Articles

Articles are a collaborative effort to provide a single canonical page on all topics relevant to the practice of radiology. As such, articles are written and edited by countless contributing members over a period of time. A global group of dedicated editors oversee accuracy, consulting with expert advisers, and constantly reviewing additions.

302 results found
Article

≤11 ribs (differential)

≤11 ribs is associated with a number of congenital abnormalities and skeletal dysplasias, including: Down syndrome (trisomy 21) campomelic dysplasia kyphomelic dysplasias asphyxiating thoracic dysplasia (Jeune syndrome) short rib polydactyly syndromes trisomy 18 chromosome 1q21.1 deletion...
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Abdominal hernia

Abdominal hernias (herniae also used) may be congenital or acquired and come with varying eponyms. They are distinguished primarily based on location and content. 75-80% of all hernias are inguinal. Content of the hernia is variable, and may include: small bowel loops mobile colon segments (s...
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Abscess

Abscesses are focal confined collections of suppurative inflammatory material and can be thought of as having three components 1: a central core consisting of necrotic inflammatory cells and local tissue peripheral halo of viable neutrophils surrounded by a 'capsule' with dilated blood vessel...
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Achilles tendon thickening

Achilles tendon thickening can occur for a number of reasons. The Achilles tendon has an average AP diameter of 6 mm 1. Thickening of the tendon is when it exceeds 8 mm in AP diameter and can result from: Achilles tendinosis/tear post-surgical thickening retrocalcaneal bursitis degeneration...
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Alternating radiolucent and radiodense metaphyseal lines

Alternating radiolucent and radiodense metaphyseal lines can be seen with a number of conditions and the differential diagnosis is wide: growth arrest lines bisphosphonate therapy rickets: especially those on prolonged treatment, e.g. vitamin D dependent rickets osteopetrosis chemotherapy ...
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Angiosarcoma - bone

Angiosarcoma of bone is a malignant vascular tumor of bone. These are rare and account for less than 1% of malignant bone tumors. The majority of these tumors arising in bone are primary; however, a tiny percentage are either radiation-induced or associated with bone infarction Epidemiology Mo...
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Ankle impingement syndromes

There are several ankle impingement syndromes. They are characterized by limited range of motion and pain on attempting specific movements about the joint and often in a load-bearing position. They have variable etiology and pathogenesis. They are best classified according to location. The key ...
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Anterior knee pain

Anterior knee pain is common with a variety of causes which can be divided anatomically using a layered approach1 from superficial to deep: Superficial soft tissues prepatellar bursitis Morel-Lavallée lesion infrapatellar bursitis  Extensor mechanism quadriceps tendinosis / partial tear q...
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Aseptic loosening of hip joint replacements

Aseptic loosening is considered relatively common complication of hip joint replacements. It is usually considered a long-term complication and is often considered as the most common complication 3. Pathology Aseptic loosening can occur as a result of inadequate initial fixation, mechanical lo...
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Athletic pubalgia

Athletic pubalgia refers to pain around the pubic symphysis and can have different causes, including what has become known as sports hernia or sportman's hernia and osteitis pubis. Athletic pubalgia is a clinical syndrome of chronic lower pelvic and groin pain, usually encountered in athletes. ...
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Atraumatic fracture

Atraumatic fractures, as the name suggests, occur with no trauma or minimal trauma that would not normally be expected to result in a fracture 1. They can be: stress fractures fatigue fracture insufficiency fracture atypical fractures, e.g. bisphosphonate-related proximal femoral fractures ...
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Avulsion fractures of the knee

Avulsion fractures of the knee are numerous due to the many ligaments and tendons inserting around this joint. They include 1: anterior cruciate ligament avulsion fracture posterior cruciate ligament avulsion fracture avulsion of the medial collateral ligament origin of MCL avulsion fracture...
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Barton fracture

