Articles

Articles are a collaborative effort to provide a single canonical page on all topics relevant to the practice of radiology. As such, articles are written and edited by countless contributing members over a period of time. A global group of dedicated editors oversee accuracy, consulting with expert advisers, and constantly reviewing additions.

34 results found
Article

Annulus of Zinn contents (mnemonic)

A mnemonic to remember the contents of the tendinous ring (also known as the annulus of Zinn) from superior to inferior is: "One Canal, Several Orbital Nerves In One Annulus" Mnemonic: OC: optic canal SO: superior division of oculomotor nerve N: nasociliary nerve IO: inferior division of o...
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Auditory brainstem response tracing (mnemonic)

This mnemonic helps when remembering the ascending order of structures that correspond to each waveform in an auditory brainstem response (ABR) tracing: E COLI Mnemonic E: eighth nerve action potential (wave I) C: cochlear nucleus (wave II) O: olivary complex (superior) (wave III) L: later...
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Behavioral changes in obstructive sleep apnea (mnemonic)

A mnemonic used to remember the behavioral changes of obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) is: APRIL Mnemonic A: aggression P: poor school performance R: restlessness I: irritability L: lack of concentration
Article

Branches of maxillary artery (mnemonic)

A mnemonic for remembering the branches of the maxillary artery is: DAM I AM Piss Drunk But Stupid Drunk I Prefer, Must Phone Alcoholics Anonymous Mnemonic D: deep auricular artery A: anterior tympanic artery M: middle meningeal artery I: inferior alveolar artery A: accessory meningeal ar...
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Branches of the external carotid artery (mnemonic)

Mnemonics for the branches of the external carotid artery abound. A few colorful examples include:  Some American Ladies Found Our Pyramids Most Satisfactory Some Anatomists Like Freaking Out Poor Medical Students She Always Likes Friends Over Papa, Sister, and Mama There are many many many ...
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Branches of the thoracoacromial artery (mnemonic)

Useful mnemonics to remember the four branches of the thoracoacromial artery are: ABCD CAlifornia Police Department Cadavers Are Dead People PACkeD Mnemonics ABCD A: acromial B: breast (pectoral) C: clavicular D: deltoid CAlifornia Police Department C: clavicular A: acromial  P: pe...
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Common calcifying metastases (mnemonic)

A simple mnemonic to recall a list of commonly calcifying metastases is: BOTOM Mnemonic B: breast cancer O: osteosarcoma T: papillary thyroid cancer O: ovarian cancer (especially mucinous) M: mucinous adenocarcinoma (especially colorectal carcinoma)
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Complications of petrous temporal bone fracture (mnemonic)

A handy mnemonic to recall the complications of transverse and longitudinal petrous temporal bone fractures is: Listen Carefully To Something Funny Mnemonic listen carefully = longitudinal / conductive hearing loss to something funny = transverse / sensorineural hearing loss and facial nerve...
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Congenital hypothyroidism (mnemonic)

The features of an infant with congenital hypothyroidism can be recalled with the following mnemonic: 5 Ps Mnemonic P: pot belly P: pallor P: puffy face P: protruding umbilicus P: poked out tongue
Article

Dural tail sign (mnemonic)

A useful mnemonic to remember differential diagnoses associated with a dural tail sign is: My Scary Dog Likes To Stand Guard Mnemonic M: meningioma S: sarcoidosis D: dural metastases L: lymphoma T: tuberculoma S: schwannoma G: glioma
Article

External jugular vein tributaries (mnemonic)

A mnemonic to remember external jugular vein (formed by the retromandibular and posterior auricular veins) tributaries is: PAST Mnemonic P: posterior external jugular vein A: anterior jugular vein S: suprascapular vein T: transverse cervical vein
Article

Extraocular muscle involvement in thyroid associated orbitopathy (mnemonic)

A mnemonic to remember the order in which extraocular muscles are involved in thyroid-associated orbitopathy (TAO) is: I'M SLOw Mnemonic I: inferior rectus M: medial rectus S: superior rectus L: lateral rectus O: obliques muscles (superior oblique and inferior oblique) There is some deba...
Article

Extrinsic muscles of the tongue (mnemonic)

The extrinsic muscles of the tongue can be remembered with the following mnemonic: Paris St Germain's Hour Mnemonic Paris St. Germain's Hour P: palatoglossus S: styloglossus G: genioglossus H: hyoglossus
Article

Facial nerve branches (mnemonic)

