Articles

Articles are a collaborative effort to provide a single canonical page on all topics relevant to the practice of radiology. As such, articles are written and edited by countless contributing members over a period of time. A global group of dedicated editors oversee accuracy, consulting with expert advisers, and constantly reviewing additions.

26 results found
Article

AAST kidney injury scale

The American Association for the Surgery of Trauma (AAST) renal injury scale, most recently updated in 2018, is the most widely used grading system for renal trauma. The 2018 update incorporates "vascular injury" (i.e. pseudoaneurysm, arteriovenous fistula) into the imaging criteria for viscera...
Article

Bähren classification of left varicoceles

Bähren classification of left varicoceles: type 0: no evidence of venous reflux in internal spermatic vein (ISV) type I: single ISV with insufficient or absent valve type II: single ISV with ≥ 2 ostia to renal vein; may be branches to ascending lumbar/retroperitoneal veins IIa: insufficient ...
Article

Bladder impairment following spinal cord injury

A commonly used classification scheme used by urologists and rehabilitation specialists, described by Wein, classifies bladder impairment following spinal cord injury according to the level of injury: suprasacral (infrapontine) bladder - upper motor neuron lesion, releasing the sacral micturiti...
Article

Bosniak classification system of renal cystic masses

The Bosniak classification system of renal cystic masses divides renal cystic masses into five categories based on imaging characteristics on contrast-enhanced CT. It is helpful in predicting a risk of malignancy and suggesting either follow up or treatment. Classification Bosniak I simple cy...
Article

Germ cell tumor (classification)

Germ cell tumors are classified into two broad groups: seminoma and non-seminomatous germ cell tumors (NSGCT). The later is then divided further according to histology. seminoma non-seminomatous germ cell tumors (NSGCT) embryonal cell carcinoma choriocarcinoma  yolk sac tumor...
Article

Gleason score and Grade Group

The histological grading of prostate cancer has undergone many revisions requiring careful distinction between the terms Gleason grade, Gleason score and Grade Group. The Gleason grade, originally described in 1974, describes the histologic pattern of gland arrangement 2.   Gleason grade patter...
Article

Goldman classification of urethral injuries

The Goldman classification of urethral injuries is a more widely accepted classification than one proposed by the American Association for the Surgery of Trauma (AAST). The Goldman classification is based on the anatomical location of the urethral injury and was initially proposed by Colapinto a...
Article

Hydronephrosis (grading)

Grading systems of hydronephrosis have been devised to communicate the degree of upper collecting system dilatation. The most common system used (Society of Fetal Ultrasound, SFU) was originally designed for grading neonatal and infant hydronephrosis: grade 0 no dilatation, calyceal walls are ...
Article

International Society of Urological Pathology Vancouver classification of renal neoplasia

The International Society of Urological Pathology Vancouver classification of renal neoplasia is a now-outdated classification of renal tumors published in 2013. It formed the basis for the most recent revision of the WHO classification of tumors of the kidney, published in 2016. For reference, ...
Article

McDonald and McClellan's classification of crossed renal ectopias

McDonald and McClellan classified crossed renal ectopia into four types 1: bilateral crossed renal ectopia without fusion unilateral crossed renal ectopia bilaterally crossed renal ectopia: represents 90% of all crossed ectopias and includes crossed fused renal ectopia   crossed unfused rena...
Article

Periurethral cystic lesions

There are several periurethral cystic lesions. These include: female genitourinary tract: vaginal cysts Mullerian cyst Gartner duct cyst epidermal inclusion cyst of the vagina Skene duct cyst Bartholin gland cyst endometrial cyst of perineal-vulval-vaginal region male genitourinary trac...
Article

Prostate Imaging-Reporting and Data System (PI-RADS)

PI-RADS (Prostate Imaging–Reporting and Data System) is a structured reporting scheme for multiparametric prostate MRI in the evaluation of suspected prostate cancer in treatment naive prostate glands. This article reflects version 2.1, published in 2019 and developed by an internationally repre...
Article