Barton fractures are fractures of the distal radius. It is also sometimes termed the dorsal type Barton fracture to distinguish it from the volar type or reverse Barton fracture. Barton fractures extend through the dorsal aspect to the articular surface but not to the volar aspect. Therefore, i...
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Benign lytic bone lesions

Benign lytic bone lesions encompass a wide variety of entities.  A useful starting point is the FEGNOMASHIC mnemonic. This article is a stub, which means it needs more content. You can contribute to Radiopaedia too. Just register and click edit... every little bit helps. See also malignant l...
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Bent bone dysplasias (differential)

Bent bone dysplasias are a class of dysplasia included in a 2010 classification of genetic skeletal disorders 1. campomelic dysplasia Stuve-Weidemann dysplasia kyphomelic dysplasias, a diverse class, including congenital bowing of the long bones cartilage-hair hypoplasia (CHH; metaphyseal d...
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Bilateral thinning of the parietal bones

Bilateral thinning of the parietal bones, also known as biparietal osteodystrophy, is an uncommon, slowly progressive acquired disease of middle-aged people with slight female predilection. It is typically an incidental finding.  Pathology The etiology is unknown but is thought to be an age-re...
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Birth trauma

Birth trauma relates to those conditions caused by both physical/mechanical and hypoxic injuries. Epidemiology Birth trauma occurs in ~5 per 1000 births 2. Risk factors asphyxia breech presentation shoulder dystocia instrument delivery macrosomia obstructed labor Pathology Etiology T...
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Blow out bone metastases

Blow out bone metastases or expansile bone metastases are typically only encountered in a relatively small number of primary malignancies, including 1: renal cell carcinoma thyroid cancer hepatocellular carcinoma Occasionally the sclerotic metastases of prostate cancer may also be expansile ...
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Blumensaat line

Blumensaat line, also known as the intercondylar line, is the line drawn along the roof of the intercondylar notch of the femur on sagittal view of the knee. It can been used for: indicating relative position of patella - normally intersects the lower pole of the patella evaluating for ACL in...
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Bone deformity from softening

Conditions associated with bone deformity from softening includes: hourglass thorax bowing of long bones acetabular protrusion buckled/compressed pelvis biconcave vertebral bodies / codfish vertebra
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Bone lesions with sequestrum

There are several bony lesions that can involve or produce a sequestrum. They include: Common Brodie abscess: osteomyelitis Less common eosinophilic granuloma certain soft tissue tumors (with bony extension)  malignant fibrous histiocytoma lymphoma metastasis (especially from breast ca...
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Bone mineral density

Bone mineral density (BMD) is defined as the amount of mineral (calcium hydroxyapatite) per unit of bone. Radiographic features BMD can be measured by various methods with DEXA the most prevalent gamma rays: replaced by radiographic methods single-energy photon absorptiometry (SPA) was super...
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Bone within a bone appearance

Bone within a bone is a descriptive term applied to bones that appear to have another bone within them. There are numerous causes including: normal thoracic and lumbar vertebrae (neonates and infants) growth recovery lines (after infancy) cortical splitting and new periostitis sickle cell d...
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Boogard's angle

Boogard's angle is measured by drawing a line from basion to opisthion and another line along the plane of the clivus to the basion intersecting the first line - the angle between these two lines is measured . The normal angle is 126° +/- 6°. If the angle measures more than 136° it is indicativ...
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Brachial plexitis

Brachial plexitis refers to inflammatory change involving the brachial plexus. This is in contrast to a brachial plexopathy meaning any form of pathology involving the brachial plexus. Epidemiology Brachial plexitis is more commonly seen in men between 30 and 70 years of age and is bilateral i...
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Bridging of the pubic symphysis (differential)

Bridging (or fusion) of the pubic symphysis can be associated with various systemic and local causes, including 1-3: ankylosing spondylitis ochronosis fluorosis surgical fusion post-traumatic post-infectious post-radiation therapy osteoarthritis rheumatoid arthritis osteitis pubis myo...
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Buckle rib fracture

