Articles

Articles are a collaborative effort to provide a single canonical page on all topics relevant to the practice of radiology. As such, articles are written and edited by countless contributing members over a period of time. A global group of dedicated editors oversee accuracy, consulting with expert advisers, and constantly reviewing additions.

140 results found
Article

Abdominal paracentesis

Abdominal paracentesis, more commonly referred to as an ascitic tap, is a procedure that can be performed to collect peritoneal fluid for analysis or as a therapeutic intervention. Indications diagnostic: especially for newly-diagnosed ascites determine etiology of ascites assess for bacteri...
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Adrenal vein sampling

Adrenal vein sampling (AVS) is a procedure where blood is collected from the adrenal veins via catheter to confirm autonomous hormone production, if it is unilateral or bilateral, and to guide further treatment. Indication AVS is commonly performed in primary aldosteronism, being indicated to ...
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Amniocentesis

Amniocentesis, also known as amniotic fluid testing or AFT, is a diagnostic or therapeutic medical procedure primarily used in prenatal diagnosis of chromosomal abnormalities and fetal infections. A small amount of amniotic fluid (15-20 ml), which contains fetal tissue, is extracted from the am...
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Antegrade ureteric stent

Antegrade ureteric stents are performed under fluoroscopic guidance, typically by an interventional radiologist or urologist. It is performed via percutaneous access from the kidney. It is usually performed using the access from a prior percutaneous nephrostomy, a so-called two-step procedure, a...
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Antonio Egas Moniz

Antonio Egas Moniz (1874-1955) 1 was a pioneering Portuguese neurologist that is notable in radiology history for his development of cerebral angiography in 1927. He is also known as the developer of prefrontal leucotomy (now better known as a lobotomy) ​for which he received a Nobel Prize in 1...
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Arteriovenous access

Arteriovenous access is required for haemodialysis in renal failure patients. The upper limb is generally preferred as a site, however, lower limb access can also be obtained. Ultrasound is the preferred modality for evaluation of the vessels prior to creating an access. Types arteriovenous fi...
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Balloon-occluded retrograde transvenous obliteration

Balloon-occluded retrograde transvenous obliteration (BRTO) is a technique used by interventional radiologists in the treatment of gastric varices, particularly those with prominent infra-diaphragmatic portosystemic venous shunts (e.g. gastro-renal and gastro-caval shunts). The technique is mor...
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Basilar artery aneurysm

Basilar artery aneurysms are less common than anterior circulation aneurysms, and rupture less frequently, but their critical location necessitates careful evaluation. Radiographic features CT may present as a lobulated hyperattenuating structure anterior to the mid brain rupture of a basil...
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Brachytherapy

Brachytherapy, also known as sealed source radiotherapy or endocurietherapy, is a form of radiotherapy where a radioactive source is placed, under the guidance of imaging, within or next to the area requiring treatment. Brachytherapy is commonly used to treat localized prostate cancer, breast c...
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Breast core biopsy

The percutaneous breast biopsy is one of the current choices for focal histopathological assessment of breast lesions. In contrast to fine needle aspiration, during a core needle biopsy, a hollow needle is used to withdraw small cores of tissue from the area of interest in the breast.  This pro...
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Breast ductography

Breast ductography (a.k.a. galactography) is an imaging technique which is used to evaluate lesions causing nipple discharge. It helps in precisely locating the mass within breast tissue and gives useful information for surgical approach and planning. Technique A blunt-tipped sialogram needle ...
Article

Buried bumper syndrome

Buried bumper syndrome (BBS) is a rare but important complication in patients with a percutaneous gastrostomy tube, occurring by migration of the internal bumper along its track. The tube may get lodged anywhere between the gastric wall and the skin and lead to life-threatening complications inc...
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Call-Fleming syndrome

