Articles

Articles are a collaborative effort to provide a single canonical page on all topics relevant to the practice of radiology. As such, articles are written and edited by countless contributing members over a period of time. A global group of dedicated editors oversee accuracy, consulting with expert advisers, and constantly reviewing additions.

36 results found
Article

Anterosuperior mediastinal mass (mnemonic)

The common causes of an anterosuperior mediastinal mass can be remembered by using the mnemonic: 5 Ts Mnemonic T: thymus T: thyroid T: thoracic aorta T: terrible lymphoma T: teratoma and germ cell tumors - see mediastinal germ cell tumors Testicular cancer metastasis can represent a sixt...
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Apical lung diseases (mnemonic)

Handy mnemonics to remember common apical lung diseases are: SET CARP CARPETS (anagram of SET CARP) Mnemonics S: sarcoidosis E: eosinophilic pneumonia T: tuberculosis C: cystic fibrosis A: ankylosing spondylitis R: radiation pneumonitis P: pneumoconiosis
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Bochdalek hernia features (mnemonic)

A helpful mnemonic for remembering the features of a Bochdalek hernia is: 5 Bs Mnemonic B: Bochdalek B: big B: back and medial, usually on the left side B: baby B: bad (associated with pulmonary hypoplasia) To remember the side in which a Bochdalek hernia more commonly occurs (and to con...
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Branches of the thoracoacromial artery (mnemonic)

Useful mnemonics to remember the four branches of the thoracoacromial artery are: ABCD CAlifornia Police Department Cadavers Are Dead People PACkeD Mnemonics ABCD A: acromial B: breast (pectoral) C: clavicular D: deltoid CAlifornia Police Department C: clavicular A: acromial  P: pe...
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Bronchial fracture (mnemonic)

A mnemonic for the features of a bronchial fracture on a chest radiograph is: Ps (or written as PPP or PPPP) Mnemonic Ps: progressive or persistent pneumothorax or pneumomediastinum
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Bronchopulmonary segments (mnemonic)

Mnemonics to remember the bronchopulmonary segments are: A PALM Seed Makes Another Little Palm (right lung) ASIA ALPS (left lung) Mnemonics 'A PALM Seed Makes Another Little Palm' right upper lobe A: apical segment P: posterior segment A: anterior segment middle lobe L: lateral segment...
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Bronchovascular spread (mnemonic)

A mnemonic to remember diseases that undergo bronchovascular spread is: SKILL Mnemonic S: sarcoidosis K: Kaposi sarcoma I: infection (e.g. pneumocystis pneumonia, tuberculosis) L: lymphoma L: lymphangitis carcinomatosis
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Calcifying pulmonary metastases (mnemonic)

A useful mnemonic to remember the causes of calcifying pulmonary metastases is: BOBCAT Mnemonic B: bone (chondrosarcoma, osteosarcoma) O: ovary B: breast C: colon A: any primary post-chemotherapy T: thyroid
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Cardiophrenic angle mass (mnemonic)

A useful mnemonic to remember the differential diagnoses of a cardiophrenic angle mass is: Fat PAD Mnemonic F: fat P: pericardial cyst A: aneurysm, adenopathy D: diaphragmatic hernia
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Causes of air trapping on high-resolution CT chest (mnemonic)

Mnemonics to remember the causes of air trapping on HRCT chest are: HSBC Once with HSBC, you are "trapped" with HSBC Mnemonic H: hypersensitivity pneumonitis S: sarcoidosis B: bronchiolitis obliterans C: cystic fibrosis/bronchiectasis
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Chest radiograph preinterpretation (mnemonic)

A helpful mnemonic for chest radiograph preinterpretation is: POPIRAM Mnemonic P: projection, PA (Posterior-Anterior) or AP (Anterior-Posterior)? left lateral or right lateral? O: orientation, determine left and right of the chest x-ray P: penetration (of the x-ray), under- or over-penetrat...
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Common causes of bronchiectasis (mnemonic)

A mnemonic to remember the common causes of bronchiectasis is: CAPT Kangaroo has Mounier-Kuhn Mnemonic C: cystic fibrosis or congenital cystic bronchiectasis (Williams-Campbell syndrome) A: allergic bronchopulmonary aspergillosis (ABPA) P: post-infectious (most common) T: tuberculosis (gra...
Article