Buckle rib fractures are typical of an anterior compressive force to the chest, most commonly external cardiac massage, but can be seen following any such traumatic injury. Pathology Buckle rib fractures occur in all ages, even very elderly patients. Thus ribs are not the same as most adult lo...
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Butterfly fragment (fracture)

Butterfly fragments are large, triangular fracture fragments seen commonly in comminuted long bone fractures. The term is commonly used in orthopedic surgery, and results from two oblique fracture lines meeting to create a large triangular or wedge-shaped fragment located between the proximal an...
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Capitolunate angle

The capitolunate angle is the angle between the long axis of the capitate and the mid axis of the lunate on the sagittal imaging of the wrist. In a normal situation it should be less than 30o in the resting (neutral) position. The angle is increased in carpal instability such as with a dorsal i...
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Carpal angle

Carpal angle is defined by two intersecting lines, one in contact with the proximal surface of the scaphoid and the lunate and the other line through proximal margins of the the triquetrum and the lunate. Its normal value is between 130° and 137°. It is increased in (> 139°) bone dysplasia Do...
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Cartilaginous lesions

The differential for cartilagenous lesions includes: osteochondroma enchondroma juxtacortical chondroma chondromyxoid fibroma chondroblastoma chondrosarcoma See also fibrous lesions osteoid lesions
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Causes of abnormal lunate signal on MRI

There are several important causes of an abnormal lunate signal on MRI, the most frequent causes being Kienbock disease (25%), ulnar impaction syndrome (25%) and intraosseous ganglia (20%).1 Appreciation of the pattern of bone signal change can often allow the correct diagnosis to be made. Kien...
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Cervical spine fractures

Cervical spine fractures can occur secondary to exaggerated flexion or extension, or because of direct trauma or axial loading. Pathology The cervical spine is susceptible to injury because it is highly mobile with relatively small vertebral bodies and supports the head which is both heavy and...
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Cervical spine injury

Cervical spine injuries can involve the cervical vertebral column, intervertebral discs and cervical spine ligaments, and/or cervical spinal cord. The cervical spine accounts for ~50% of all spinal injuries.  Epidemiology 5-10% of patients with blunt trauma have a cervical spine injury 1.  Pa...
Article

Chamberlain line

Chamberlain line is a line joining the back of hard palate with the opisthion on a lateral view of the craniocervical junction. Significance It helps to recognize basilar invagination which is said to be present if the tip of the dens is >3 mm above this line. McGregor developed a modificatio...
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Chance fracture

Chance fractures, also referred to as seatbelt fractures, are flexion-distraction type injuries of the spine that extend to involve all three spinal columns. These are unstable injuries and have a high association with intra-abdominal injuries. Pathology Mechanism They tend to occur from a fl...
Article

Chondrocalcinosis

Chondrocalcinosis is a descriptive term indicating the presence of gross calcium deposition within articular cartilage, i.e. both hyaline and fibrocartilage. Terminology Chondrocalcinosis articularis was an early term for calcium pyrophosphate dihydrate deposition disease (CPPD) 5, which may e...
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Christmas inspired signs

There are many signs in radiology that are related to Christmas: snowcap sign in avascular necrosis snowman sign in total anomalous pulmonary venous return in pituitary macroadenomas snowstorm appearance in complete hydatidiform and testicular microlithiasis holly leaf sign in calcified pl...
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Clavicle tumors

Clavicle tumors may be malignant or benign. Malignant metastases prostate breast cervix ovary urinary bladder carcinoid osteosarcoma osteosarcoma lymphoma primary metastatic Benign osteoma: uncommon, sclerotic, hamartomatous surface lesion enchondroma: rare, geographic, intramedu...
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Closed reduction

Closed reduction or manipulation is a common non-invasive method of treating mildly displaced fractures. Usually performed in an emergency department or orthopedic clinic with light sedation and analgesia, the fracture is manipulated back into anatomic alignment and immobilized with a cast, brac...
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Coaptation