Call-Fleming syndrome, also called Call syndrome, essentially synonymous with the more current term reversible cerebral vasoconstriction syndrome (RCVS), although it is felt to be a subset of the former by some, representing the idiopathic RCVS.  Call-Flemming syndrome is therefore characterize...
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Carbon dioxide angiography

Carbon dioxide is an excellent low-density contrast material which has been used for a variety of vascular interventions since the introduction of digital subtraction angiography. Due to high solubility rate and rapid diffusibility via lung CO2 is safe for intravascular usage. Physical and chem...
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Carotid arterial stenting

Carotid arterial stenting (CAS) is a minimally invasive endovascular interventional procedure that can potentially offer the same advantage as surgery (carotid endarterectomy). Indications Indications for carotid stenting are evolving with endarterectomy trials that evaluate the carotid stenos...
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Catheter-directed thrombolysis

Catheter-directed thrombolysis (CDT) is an endovascular approach to the treatment of acute iliofemoral deep vein thrombosis. It involves the administration of a lytic agent directly into a thrombus.  Indications precise diagnosis of iliofemoral deep vein thrombosis  first episode of acute ili...
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Caudal epidural injection

Caudal epidural injections, or sacral hiatus epidural injections, are one of several possible spinal epidural injections.  Indications Typically, epidural injections are performed in patients who are currently not surgical candidates. The caudal injection can be performed when patients are on ...
Article

Cell block cytology

Cell block cytology is a technique used in cytopathology (in addition to smears) for evaluation of tissue from fine needle aspirations or fluid aspirations. Multiple different protocols exist for processing a cell block, but the fundamental principles are the same: fragmentary bits of tissue (...
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Central venous catheter

Central venous catheters (CVC) or lines (CVL) refer to a wide range of central venous access devices but can broadly be divided into four categories. They may be inserted by medical, surgical, anesthetic/ITU, or radiology specialists. Classification peripherally inserted central catheters (PIC...
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Cerebral angiography

Cerebral angiography is an interventional procedure for the diagnosis and/or treatment of intracranial pathology. Indications Cerebral digital subtraction angiography (DSA) is indicated in a variety of settings including: diagnosis and treatment of: aneurysms acute ischemic stroke vascular...
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Cervical interlaminar epidural injection

Cervical interlaminar epidural injections are one of some possible spinal epidural injections. For an alternative approach for the same region, please refer to the article on cervical transforaminal epidural injections.  Indications Typically epidural injections are performed in patients with ...
Article

Charles T Dotter

Charles T Dotter (1920-1985) is often considered the father of interventional radiology who in 1964 performed the very first peripheral angioplasty, and made many other major contributions in this field. Early life Charles Theodore Dotter was born in Boston on 14th June 1920. He graduated with...
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Chorionic villus sampling

Chorionic villus sampling (CVS) is an antenatal procedure for prenatal diagnosis of chromosomal or genetic disorders in the fetus. It entails getting a sample of the chorionic villus (placental tissue) and testing it. A transabdominal or transcervical approach is selected depending on the posit...
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Celiac plexus block

Celiac plexus block under image guidance is an easy and safe percutaneous procedure with good outcomes for pain palliation in patients who have chronic abdominal pain related to the celiac ganglia.  This usually includes patients with advanced cancers, especially from upper abdominal viscera, s...
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Coronary Artery Disease - Reporting and Data System - SCCT/ACR/NASCI (2016)

Coronary Artery Disease - Reporting and Data System (CAD-RADSTM) classification is proposed by the Society for Cardiovascular Computed Tomography (SCCT), the American College of Radiology (ACR), and the North American Society for Cardiovascular Imaging (NASCI), last updated in 2016. This recomm...
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CT cisternography

Computed tomography (CT) cisternography is an imaging technique used to diagnose CSF rhinorrhea or CSF otorrhea (CSF leaks), as CT allows the assessment of the bones of the base of skull.  Procedure pre-contrast CT is performed with thin slices 3-10 mL of an iodinated non-ionic low-osmolar co...
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CT guided adrenal biopsy