Complications of pulmonary interstitial emphysema (mnemonic)

A useful mnemonic to remember the complications of pulmonary interstitial emphysema is that the most common ones begin with: pneum- Mnemonic pneumatocele pneumothorax pneumomediastinum pneumoperitoneum
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Conditions with lower lobe predominance (mnemonic)

Mnemonics for conditions with a lower lobe predominance in chest radiology include: CIA BAD AS RASCO Mnemonics CIA C: collagen vascular diseases I: idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis A: asbestosis BAD AS B: bronchiectasis A: aspiration pneumonia D: drugs; desquamative interstitial pneumon...
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Conditions with upper lobe predominance (mnemonic)

Useful mnemonics to remember conditions with upper lobe predominance in chest radiology are: STEP BREASTS Mnemonics STEP S: sarcoidosis, silicosis T: tuberculosis E: eosinophilic pneumonia P: pneumoconiosis BREASTS B: berylliosis R: radiation fibrosis E: extrinsic allergic alveolitis...
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DeBakey classification (mnemonic)

A mnemonic used to remember the DeBakey classification 1 is: BAD Mnemonic B: both ascending and descending aorta (type I) A: ascending aorta (type II) D: descending aorta (type III)
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Diaphragmatic apertures (mnemonic)

A useful mnemonic to remember the thoracic spinal levels at which the three major structures pass through the diaphragmatic apertures is: I 8 10 eggs at 12  - where 8 is a homophone for 'ate' and the 'e' in eggs is for the US spelling of esophagus Mnemonic I 8: inferior vena cava at T8 10 eg...
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Eggshell calcification in thorax and mediastinum (mnemonic)

Helpful mnemonics to remember the major causes of eggshell calcification of the nodes in the thorax and mediastinum are:  A Silly Cool Sergeant Likes His Tubercular Blast Sara Samy Likes Her Smart ABC Mnemonic Mnemonics A Silly Cool Sergeant Likes His Tubercular Blast A: amyloidosis S: sil...
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Endobronchial metastases (mnemonic)

Primary neoplasms which may result in endobronchial metastases may be memorized by utilizing the following mnemonic: Kiss My RBC 1  Mnemonic K: Kaposi sarcoma M: melanoma R: renal cell carcinoma B: breast cancer C: colorectal carcinoma, cervical carcinoma, carcinoid See also endobronchi...
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Focal pulmonary opacity (mnemonic)

Causes of focal pulmonary opacities on a chest radiograph can be remembered using the rather crude mnemonic: 4 Fs Mnemonic F: 'fection (pulmonary infection) F: 'farction (pulmonary infarction) F: fluid (pulmonary edema) F: f***ed (lung cancer)
Article

Hemorrhagic intracranial metastases (mnemonic)

A mnemonic for primary malignancies responsible for hemorrhagic intracranial metastases is: MR CT BB Mnemonic M: melanoma R: renal cell carcinoma C: choriocarcinoma T: thyroid carcinoma, teratoma B: bronchogenic carcinoma B: breast carcinoma
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Idiopathic interstitial pneumonia (mnemonic)

Idiopathic interstitial pneumonias (IIPs) are diffuse interstitial lung diseases of unknown cause. A useful mnemonic for the American Thoracic Society-European Respiratory Society (ATS-ERS) classification of IIPs is: All Idiopathic Chronic Lung Disease aRe Nonspecifically Patterned The mnemoni...
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Interstitial lung disease without volume loss (mnemonic)

A useful mnemonic to remember the causes of interstitial lung diseases which do not cause volume loss is: LENT Mnemonic L: lymphangioleiomyomatosis E: eosinophilic granuloma (pulmonary Langerhans cell histiocytosis) N: neurofibromatosis type 1 T: tuberous sclerosis
Article

Lung consolidation (mnemonic)

A commonly used mnemonic for recalling the features of consolidation is: A2BC3 Mnemonic A2BC3 A: acinar rosettes A: air bronchogram/alveologram B: bat-wing distribution C: coalescent/confluent ill-defined "fluffy" appearance C: consolidation: diffuse, perihilar/bibasilar, lobar/segmental...
Article

Lymphangitic carcinomatosis (mnemonic)