Coaptation refers to a joining or reuniting of two surfaces. This can be in the setting of ends of a broken bone or the edges of a wound or edges of a valve. See also coaptation zone
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Codman triangle periosteal reaction

Codman triangle is a type of periosteal reaction seen with aggressive bone lesions. The periosteum does not have time to ossify with shells of new bone (e.g. as seen in a single layer and multilayered periosteal reaction) in aggressive lesions, so only the edge of the raised periosteum will ossi...
Article

COL4A1-related disorders

COL4A1-related disorders are a group of autosomal dominant disorders caused by a mutation in the COL4A1 gene. Epidemiology The exact prevalence is unknown, but the group of disorders is considered to be under-recognized, especially asymptomatic variants 1. Clinical presentation The clinical ...
Article

Companion shadows

Companion shadows are smooth, homogeneous, radiopaque shadows running parallel along the bones. In a study of 700 chest radiographs, Ben Felson found that 75% had companion shadows on the lower ribs 3. Radiographic features They appear secondary to soft tissues and intercostal muscles running ...
Article

Complications of total hip arthroplasty

Complications of total hip arthroplasty are common and it is essential for the radiologist to be aware of them in the assessment of radiographs of total hip replacements. Complications are many and can occur at various time intervals following the initial surgery: aseptic loosening: considered ...
Article

Conditions involving skin and bone

There are many conditions that can involve both skin and bone. osteolytic bone lesions congenital neurofibromatosis basal cell nevus syndrome angiodysplasias acquired scleroderma rheumatoid arthritis gout leprosy syphilis actinomycosis langerhans cell histiocytosis sarcoidosis mas...
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Congenital limb amputation

Congenital limb amputation is the absence of a fetal limb or part of a limb that usually occurs due to disruption of vascular supply. Epidemiology Congenital amputations occur in 0.5 (range 0.03-1) per 1000 live births 2.  Pathology They are slightly more common in the upper limb (60%) than ...
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Contrecoup injury (knee)

A contrecoup injury of the knee is a bone contusion of the posterior lip of the medial tibial plateau. It occurs during knee reduction after a pivot shift injury and is highly associated with ACL tears 1, and peripheral tear or meniscocapsular separation of the medial meniscus posterior horn 2. ...
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Coronal vertebral cleft

Coronal vertebral clefts refer to the presence of radiolucent vertical defects on a lateral radiograph.   Epidemiology It is most often seen in premature male infants 1,3. As they can occur as part of normal variation (especially in the lower thoracic-upper lumbar spine of premature infants) t...
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Coronoid process fracture

Fractures of the coronoid process of the ulna are uncommon and often occur in association with elbow dislocation.  Pathology Mechanism Fracture of the coronoid process is thought to result from elbow hyperextension with either avulsion of the brachialis tendon insertion or shearing off by the...
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Craniovertebral junction anomalies

Craniovertebral junction (CVJ) anomalies can be congenital, developmental or due to malformation secondary to any acquired disease process. These anomalies can lead to cranial nerve compression, vertebral artery compression and obstructive hydrocephalus. Pathology The craniovertebral junction ...
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Crystal arthropathy

Crystal arthropathies are a group of joint disorders due to deposition of crystals in and around joints which lead to joint destruction and soft tissue masses. Pathology The most common arthropathies are: gouty arthropathy due to monosodium urate (MSU) deposition pseudogout due to calcium py...
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C sign (talocalcaneal coalition)

The C sign is an important radiological sign which may be seen on a lateral radiograph of the ankle in those with the talocalcaneal subtype of tarsal coalition.  Radiographic appearance A continuous C-shaped arc on a lateral ankle radiograph is formed by the medial outline of the talar dome an...
Article

Cystic fibrosis (musculoskeletal manifestations)

The musculoskeletal manifestations of cystic fibrosis are uncommon compared to the well known respiratory manifestations.  Clinical presentation Symptoms are non-specific and include joint pain, joint swelling, back pain, and myalgia. These may mimic rheumatic symptoms, however, they do not me...
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Cyst-like lesions around the knee