CT guided adrenal biopsy is usually performed for the diagnosis of indeterminate adrenal nodules or tumors. This procedure has declined in recent years due to improvements in, and validation of, non-invasive CT and MR techniques that can now diagnose benign adrenal lesions with a high degree of ...
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CT guided percutaneous drainage

CT guided percutaneous drainage is one form of image-guided drainage, allowing minimally invasive treatment of collections, potentially anywhere in the body. Although less commonly used than ultrasound guidance, it is particularly valuable in gaining access to deeper or more posterior parts of t...
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CT guided thoracic biopsy

CT guided thoracic biopsy is usually performed for the diagnosis of suspicious lung, pleural or mediastinal lesions. It can be performed as an outpatient where patient monitoring and complications support are available.  A small percentage of lung and pleural biopsies may be performed under ultr...
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Denver shunt

A Denver shunt, or peritoneovenous shunt, is a device used to shunt ascites to the superior vena cava in patients with refractory ascites. The proximal end is located in the peritoneal cavity and the distal end in the superior vena cava, with a subcutaneous course in the anterior chest wall. It...
Article

Double lumen cannula for VV ECMO

The double lumen cannula enables veno-venous extracorporeal membrane oxygenation (VV ECMO) to patients with severe respiratory failure. It is often used as a bridge to lung transplant.  The cannulation is usually performed via the right jugular vein. This position allows the patients to stay aw...
Article

Endoleak

Endoleaks are characterized by persistent blood flow within the aneurysm sac following endovascular aneurysm repair (EVAR). Normally the aortic stent-graft used for EVAR excludes the aneurysm from the circulation by providing a conduit for blood to bypass the sac. Epidemiology An endoleak is a...
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Endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography

Endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography (ERCP) is a diagnostic and interventional procedure technique using both endoscopy and fluoroscopy for examination and intervention of the biliary tree and pancreatic ducts. It is typically performed by doctors with endoscopic qualifications (e.g. g...
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Endotension

Endotension, also referred to as a type V endoleak, is not a true leak but is defined as continued expansion of the aneurysm sac greater than 5 mm, without radiographic evidence of a leak site. Pathology It is a poorly understood phenomenon but thought to be formation of a transudate due to ul...
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Endovascular aneurysm repair

Endovascular aneurysm repair (EVAR) was first pioneered in the early 1990s. Since then technology of the devices has rapidly progressed and EVAR is now widely used as treatment of thoracic and abdominal aortic aneurysms (AAA). The advantages of endovascular repair over open repair are that they...
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Endovascular aneurysm sealing system (EVAS)

Endovascular aneurysm sealing system (EVAS) was developed with the intention to expand beyond the anatomic limitations of endovascular aneurysm repair (EVAR) devices, as well as to decrease the rates of re-intervention secondary to graft migration and type II endoleaks. EVAS was designed by End...
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Epidural blood patch

Epidural blood patch is a treatment option for patients with craniospinal hypotension or post lumbar puncture headaches. The procedure can be done blind or under fluoroscopic or CT guidance, and is performed predominantly by radiologists and anesthesiologists.  Indications craniospinal hypoten...
Article

Facet joint injection

Facet (zygapophyseal) joint injections are one of the most frequently performed spinal interventional procedures, as both treatment for and diagnosis of radicular pain syndrome and facet syndrome. It can be performed under fluoroscopic, or CT image guidance and cervical, thoracic or most commonl...
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Femoral artery pseudoaneurysm

Femoral artery pseudoaneurysms are usually iatrogenic, as the femoral artery is the vessel of choice for most endovascular arterial interventions. Pathology Etiology iatrogenic anticoagulation therapy inadequate compression following endovascular intervention improper arterial puncture tec...
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Fine needle aspiration (FNA)

