Articles

Articles are a collaborative effort to provide a single canonical page on all topics relevant to the practice of radiology. As such, articles are written and edited by countless contributing members over a period of time. A global group of dedicated editors oversee accuracy, consulting with expert advisers, and constantly reviewing additions.

38 results found
Article

Allen and Ferguson classification of subaxial cervical spine injuries

Allen and Ferguson classification is used for research purposes to classify subaxial spine injuries. It is based ofn the mechanism of injury and position of the neck during injury. This classification was proposed by Allen and Ferguson in 19823 and at the time of writing (July 2016) remains the ...
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Anderson and D'Alonzo classification of odontoid process fracture

The Anderson and D'Alonzo classification is the most commonly used classification of fractures of the odontoid process of C2. Classification type I rare fracture of the upper part of the odontoid peg above the level of the transverse band of the cruciform ligament usually considered stable...
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AO classification of sacral injuries

The AO classification of sacral injuries aims to simplify and universalise the process of classifying sacral injuries and improve interobserver and intraobserver reliability. The AO sacral classification is broken into three subsections that follow a hierarchical structure similar to the AO cla...
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AO classification of subaxial injuries

The AO classification of subaxial injuries aims to simplify and universalise the classification of subaxial cervical spine fractures and improve interobserver and intraobserver reliability. The AO subaxial cervical spine injury classification involves four criteria based on morphology, facet in...
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AO classification of thoracolumbar injuries

The AO classification of thoracolumbar injuries aims to simplify and universalise the process of classifying spinal injuries and improve interobserver and intraobserver reliability 3. The AOSpine thoracolumbar classification system consists of only three classes of thoracolumbar injuries. Unlik...
Article

AO classification of upper cervical injuries

The AO classification of upper cervical injuries aims to simplify and universalise the process of classifying upper cervical injuries and improve interobserver and intraobserver reliability. Injuries are based on location specific patterns and divided into: type 1: occipital condyle and occipi...
Article

AO Spine classification systems

The AO Spine classification systems is a group of imaging morphology-based classification system, combined with clinical factors for injury of spinal trauma. It is designed to be a simple and reproducible method of describing injury patterns. At the time of writing (Oct 2018), the 4 published c...
Article

ASAS sacroiliitis classification system

First published in 2009 with a revised consensus in 2016, the Assessment in SpondyloArthritis International Society (ASAS) classification system utilizes imaging features of the sacroiliac joints on MR imaging to assist in characterizing the presence of sacroiliitis. The ASAS classification is ...
Article

Bladder impairment following spinal cord injury

A commonly used classification scheme used by urologists and rehabilitation specialists, described by Wein, classifies bladder impairment following spinal cord injury according to the level of injury: suprasacral (infrapontine) bladder - upper motor neuron lesion, releasing the sacral micturiti...
Article

Borden classification of dural arteriovenous fistulas

The Borden classification of dural arteriovenous fistulas (DAVF) groups these lesions into three types based upon the site of venous drainage and the presence or absence of cortical venous drainage. It was first proposed in 1995 1. At the time of writing (July 2016), it is probably less popular ...
Article

Castellvi classification of lumbosacral transitional vertebrae

The Castellvi classification is used for lumbosacral transitional vertebra (LSTV): type I: enlarged and dysplastic transverse process (at least 19 mm) Ia: unilateral Ib: bilateral type II: pseudoarticulation of the transverse process and sacrum with incomplete lumbarization/sacralization; en...
Article

Cervical degenerative spondylosis (grading)

Cervical degenerative disease can be graded using a very old but reliable classification given by Kellgren et al. It is based on findings on a lateral cervical spine radiograph although it can also be applied to MRI evaluation of spine. The key parameters are osteophyte formation, intervertebra...
Article

Cervical spine fracture classification systems

There are several cervical spine fracture classification systems: Anderson and D'Alonzo classification (odontoid fracture) Roy-Camille classification (odontoid fracture) Levine and Edwards classification (for traumatic injuries to axis) Allen and Ferguson classification (subaxial spine injur...
Article

Classification of spinal meningeal cysts

Spinal meningeal cysts can be classified according to a system published by Nabor et. al 2: type I: extradural meningeal cyst without neural tissue type Ia: extradural spinal arachnoid cyst type Ib: sacral meningocele type II: extradural meningeal cyst containing neural tissue, e.g. Tarlov c...
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Genant classification of vertebral fractures

The Genant classification of vertebral fractures is based on the vertebral shape, with respect to vertebral height loss involving the anterior, posterior, and/or middle vertebral body. grade 0: normal grade 1: mild fracture, <25% loss of height grade 2: moderate fracture, 25% to 40% loss of h...
Article

Levine and Edwards classification

Levine and Edwards classification is used to classify hangman fractures of C2 (also known as traumatic spondylolisthesis of axis). Classification type I: fracture with <3 mm antero-posterior deviation no angular deviation type II: fracture with >3 mm antero-posterior deviation significant a...
Article

Magerl classification of thoracolumbar spinal fractures

The Magerl classification of thoracolumbar spinal fractures is based on the three column concept by Denis, and the McAfee classification. It relies exclusively on CT findings. Classification A: compression injuries A1: impaction fractures A1.1: endplate impaction A1.2: wedge impaction A1.3...
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McAfee classification of thoracolumbar spinal fractures

McAfee classification of acute traumatic spinal injuries is based on the three column concept of the spine. CT is needed for accurate assessment. Classification wedge compression: isolated anterior column compression  stable burst: anterior and middle column compression but posterior column i...
Article