There is broad differential for cyst-like lesions around the knee.  Differential diagnosis Cysts synovial cyst popliteal synovial cyst - Baker cyst ganglion cyst intra-articular ganglion cyst ACL ganglion cyst PCL ganglion cyst Hoffa fat pad ganglion cyst extra-articular ganglion cyst ...
Article

Delayed bone age

A generalized retardation in skeletal maturation has different causative or etiological factors, these can be classified as follows: chronic ill health congenital heart disease (especially cyanotic) chronic renal disease inflammatory bowel disease malnutrition: failure to thrive (FTT) rick...
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Dense base of the skull (differential)

The differential diagnosis for a dense base of the skull includes: Fibrous dysplasia Paget's disease Camurati-Engelmann disease Van Buchem disease osteopetrosis pyknodysostosis meningioma sclerosteosis  
Article

Dense metaphyseal bands (differential)

The differential diagnosis of dense metaphyseal bands is wide. Differential diagnosis Common chronic anemia, e.g. sickle cell disease, thalassemia chemotherapy, e.g. methotrexate growth acceleration lines following growth arrest due to systemic illness or stress in infancy or childhood, e.g...
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Diaphragmatic paralysis

Diaphragmatic paralysis (also considered very similar to the term diaphragmatic palsy) can be unilateral or bilateral. Clinical presentation Clinical features are highly variable according to underlying etiological factor: unilateral paralysis: asymptomatic in most of the patients as the othe...
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Diaphyseal lesions

Diaphyseal lesions are unsurprisingly predominantly found centered in the diaphysis.  Differential diagnosis simple bone cyst fibrous dysplasia enchondroma metastases myeloma / plasmacytoma lymphoma osteomyelitis osteoid osteoma round cell tumor, e.g. Ewing sarcoma (children) bone inf...
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Differential diagnosis for metatarsal region pain

Forefoot pain in the metatarsal region is a common complaint and may be caused by a number of conditions. It is worthwhile for a radiologist to have knowledge of the potential causes and their imaging features 1. Pathology Etiology Trauma turf toe plantar plate disruption sesamoiditis str...
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Diffuse bone sclerosis (differential)

Diffuse bone sclerosis can result from a number of causes. They include: hematological causes myelofibrosis sickle cell disease diffuse osteosclerosing myeloma: rare mastocytosis  metabolic bone disorders hyperthyroidism hypoparathyroidism renal osteodystrophy congenital sclerosing bo...
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Diffusely increased bone marrow FDG uptake

A diffuse homogeneous bone marrow FDG uptake usually reflects hyperplastic bone marrow which can be seen in the following conditions: therapy-related granulocyte colony stimulating factor (G-CSF) post-chemotherapy erythropoietin pathological process myelodysplastic syndromes beta thalasse...
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Diffuse T1 bone marrow signal loss

Diffuse T1 vertebral bone marrow signal loss has a number of causes. T1-weighted imaging without fat suppression is one of the most important sequences for distinguishing between normal and abnormal bone marrow. Given the homogeneity, this appearance can often be difficult to spot as abnormal.  ...
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Disarticulation

The term disarticulation refers to the disconnection of all or part of a limb from the body, specifically through a joint. This is in contrast to amputation, which is the disconnection or removal of the structure through a bone.
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Disorganized periosteal reaction

Disorganized or complex periosteal reaction has spicules with random orientation and appearance. It can be seen in highly aggressive processes: osteosarcoma metastasis osteomyelitis chondrosarcoma Ewing sarcoma stress fracture malignant fibrous histiocytoma spindle cell sarcoma See also...
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Distal clavicular erosion (differential)

Erosion or absence of the distal ends of the clavicles may be seen in a wide range of conditions. Differential diagnosis Bilateral erosions weightlifter's shoulder: due to repetitive microtrauma; classically described in weightlifters, but can affect anyone performing repetitive overhead lift...
Article