Fine needle aspiration (FNA) is a type of minimally-invasive tissue sampling. It often uses ultrasound as a targeting instrument, although CT, and even MRI or fluoroscopy could potentially be used, depending on the situation. Imaging guidance is particularly useful when sampling deep or diffuse ...
Article

Flow-diverter stent

Flow-diverter stents are relatively new and important devices in the management of intracranial aneurysms, especially ones that are large, broad-necked or fusiform.  Complications In a multi-center study in Italy, Briganti et al. reported an overall morbidity rate of 3.7% and a mortality rate ...
Article

Fluoroscopic nasojejunal tube insertion

Fluoroscopic nasojejunal (NJT) or nasogastric tube (NGT) insertion is a valuable procedure offered by radiologists in patient care. The majority of nasogastric tubes are inserted on the ward level and nasojejunal tubes may be placed in theater at the time of surgery. In difficult cases, inserti...
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Fluoroscopy guided lumbar puncture

Fluoroscopy-guided lumbar puncture (LP) is a minimally invasive, image-guided diagnostic and therapeutic procedure that involves the removal of a small volume of cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) from, or an injection of medication or other substance (e.g. radiotracer, chemotherapy agents) into the lumb...
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Fractional flow reserve

Fractional flow reserve (FFR) is a technique to evaluate the hemodynamic relevance of coronary artery stenoses 1,2,. It is defined as "the ratio of maximal flow achievable in the stenotic coronary artery to the maximal flow achievable in the same coronary artery if it was normal" 1 . FFR has be...
Article

French gauge

The French gauge (Fr) (also known as the French scale or system) is used to size catheters, and other instruments, in interventional radiology and surgery. In some parts of the world, the Charrière (Ch) is used as the name of the unit, in honor of its inventor.  French sizing The French system...
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Gene expression classifier

A gene expression classifier (GEC) test is a developing technology in the analysis of indeterminate thyroid nodules, using cells from a fine needle aspiration. The most common commercially available GEC in the United States is known as AFIRMA. The test is designed to use molecular markers to he...
Article

Glenohumeral arthrography

Glenohumeral (shoulder) arthrography is an imaging technique used to evaluate the glenohumeral joint to evaluate the joint components. A glenohumeral joint injection is usually performed under fluoroscopic guidance although ultrasound and CT can be also be used. An alternative to direct arthrogr...
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Glenohumeral joint injection (technique)

Glenohumeral joint injections (often referred to as shoulder injections ) are performed as part of a number of therapeutic and imaging procedures using a variety of approaches and modalities. The underlying principles shared by all techniques are to avoid damage to the glenoid labrum, long head ...
Article

Glenohumeral joint hydrodilatation

Glenohumeral joint (shoulder) hydrodilatation or tension arthrography is an established treatment for adhesive capsulitis of the shoulder (frozen shoulder) and can be performed using a variety of modalities.  Indications adhesive capsulitis of the shoulder Contraindications anticoagulation/c...
Article

Heimlich valve

The Heimlich valve, also known as the flutter valve, is a unidirectional valve to ensure that gas/fluid drained from the pleural space cannot flow back in.  The Heimlich valve is cheap, easy to use, and does not require clamping unlike 'traditional' thoracostomy drainage tubes. Suction can stil...
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Hepatic chemosaturation

Hepatic chemosaturation is a percutaneous technique used to locally treat unresectable hepatic metastases in patients without systemic disease. Technique The key to this technique is isolating the blood supply to the liver. This is achieved by: closure of the gastro-duodenal artery by coiling...
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Hepatic venous pressure gradient

Hepatic venous pressure gradient measurement is a safe and minimally invasive method to indirectly measure portal vein pressure in chronic liver disease patients suspected of developing portal vein hypertension.  Indications diagnosis of liver fibrosis and risk stratification identification o...
Article

Hickman catheter

Hickman catheters (or Hickman lines) are a type of tunnelled central venous access device. Indications chemotherapy administration 2 parenteral nutrition 2 long-term parenteral antibiotic administration 2 Complications Insertion arrhythmia (most common) 1 arterial injury kinking pneumo...
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Implantable port