Modified Memphis criteria for blunt cerebrovascular injury

The modified Memphis criteria are a set of screening criteria for blunt cerebrovascular injury (BCVI) in trauma. The presence of one or more of these criteria makes necessary a complementary CTA or DSA study to exclude a BCVI. The screening protocol criteria for BCVI are: base of skull fractur...
Article

MRI classification system for lumbar disc degeneration

Disc degeneration can be graded on MRI T2 spin-echo weighted images using a grading system proposed by Pfirrmann 1. This classification is not used on routine spine reports, being more important for research purposes. grade I: disc is homogeneous with bright hyperintense white signal intensity ...
Article

Occipital condyle fracture

Occipital condylar fractures are uncommon injuries usually resulting from high-energy blunt trauma. They are considered a specific type of basilar skull fracture, and importantly can be seen along with craniocervical dissociation. Treatment of isolated injury is generally conservative, unless t...
Article

Odontoid fracture

Odontoid process fracture, also known as the peg or dens fracture, occurs where there is a fracture through the odontoid process of C2. Pathology The mechanism of injury is variable, and can occur both during flexion or extension with or without compression 5. Classification There are two cl...
Article

Retropulsed fragment

A retropulsed fragment is any vertebral fracture fragment that is displaced into the spinal canal, thereby potentially causing spinal cord injury. They usually arise from the vertebral body with or without a portion of the pedicle, and are displaced posteriorly, hence the prefix 'retro'.
Article

Roy-Camille classification of odontoid process fracture

The Roy-Camille classification of fractures of the odontoid process of C2 depends on the direction of the fracture line 1. The level of fracture line as described by the Anderson and D’Alonzo classification, is not predictive of the degree of instability or the risk of non-union. This classific...
Article

Scheuermann disease

Scheuermann disease, also known as juvenile kyphosis, juvenile discogenic disease 11, or vertebral epiphysitis, is a common condition which results in kyphosis of the thoracic or thoracolumbar spine. The diagnosis is usually made on plain film. Epidemiology occurs in ~5% (range 0.4-8%) of the ...
Article

Sorensen criteria

In typical Scheuermann disease of the thoracic spine the Sorensen criteria are met when three or more consecutive vertebrae are wedged by 5 degrees or more 1.
Article

Spinal instability neoplastic score (SINS)

The spinal instability neoplastic score (SINS) helps to assess tumor related instability of the vertebral column. It has been shown to useful in guiding the mobilization or operative management of patients with neoplastic spinal disease. Studies have reported good inter-observer agreement among...
Article

Spinal metastases

Spinal metastases is a vague term which can be variably taken to refer to metastatic disease to any of the following: vertebral metastases (94%) may have epidural extension intradural extramedullary metastases (5%) intramedullary metastases (1%) Each of these are discussed separately. Below...
Article

Spondylolisthesis

Spondylolisthesis denotes the slippage of one vertebra relative to the one below. Spondylolisthesis can occur anywhere but is most frequent, particularly when due to spondylolysis, at L5/S1 and to a lesser degree L4/L5.  Terminology Although etymologically it is directionless (see below) and c...
Article

Spondylolisthesis grading system

A commonly adopted method of grading the severity of spondylolisthesis is the Meyerding classification. It divides the superior endplate of the vertebra below into 4 quarters. The grade depends on the location of the posteroinferior corner of the vertebra above. This classification was original...
Article

Spondylolisthesis Wiltse classification

Spondylolisthesis can be classified according to broad etiologies as described by Wiltse in 1981 1. Typically when reporting studies with spondylolisthesis the Wiltse type is merely stated without referring to its number, whereas the grade of spondylolisthesis is explicitly stated: e.g. "Grade 1...
Article

Subaxial cervical spine injury classification

The subaxial cervical spine injury classification (SLIC) system is a severity score for cervical spine trauma that helps in determining treatment and prognosis. Classification Injury morphology no abnormality: 0 points simple compression fracture: 1 point burst fracture: 2 points distracti...
Article

Syrinx terminology

There are specific terms used when describing a syrinx or other cystic lesions within the spinal cord 1: hydromyelia: fluid accumulation/dilatation within the central canal, therefore, lined by ependyma syringomyelia: cavitary lesion within cord parenchyma, of any cause (there are many); locat...
Article

Thoracolumbar injury classification and severity score (TLICS)

The thoracolumbar injury classification and severity score (TLICS), also sometimes known as the thoracolumbar injury severity score (TISS), was developed by the Spine Trauma Group in 2005 to overcome some of the perceived difficulties regarding the use of other thoracolumbar spinal fracture clas...
Article

Thoracolumbar spinal fracture classification systems

The two most commonly currently used thoracolumbar spinal fracture classification systems are the AO classification and the TLICS although a number of other classification systems have been proposed over the years 1. Each has benefits and drawbacks and each incorporates various features in an at...
Article

Three column concept of spinal fractures

The three column concept of thoracolumbar spinal fractures was initially devised by Francis Denis.  CT is mandatory for an accurate classification. While initially developed for classification of thoracolumbar spinal fractures, it can also be applied to the lower cervical spine 3 as the general...
Article

Tuberculous spondylitis versus pyogenic spondylitis

Tuberculous spondylitis and pyogenic spondylitis are both common causes of spinal infection. Imaging findings of these 2 diseases can be challenging to distinguish, yet crucial because the treatments for these infections are particularly different 2. Radiographic features Useful distinguishing...
Article

WHO classification of CNS tumors

The WHO classification of CNS tumors is the most widely accepted system for classifying CNS tumors and was based on the histological characteristics of the tumor. Although the most recent version of the 'blue book' is the 4th edition from 2007, an update has been released in 2016 3, which should...

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