors such as gastrointestinal stromal tumor (GIST). The Choi response criteria for GIST proposed that tumor attenuation could pro...
Article

Fukuoka consensus guidelines

Fukuoka consensus guidelines, also referred to as the Tanaka criteria, is a classification system for intraductal papillary mucinous neoplasms (IPMNs) and mucinous cystic neoplasms (MCNs).  The prior international consensus guidelines (2006) were referred to as the Sendai criteria, which later ...
Article

Gynecologic imaging reporting and data system (GI-RADS)

The Gynecologic Imaging Reporting and Data System (GI-RADS) is a reporting system that was created for reporting the findings in adnexal masses based on transvaginal ultrasonography. Classification Findings are classified into five categories 1: GI-RADS 1 normal ovaries identified and no adn...
Article

Head and neck squamous cell carcinoma (overview)

Head and neck squamous cell carcinomas (SCC) are common, being the sixth most common cancer. They can have a cutaneous or mucosal origin. As such there is a wide array of clinical and radiographic manifestations, and are separated into: squamous cell carcinoma of the skin of the head and neck ...
Article

Ishikawa classification of venous involvement by pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma

Ishikawa classification system describes the degree of involvement of adjacent portal vein and SMV by pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma based on caliber of the vein: type I: normal  type II: smooth shift/displacement with normal caliber   type III: unilateral narrowing  type IV: bilateral nar...
Article

ISSVA classification of vascular anomalies

The ISSVA classification of vascular anomalies encompasses all vascular malformations and tumors in a framework of internationally consistent nomenclature. It is based on the initial classification published by Mulliken and Glowacki in 1982, and has since been updated with recognition of causal ...
Article

Krenning score of neuroendocrine tumor uptake

The Krenning score is a proposed semi-quantitative method of assessing the degree of tracer uptake on octreotide scintigraphy. Parameters Initially designed for assessment of 111In-DTPA on planar imaging, the Krenning score is applicable to SPECT or SPECT/CT using various radiopharmaceuticals....
Article

LI-RADS

Liver Imaging Reporting and Data System (LI-RADS) is both a set of standardized terminology and a classification system for imaging findings in liver lesions. The LI-RADS score for a liver lesion is an indication of its relative risk for hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). The classification system...
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Lugano classification

The Lugano staging system is a lymphoma staging classification system resulting from recommend changes to the Cotswolds-modified Ann Arbor classification following meetings in 2011. The goal was to simplify and standardize the response assessment enabling better understanding and communication ...
Article

Lugano classification (lesion measurement guidelines)

The Lugano classification is a lymphoma staging system resulting from recommended changes in 2011 to the Cotswolds modified Ann Arbor staging. This article outlines the lesion measurement guidelines for the system: Eligible lesions lymph nodes: the longest diameter in axial plane should be >1....
Article

Lugano classification (PET-CT treatment response)

The Lugano classification is a lymphoma staging system resulting from recommended changes in 2011 to the Cotswolds modified Ann Arbor staging. This article outlines the classification's response to treatment based on PET-CT.  Also included in the classification are staging and response to treat...
Article

Lugano classification (response to treatment on CT)

The Lugano classification is a lymphoma staging system resulting from recommended changes in 2011 to the Ann Arbor staging with Cotswolds modifications. This article outlines the classification's response to treatment based on CT.  Also included in the classification are staging and reponse to ...
Article

Myeloproliferative neoplasm

Myeloproliferative neoplasms are a diverse group of conditions that are characterized by an excess of terminally differentiated myeloid cells (red cells, white cells, and/or platelets) in the peripheral blood. Pathology Classification The classic four types of myeloproliferative neoplasms are...
Article

Neuroendocrine tumors

Neuroendocrine tumors (NETs) represent a wide spectrum of disease. They consist of a large heterogeneous group of malignancies that are derived from embryonic neural crest tissue found in various organ such as the hypothalamus, pituitary gland, thyroid gland, adrenal medulla, and gastrointestina...
Article

Perianal disease

Perianal disease (also known as anorectal disease) is the collective name given to a group of diseases that primarily affect the anal canal +/- rectum. The disease spectrum ranges from the typically benign, e.g. hemorrhoids, to the more potentially more serious, e.g. perianal fistula 1-3. hemor...
Article

Preinvasive adenocarcinoma lesion of the lung

Preinvasive lesions for lung adenocarcinoma are a category of small non-invasive lung lesions which are closely related to adenocarcinoma of the lung. They may represent a spectrum of premalignant to low-grade malignant lesions. The category includes two types of lesions: atypical adenomatous ...
Article

Prostate Imaging Reporting and Data System

PI-RADS (Prostate Imaging Reporting and Data System) refers to a structured reporting scheme for evaluating the prostate for prostate cancer. It is designed to be used in a pre-therapy patient. The original PI-RADS score was annotated, revised and published as the second version, PI-RADS v2 6, ...
Article