Implantable ports, also known as chemoports, totally implantable central venous access ports or Port-A-Caths®, are a type of central venous catheter for patients requiring long-term venous access. They offer the ability to have long-term central venous access with some of the advantages over per...
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Inferior vena cava filter

Inferior vena cava filter, or just IVC filter, is an endovascular device which is typically placed in the infrarenal inferior vena cava (IVC) to prevent pulmonary embolism in selected patients. This procedure is most often performed by interventional radiologists under fluoroscopic guidance. In...
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Infusothorax

Infusothorax is a complication of central venous catheter malposition where the catheter tip is located in the pleural space and the infusion of the fluid collects inadvertantly in the pleural space in the form of a pleural effusion. Longer term complications depend on the fluid being infused.
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Intercostal catheter

The intercostal catheter (ICC or chest tube) is a tube inserted into the pleural space to drain gas or fluid. It is mainly inserted to treat pneumothorax. Indication The indications are wide and can include 1: pneumothorax chest trauma pleural effusion hemothorax chylothorax bronchopleur...
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Interventional procedure article structure

Interventional articles necessarily require a different structure to other articles. It is important for them to have a consistent structure to maintain uniformity across the site. The suggested structure and headings (and heading size) are as follows: ==========================================...
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Intra-aortic balloon pump

Intra-aortic balloon pumps (IABP) are used in the intensive care setting to provide hemodynamic assistance to patients in cardiogenic shock. Function and physiology The device is comprised of a catheter introduced via a femoral artery sheath, which extends retrogradely to the proximal descendi...
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Irreversible electroporation

Irreversible electroporation (IRE), also known as non-thermal irreversible electroporation (NTIRE), is a non-invasive soft-tissue ablation technique used for tumor ablation in regions that require very high precision and preservation of surrounding collagenous structures (vessels and ducts) and ...
Article

Jugular venous catheters

The internal jugular vein is a preferred site for venous access for large lumen, long-term central venous catheters for chemotherapy, hemofiltration and plasma exchange.  Typically, the right internal jugular is used as its vertical course straight down into the superior vena cava via the right...
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Left paramediastinal catheter position (differential)

When a central venous catheter that is supposed to project over the superior vena cava is abnormally located to the left of the mediastinum a limited differential of left paramediastinal catheter position should be considered 1: located within a vein left sided superior vena cava left interna...
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Liver and biliary interventional procedures

There is a wide range of liver and biliary interventional procedures, both diagnostic and therapeutic, most commonly using CT-guidance or ultrasound-guidance.   Vascular Interventions: transjugular intrahepatic portosystemic shunt (TIPS) transjugular liver biopsy (TJLB) Percutaneous interven...
Article

Lumbar interlaminar epidural injection

Lumbar interlaminar epidural injections are one of some possible spinal epidural injections. For an alternative approach for the same region, please refer to the article on lumbar transforaminal epidural injections.  Indications Typically, epidural injections are performed in patients with rad...
Article

Magnetic resonance cholangiopancreatography

Magnetic resonance cholangiopancreatography (MRCP) is a non-invasive imaging technique to visualize intra and extrahepatic biliary tree and pancreatic ductal system. It can provide the diagnostic range equivalent to the ERCP and so it can replace the ERCP in high risk patient to avoid significa...
Article

May-Thurner syndrome

May-Thurner syndrome refers to a chronic compression of the left common iliac vein (CIV) against the lumbar vertebrae by the overlying right common iliac artery (CIA), with or without deep venous thrombosis 2. Although both left and right CIVs lie deep to the right common iliac artery, the left...
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Mechanical thrombectomy for acute ischemic stroke

Mechanical thrombectomy for acute ischemic stroke is the endovascular retrieval of clots obstructing large intracranial vessels in acute ischemic stroke patients. History In 2015, multiple randomized controlled trials showed improved clinical outcome in patients with acute stroke due to large ...
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Metallic ureteric stent