PSA density

The PSA density (PSAD), is a calculation performed at diagnosis and is the serum PSA level (ng/mL) divided by the volume of the prostate gland (mL)1. Prostate volume is calculated from TRUS measurements2,3.  Alternatively, PSAD may be calculated using MRI measurements3 of prostate volumes or le...
Article

RASopathy

RASopathies are a class of developmental disorders caused by germline mutations in genes that encode for components or regulators of the Ras/mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) pathway. Epidemiology As a group, RASopathies represent one of the most common malformation syndromes, with an in...
Article

RENAL nephrometry scoring system

The RENAL nephrometry scoring system was developed to categorize renal masses into low, intermediate and high complexity, based on cross-sectional imaging findings. Its purpose is to aid in decision making, patient counseling, surgical planning, and patient follow-up, as well as academic reporti...
Article

Transitional cell carcinoma grading

Transitional cell carcinomas of the urothelium are graded histologically as follows: transitional cell papilloma benign tumor, not a carcinoma but sometimes included in classification systems carcinoma in situ do not penetrate the basement membrane cells resemble those of grade II or III t...
Article

True hermaphroditism

True hermaphroditism is a form of disorder of gender development.  Pathology Patients with true hermaphroditism have mosaicism of 46XX and 46XY. They therefore have both ovarian and testicular tissues. Subtypes There are three forms of true hermaphroditism: unilateral true hermaphroditism ...
Article

Tuberous sclerosis (diagnostic criteria)

The tuberous sclerosis diagnostic criteria have been developed to aid the diagnosis of tuberous sclerosis and have most recently been updated in 2012 by the International Tuberous Sclerosis Complex Consensus Group (at time of writing - 2018) 1.  Criteria Genetic criteria The identification of...
Article

Tumors of the male urethra

Tumors of the male urethra are uncommon. They can be categorized both on the grounds of histology and location. Histology squamous cell carcinoma of the urethra: 80% urothelial/transitional cell carcinoma of the urethra: 15% (predominantly posterior urethra) adenocarcinoma of the urethra: 5%...
Article

Tumors of the seminal vesicles

Tumors arising primarily from the seminal vesicles are rare. Most frequently, when a mass is seen in the seminal vesicles, it represents a contiguous spread from tumors in adjacent organs, in particular, the prostate. Epithelial tumors adenocarcinoma of the seminal vesicle the most common pri...
Article

Urinary tract dilatation classification

Urinary tract dilatation (UTD) classification was a proposed unified classification of urinary tract dilatation for prenatal and postnatal care. This classification was formed with the collaborations from 8 societies (The American College of Radiology (ACR), the American Institute of Ultrasound ...
Article

Varicocele grading on color Doppler

Varicocele grading on color Doppler can be done variably. The most elaborate and widely-accepted grading was given by Sarteschi, as below.  For a general discussion of this condition refer to the article: varicocele. Evaluation baseline greyscale study in supine position and measure the diame...
Article

Vesicoureteric reflux (grading)

Vesicoureteric reflux (VUR) grading divides vesicoureteric reflux according to the height of reflux up the ureters and degree of dilatation of the ureters: grade 1: reflux limited to the ureter grade 2: reflux up to the renal pelvis grade 3: mild dilatation of ureter and pelvicalyceal system ...
Article

Whitmore-Jewett staging system

Whitmore-Jewett staging system (also known as the Jewett staging system or ABCD system) is a staging system for prostate cancer. It was developed by the American Urological Association (AUA). Most societies (including AUA) and clinicians now advocate and use the TNM staging system. A: subclinic...
Article

WHO classification of tumors of the kidney

The World Health Organization (WHO) classification of tumors of the kidney is the most commonly used pathologic classification system for such disorders. The current revision, part of the 4th edition of the WHO series, was published in 2016 as part of the WHO Classification of Tumors of the Urin...
Article

WHO histological classification of benign renal neoplasms

Benign renal tumors were histologically classified according to the World Health Organization 1. This is the subset of entities in the 2016 WHO classification of renal tumors that are associated with an International Classification of Diseases for Oncology (ICD-O) behavior code of 0, indicating ...

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