A mnemonic for the causes of lymphangitic carcinomatosis is: Certain Cancers Spread By Plugging The Lymphatics Mnemonic C: cervix C: colon S: stomach B: breast P: prostate and pancreas T: thyroid L: larynx and lung
Article

Non-cardiogenic pulmonary edema (mnemonic)

The causes of non-cardiogenic pulmonary edema can be recalled with the following mnemonic: NOT CARDIAC Mnemonic NOT CARDIAC N: near drowning O: O2 therapy/post-intubation pulmonary edema T: trauma/transfusion (TRALI: transfusion-related acute lung injury) C: CNS: neurogenic pulmonary ede...
Article

Obliterative bronchiolitis (mnemonic)

A mnemonic to remember the causes of obliterative bronchiolitis is: CRITTS Mnemonic C: cryptogenic organizing pneumonia (COP)/BOOP R: rheumatoid arthritis I: infectious: postviral/postatypical infection (e.g. Mycoplasma pneumonia) T: transplant: heart/lung/hematopoietic stem cell transplan...
Article

Peripheral lung opacities (mnemonic)

Mnemonics for peripheral lung opacities seen on chest x-ray or CT are useful to remember differentials. Examples include: AEIOU SIC CUE Mnemonics AEIOU A: alveolar sarcoidosis E: eosinophilic pneumonia I: infarction O: organizing pneumonia (including COP) U: usual interstitial pneumonit...
Article

Pulmonary cavity (mnemonic)

A particularly helpful mnemonic for causes of pulmonary cavities is: CAVITY Mnemonic C: cancer  bronchogenic carcinoma: most frequently squamous cell carcinoma (SCC) cavitary pulmonary metastasis(es): most frequently SCC A: autoimmune; granulomas from  granulomatosis with polyangiitis rh...
Article

Pulmonary nodules with air bronchograms (mnemonic)

A helpful mnemonic for causes of pulmonary nodules with air bronchograms is: OBALLS Mnemonic OBALLS O: organizing pneumonia B: bronchoalveolar carcinoma (adenocarcinoma) A: acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS) L: lymphoma L: lipoid pneumonia S: sarcoidosis Another consideration i...
Article

Segmental bronchi of the right lower lobe (mnemonic)

The anatomy of the segmental bronchi of the right lower lobe can be remembered by using one of several mnemonics. The segments are as follows:  superior (B6)  medial basal (B7) anterior basal (B8) lateral basal (B9)  posterior basal (B10) Mnemonics  Small P Just remove the second "L" and...
Article

Sonographic approach to dyspnea (mnemonic)

This mnemonic will help with the sonographic approach to the critically ill patient with dyspnea: CHEST Mnemonic C: collapsed lung (pneumothorax)  absence of anterior lung sliding, lung pulse, B-lines, or z-lines these artifacts arise from the pleural interface; their presence would rule ou...
Article

Thoracic plane (mnemonic)

A handy mnemonic to remember the structures found at the level of the thoracic plane (also known as the plane of Ludwig) is: CLAPTRAP RAT PLANT Mnemonic CLAPTRAP C: cardiac plexus L: ligamentum arteriosum A: aortic arch (inner concavity) P: pulmonary trunk T: tracheal bifurcation (carin...
Article

Trauma CT thorax review areas (mnemonic)

Trauma CT thorax review areas are useful to reduce the potential for error, which is higher than usual given the larger number of images requiring review, and the often present time pressures and the potential presence of numerous concurrent injuries (see CT polytrauma).  Using some standard re...
Article

Unilateral hyperlucent hemithorax (mnemonic)

Mnemonics for a unilateral hyperlucent hemithorax include: CRAWLS SAFE POEM ACROSSS Mnemonics CRAWLS C: contralateral lung increased density, e.g. supine pleural effusion R: rotation A: air, e.g. pneumothorax W: wall, e.g. chest wall mass, mastectomy, polio, Poland syndrome, surgical re...
Article

Upper and lower lobe distribution of bilateral pulmonary pathologies (mnemonic)

The upper and lower lobe distribution of certain bilateral pulmonary pathologies can be recalled using the following mnemonics: upper lobe or apical predominance: CASSET HPP or SET CAP  lower lobe or bibasilar predominance: BAD RASH Mnemonics CASSET HPP C: cystic fibrosis A: ankylosing spo...

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