Metallic ureteric stents are a type of ureteric stent developed to offer improved symptomatic relief of obstruction when compared to polymeric (polyurethane) stents. They are often used in patients with chronic malignant ureteric obstructions who require placement of long-term ureteral stents to...
Article

Multiphase CT angiography in acute ischemic stroke

Multiphase CT angiography is an evolving imaging technique in acute ischemic stroke. The technique aims to quickly and reliably identify brain which is potentially salvageable with intervention. Brain tissue viability depends on many factors, with this technique assessing collateral leptomeninge...
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Needle gauge system

The needle gauge system, often called just the Gauge or G, is an internationally-used scale for sizing needles. It was adopted from pre-existing gauges which were used in industry to size metal wire. In contradistinction to the French scale, the other well-known sizing system, which is a metric...
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Nephrostomy

Nephrostomy is a common urologic or interventional radiology procedure in which a tube/catheter is introduced into the renal collecting system (usually the renal pelvis). Nephrostomies can either be "open" nephrostomy: after a urological surgical procedure, such as a UPJ stone removal these t...
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Esophageal stent

Esophageal stents are a treatment option in patients with esophageal strictures. It is most commonly used for symptomatic relief in those with dysphagia secondary to malignancy. The stent is typically covered in nature and inserted endoscopically or fluoroscopically. The distal esophagus is the ...
Article

O'Kelly-Marotta grading scale

The O'Kelly-Marotta (OKM) grading scale is a proposed method of assessing the degree of angiographic filling and contrast stasis in the setting of intracranial aneurysms treated by endovascular flow diversion. Taking into account the dynamic nature of the contrast stasis, it is designed for use ...
Article

Onyx

OnyxTM is the trade name for a liquid embolic agent used in interventional radiology for the occlusion of blood vessels in embolization therapy. It is an elastic copolymer (ethylene vinyl alcohol copolymer (EVOH)), dissolved in dimethyl-sulfoxide (DMSO). Micronised tantalum powder is also added ...
Article

Patient safety checklist (interventional radiology)

Patient safety has been defined as the absence of preventable harm to a patient during the process of healthcare. Patient safety checklists have been developed by interventional radiologists to govern patient safety and they are useful for the practitioner to keep in mind to ensure every patient...
Article

Percutaneous cholecystostomy

Percutaneous cholecystostomy is an image-guided placement of drainage catheter into gallbladder lumen. This minimally invasive procedure can aid the stabilization of a patient to enable a more measured surgical approach with time for therapeutic planning. A 2018 study 11 demonstrate no differen...
Article

Percutaneous endoscopic gastrostomy

Percutaneous endoscopic gastrostomy (PEG) is a procedure where a is a flexible feeding tube (commonly known as a PEG tube) is inserted through the abdominal wall and into the stomach. This may be placed under endoscopic or radiological guidance, in the latter, the procedure may be known as a per...
Article

Percutaneous nephrolithotomy

Percutaneous nephrolithotomy (PCNL) is a surgical procedure for the extraction of large renal calculi. It is usually performed in the operating theater either by a urologist or combined urologist-radiologist team. Indication PCNL is used to destroy and remove renal calculi, typically over 2 cm...
Article

Percutaneous nephrostomy

Percutaneous nephrostomy is a technique in which percutaneous access to the kidney is achieved under radiological guidance. The access is then often maintained with the use of an indwelling catheter. Indications Percutaneous nephrostomy is usually reserved for when retrograde approaches are un...
Article

Percutaneous nephrostomy salvage and tube exchange

Percutaenous nephrostomy salvage and tube exchange are two procedures undertaken in those with long term nephrostomies. These patients are often either unsuitable or do not wish to have ureteric stenting to relieve their urinary tract obstruction. Nephrostomy salvage Nephrostomy salvage is und...
Article