PSA density

The PSA density (PSAD), is a calculation performed at diagnosis and is the serum PSA level (ng/mL) divided by the volume of the prostate gland (mL)1. Prostate volume is calculated from TRUS measurements2,3.  Alternatively, PSAD may be calculated using MRI measurements3 of prostate volumes or le...
Article

RASopathy

RASopathies are a class of developmental disorders caused by germline mutations in genes that encode for components or regulators of the Ras/mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) pathway. Epidemiology As a group, RASopathies represent one of the most common malformation syndromes, with an in...
Article

RECIST 1.1: comparison with RECIST 1.0

Response Evaluation Criteria In Solid Tumors (RECIST) was updated to version 1.1 in 2009. For both RECIST 1.0 and 1.1, the requirement for measurable disease at baseline depends on the endpoints of the clinical trial. The fundamental concept common to both versions of RECIST is that measurable...
Article

Siewert-Stein classification of esophageal adenocarcinoma

The Siewert-Stein classification of esophageal adenocarcinoma classes these tumors according to their relationship to anatomical landmarks 1. It was initially proposed by Siewert et al in 1996, becoming widely used in predicting lymph node spread and directing optimal management. As of the 7th e...
Article

Spinal instability neoplastic score (SINS)

The spinal instability neoplastic score (SINS) helps to assess tumor related instability of the vertebral column. It has been shown to useful in guiding the mobilization or operative management of patients with neoplastic spinal disease. Studies have reported good inter-observer agreement among...
Article

Spinal metastases

Spinal metastases is a vague term which can be variably taken to refer to metastatic disease to any of the following: vertebral metastases (94%) may have epidural extension intradural extramedullary metastases (5%) intramedullary metastases (1%) Each of these are discussed separately. Below...
Article

Tumors of the male urethra

Tumors of the male urethra are uncommon. They can be categorized both on the grounds of histology and location. Histology squamous cell carcinoma of the urethra: 80% urothelial/transitional cell carcinoma of the urethra: 15% (predominantly posterior urethra) adenocarcinoma of the urethra: 5%...
Article

Tumors of the seminal vesicles

Tumors arising primarily from the seminal vesicles are rare. Most frequently, when a mass is seen in the seminal vesicles, it represents a contiguous spread from tumors in adjacent organs, in particular, the prostate. Epithelial tumors adenocarcinoma of the seminal vesicle the most common pri...
Article

Ultrasound "U" classification of thyroid nodules

The ultrasound "U" classification of thyroid nodules has been developed by the British Thyroid Association (BTA) as part of their 2014 guidelines on the management of thyroid cancer 1. It allows for stratifying thyroid nodules as benign, suspicious or malignant based on ultrasound appearances t...
Article

Whitmore-Jewett staging system

Whitmore-Jewett staging system (also known as the Jewett staging system or ABCD system) is a staging system for prostate cancer. It was developed by the American Urological Association (AUA). Most societies (including AUA) and clinicians now advocate and use the TNM staging system. A: subclinic...
Article

WHO classification of anal margin tumors

The WHO classification of anal margin tumors or perianal skin tumors is: intraepithelial tumors Bowen disease (precursor of squamous cell carcinoma) Paget's disease (precursor of adenocarcinoma) invasive tumors squamous cell carcinoma adenocarcinoma basal cell carcinoma  verrucous carcin...
Article

WHO classification of tumors of hematopoietic and lymphoid tissues

The World Health Organization (WHO) classification of tumors of hematopoietic and lymphoid tissues is the most widely used pathologic classification system for hematolymphoid neoplasms. The current revision, known as the 4th revised edition, was published in 2016, supersedes the 4th edition publ...
Article

WHO classification scheme for thymic epithelial tumors

The WHO classification scheme for thymic epithelial tumors is one of many classifications systems for thymoma and related tumors, and classifies them according to histology: type a medullary thymoma spindle cell thymoma type ab: mixed thymoma type b1: lymphocyte rich predominantly cortical...
Article

WHO histological classification of tumors of the uterine cervix

The WHO histological classification is a detailed classification of tumors of the uterine cervix. epithelial tumors squamous tumors and precursors squamous cell carcinoma, not otherwise specified - 8070/3 keratinizing - 8071/3 non-keratinizing - 8072/3 basaloid - 8083/3 verrucous - 8051/3...
Article

Zurich pituitary score

The Zurich pituitary score (ZPS) is a quantitative classification of pituitary adenomas based on coronal T1W magnetic resonance imaging with contrast, although the score can also be obtained with computed tomography. The ZPS is based on the ratio (R) between horizontal tumor diameter over inter...

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