Dynamic hip screw

Dynamic hip screws (DHS) are a femoral head-sparing orthopedic device used to treat femoral neck fractures. It is sometimes referred to as a pin and plate. Neck fractures that are undisplaced and hence have a low risk of avascular necrosis (Garden I and II fractures) can be treated with head-pr...
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Dystrophic soft tissue calcification

Dystrophic soft tissue calcification is a broad term that encompasses a wide range of pathologies that cause soft-tissue calcification and is caused by calcification of damaged tissues.  The amorphous calcification that results may be small or large.  In some cases, ossification may occur - this...
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Elbow arthroplasty

Elbow arthroplasties are an increasingly common joint replacement, most often used for treatment of late stage rheumatoid arthritis, but which may also be used as a treatment for late stage osteoarthritis or complex fractures of the proximal radius, proximal ulna, or distal humerus. total elbow...
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Empyema

Empyemas are purulent inflammatory collections within a body cavity. Contrast this with abscesses, which arise within parenchymal tissue, rather than occupying a pre-existing anatomical space. Terminology Colloquially, the standalone term empyema is used to refer to thoracic empyemas but there...
Article

Endosteal scalloping

Endosteal scalloping refers to the focal resorption of the inner layer of the cortex (i.e. the endosteum) of bones, most typically long bones, due to slow-growing medullary lesions. It is important to note that although it is evidence of a slow non-infiltrative lesion, it does not equate to ben...
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Epicondyle fracture

Epicondyle fractures are common injuries in children. They represent 10% of all elbow fractures in children and usually occur in boys after a fall on an outstretched arm. Medial epicondyle fractures comprise most of these injuries. They can usually be treated with splinting and early physiother...
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Epigastric hernia

An epigastric hernia occurs ventrally through a defect in the linea alba superior the umbilicus. It is also known as a fatty hernia of linea alba. Risk factors obesity  pregnancy Radiographic features Ultrasound Shows a midline defect which is usually small with or without herniation of om...
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Epiphyseal lesions (differential)

Epiphyseal lesions comprise tumors and other pathologies that occur around the epiphysis and any epiphyseal equivalent bone. Differential diagnosis Common differential diagnoses include 2-4: chondroblastoma: rare epiphyseal tumor found in young adults; it usually does not extend into the meta...
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Eponymous fractures

There are numerous eponymous fractures which are named after the people who first described their existence 1: Bankart fracture: glenoid Barton fracture: wrist Bennett fracture: thumb Bosworth fracture: ankle Chance fracture: vertebral Charcot joint: foot Chopart fracture: foot Colles fr...
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Erlenmeyer flask deformity

Erlenmeyer flask deformity (EFD) (also known as metaphyseal flaring) refers to a radiographic appearance typically on a femoral radiograph demonstrating relative constriction of the diaphysis and flaring of the metaphysis. It has been classically used with reference to the distal ends of the fe...
Article

Erosion of superior aspects of ribs (differential)

Differential diagnosis of erosion of the superior aspects of the ribs include:  hyperparathyroidism rheumatoid arthritis scleroderma neurofibromatosis poliomyelitis progeria
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Erosion of the odontoid process (differential)

Erosion of the odontoid peg can result from a number of pathological entities: inflammatory arthropathy rheumatoid arthritis: classic 1,2 systemic lupus erythematosus crystal arthropathy calcium pyrophosphate arthropathy (CPPD): relatively common gout non-inflammatory arthropathy: osteoar...
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Erosive arthritis (differential)

Erosive arthritis has a broad differential, including: erosive osteoarthritis clinically an acute inflammatory attacks (swelling, erythema, pain) in postmenopausal woman typically includes the DIPs, PIPs 1st CMC joint 6, but not the metacarpophalangeal (MCP) joints and large joints classic c...
Article