Percutaneous renal biopsy

Percutaneous renal biopsy, utilizing either ultrasound or CT, allows for an accurate, reliable method of acquiring renal tissue for histopathological assessment. The biopsy may be of a native or transplant kidney. It is divided into two types: non-focal or non-targeted focal or targeted (i.e....
Article

Percutaneous transhepatic biliary drainage

Percutaneous transhepatic biliary drainage is an interventional radiology procedure undertaken for those with biliary obstruction. It is almost exclusively performed in those with a malignant obstruction, such as cholangiocarcinoma, ampullary and pancreatic malignancies when retrograde access v...
Article

Percutaneous transhepatic cholangiography

Percutaneous transhepatic cholangiography (PTC) is a radiographic technique employed in visualization of the biliary tree and can be used as the first step in a number of percutaneous biliary interventions (e.g. percutaneous transhepatic biliary stent placement) Indications Purely diagnostic p...
Article

Peripherally inserted central catheters

Peripherally inserted central catheters (PICC), often incorrectly termed PICC lines, are a type of central venous catheter predominantly used amongst oncology patients and those with chronic diseases (e.g. cystic fibrosis). They offer the ability to have long-term central venous access without ...
Article

Periprocedural anticoagulation

When planning an interventional procedure a patient’s coagulation status must be assessed and optimized to best balance the risk of bleeding and thrombosis. The following must be considered; bleeding risks associated with the procedure medications the patient is taking that alter coagulation o...
Article

Peritoneal dialysis catheter

A peritoneal dialysis catheter is a flexible tube designed for peritoneal dialysis, the most well-known and widely-used being the Tenckhoff catheter.  History In 1968 an American nephrologist Henry A Tenckhoff (d.2017) 2 introduced his eponymous peritoneal indwelling catheter 1. The major impr...
Article

Persistent communications between the carotid and vertebrobasilar arteries (mnemonic)

A mnemonic to recall the persistent communications between the anterior (carotid) and posterior (vertebrobasilar) systems is: HOT Pepper Knowledge of these anatomical variants is important to avoid confusion with pathology and to prevent inadvertent injury during surgery. Mnemonic H: hypoglo...
Article

PHASES risk prediction score

The PHASES risk prediction score is a method of calculating the absolute 5-year risk of intracranial aneurysm rupture based on the data pooled from prospective cohort studies in the USA, Canada, Netherlands, Finland and Japan1. PHASES stands for: Population, Hypertension, Age, Size, Earlier suba...
Article

Pinch off syndrome

Pinch-off syndrome is a spontaneous catheter fracture, which is seen as a complication of subclavian venous catheterization. Epidemiology It is a known complication of central venous catheterization with a much-reduced incidence in current practice and is generally considered to be rare. Radi...
Article

Portal vein embolization

Portal vein embolization (PVE) is a technique used to selectively occlude the blood supply to one of the liver lobes, diverting portal blood flow to the other lobe, the future liver remnant (FLR). This diversion will increase the size of the post-hepatectomy future liver remnant (FLR) which imp...
Article

Post thrombotic syndrome

Post thrombotic syndrome (PTS) is a syndrome of chronic venous insufficiency following deep vein thrombosis (DVT) due to valvular incompetence, which results in chronic reflux and chronic venous hypertension. Epidemiology PTS is a common complication following extensive DVT of the limbs. Up to...
Article

Prostatic artery embolization

Prostatic artery embolization (PAE) is a minimally invasive procedure option utilized to treat the benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH).  Indications PAE has been used for controlling prostatic hemorrhage (such as those associated prostate cancer) since 1970. However, its use in the treatment of...
Article

Pulmonary artery catheter

Pulmonary artery catheters (or Swan-Ganz catheters) are balloon flotation catheters that can be inserted simply, quickly, with little training and without fluoroscopic guidance, at the bedside, even in the seriously ill patient. Historically they were widely used to measure right heart hemodynam...

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