Ewing sarcoma family of tumors

Ewing sarcoma family of tumors are a group of small round blue cell tumors that are closely histogenetically related, all demonstrating non-random t(11;22)(q24;q12) chromosome rearrangement resulting in the formation of the EWS-ETS fusion gene 1-3.  Terminology Although the literature is litte...
Article

Exostosis

Exostoses are defined as benign growths of bone extending outwards from the surface of a bone. It can occur in any bone and be triggered by a number of factors. There are a number of examples of exostoses that occur due to local irritant stimuli: ivory exostosis exostosis of the external audit...
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Expansile lytic lesions without cortical destruction of bone (differential)

Expansile lytic bone lesions without cortical destruction can result from various benign and malignant neoplastic pathologies, causes include 1: unicameral bone cyst aneurysmal bone cyst (eccentric) enchondroma chondromyxoid fibroma (eccentric) non-ossifying fibroma (eccentric) desmoplasti...
Article

Extensor mechanism of the knee injuries

Extensor mechanism of the knee injuries include: quadriceps muscle tears quadriceps tendon rupture patellar tendon rupture patella fracture patellar dislocation often with medial retinaculum tears patellar sleeve fractures Chronic injuries Osgood-Schlatter disease Sinding-Larsen-Johans...
Article

Extraskeletal musculoskeletal lesions by compartment

Knowing extraskeletal musculoskeletal lesions by compartment is useful to help generate a meaningful differential diagnosis: Intermuscular extraskeletal myxoid chondrosarcoma fibromatosis ganglion leiomyosarcoma nodular fasciitis neurogenic tumors synovial cyst Intra-articular lipoma a...
Article

Facet dislocation

Facet dislocation refers to anterior displacement of one vertebral body on another. Without a fracture, the only way anterior displacement can occur is by dislocation of the facets.  Facet dislocation can occur to varying degrees: subluxed facets perched facets locked facets The injury usua...
Article

Fall onto an outstretched hand

Fall onto an outstretched hand (FOOSH) is a common mechanism for wrist-forearm fractures, in certain cases with involvement of elbow structures, particularly in children. Some injuries that result from such a fall include: Colles fracture Scaphoid fracture Monteggia fracture-dislocation Gal...
Article

Femoral anteversion

Femoral anteversion refers to the orientation of the femoral neck in relation to the femoral condyles at the level of the knee. In most cases, the femoral neck is oriented anteriorly as compared to the femoral condyles. In the case of posterior orientation, the term femoral retroversion is also ...
Article

Fetal rib fractures

Fetal rib fractures can be caused by certain skeletal dysplasias. These include: osteogenesis imperfecta: type II - one of the classical causes of fetal rib fractures achondrogenesis: type Ia - Houston-Harris sub type
Article

Fibromatosis

Fibromatosis refers to a wide range of soft tissue lesions that share an underlying histopathologic pattern of fibrous tissue proliferation. They can occur in a variety of anatomic sites (e.g. musculoskeletal, abdominopelvic, breast, etc.) and also vary in their behavior, ranging from indolent/b...
Article

Fibrous hamartoma of infancy

Fibrous hamartoma of infancy is a rare benign tumor of the subcutaneous tissues seen in children. More than 90% of cases present in the first year of life with up to 25% being congenital 1. Epidemiology There is a reported male:female ratio of 2:1 but the exact incidence is unknown 2. Clinica...
Article

Fibrous lesions

The differential for fibrous lesions is wide and includes: non-ossifying fibroma fibrous dysplasia osteofibrous dysplasia / adamantinoma desmoplastic fibroma fibromatoses, e.g.  plantar fibromatosis palmar fibromatosis malignant fibrous histiocytoma / fibrosarcoma dermatofibrosarcoma p...
Article

Floating meniscus

Floating meniscus (also known as meniscal avulsion) occurs in acute traumatic settings when the meniscotibial coronary ligaments get disrupted leading to avulsion of the meniscus from the tibial plateau. Radiographic features MRI Displacement of the meniscus for 5 mm or more from the tibial p...

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