There are many mnemonics to recall the branches of the facial nerve (superior to inferior) as they exit the anterior border of the parotid gland. Examples include: Tall Zulus Bear Many Children Two Zebras Bit My Coccyx Ten Zebras Buggered My Car To Zanzibar By Motor Car Two Zombies Buggered...
Article

Facial nerve segments (mnemonic)

Helpful mnemonics for remembering the segments of the facial nerve include: I Love Going To Makeover Parties 1 I Love Grinning, Then Making Pouts both grinning and pouting are performed by muscles which are innervated by the facial nerve I Must Learn To Make (facial) Expressions Mnemonics ...
Article

Foramen ovale contents (mnemonic)

A mnemonic to remember foramen ovale contents is: OVALE Mnemonic O: otic ganglion (inferior) V: V3 cranial nerve (mandibular division of the trigeminal nerve) A: accessory meningeal artery L: lesser petrosal nerve E: emissary veins
Article

Functional endoscopic sinus surgery preoperative variants (mnemonic)

A mnemonic to remember the potential anatomic variants to report on pre-functional endoscopic sinus surgery studies is 1: CLOSE Mnemonic C: cribriform plate L: lamina papyracea O: Onodi cell S: sphenoid sinus pneumatization E: ethmoidal artery (anterior) See also ostiomeatal complex nar...
Article

Inferior orbital fissure contents (mnemonic)

Mnemonic for the contents of the inferior orbital fissure (from medial to lateral) is: Inferior Orbit Gets Infra-Orbital Nerves and VeinZ Mnemonic Inferior Orbit Gets Infra-Orbital Nerves and VeinZ IO: inferior ophthalmic vein (tributary to both pterygoid venous plexus and cavernous sinus) ...
Article

Innervation of the muscles of the middle ear (mnemonic)

A useful mnemonic to remember innervation of the muscles of the middle ear is: S for Stapedius T for Tensor Tympani Mnemonic S: stapedius is supplied by a branch of the facial nerve - the Seventh cranial nerve. It is also the Smallest muscle in the body, and inserts onto the neck of Stapes. ...
Article

Internal auditory canal nerves (mnemonic)

A mnemonic to remember the relative position of nerves inside the internal auditory canal (IAC) is: Seven up, Coke down Anatomy Four nerves pass through the IAC: facial nerve (CN VII) three components of the vestibulocochlear nerve (CN VIII) cochlear nerve (CN VIIIc) superior vestibular n...
Article

Internal jugular vein tributaries (mnemonic)

A useful mnemonic to remember the branches of the internal jugular vein is: Medical Schools Let Fun People In Mnemonic From inferior to superior: M: middle thyroid vein S: superior thyroid vein L: lingual vein F: facial vein P: pharyngeal vein I: inferior petrosal sinus
Article

Layers of the scalp (mnemonic)

A mnemonic for the layers of the scalp is: SCALP This is particularly helpful when considering the location of a scalp hematoma. Mnemonic S: skin C: connective tissue A: (galea) aponeurosis L: loose connective tissue P: periosteum
Article

Medial wall of the orbit (mnemonic)

A useful mnemonic to remember the bones forming the medial wall of the orbit is: My Little Eye Sits (in the orbit); or Medial Layer Eye Socket Mnemonic M: maxilla (frontal process) L: lacrimal E: ethmoid (lamina papyracea) S: sphenoid (body)
Article

Muscular attachments of the hyoid bone (mnemonic)

A handy mnemonic to recall the muscle attachments of the hyoid bone. The first sentence is for six muscles attaching superiorly, the second sentence is for three muscles attaching inferiorly. Both sentences are in order from lateral to medial: Christopher, He Didn't See Girls Much. That's Obvio...
Article

Nasal septum perforation (mnemonic)

A not-very-useful mnemonic for the causes of nasal septum perforation is: Say Water Coke Syrup Sugar Lemonade or say Nothing Mnemonic S: sarcoidosis W: Wegener granulomatosis (now known as granulomatosis with polyangiitis) C: cocaine S: syphilis S: surgery L: leprosy or say N: non-Hod...
Article

Nasopharyngeal masses (mnemonic)

A mnemonic for causes of nasopharyngeal masses is: SAIL Mnemonic S: squamous cell carcinoma A: antrochoanal polyp (extending from sinonasal cavity) I: inverted papilloma (extending from sinonasal cavity) L: lymphoma
Article

Nystagmus (mnemonic)

A helpful mnemonic to remember the expected direction of nystagmus during a caloric test is: COWS Mnemonic Cold-Opposite Warm-Same Following ear stimulation with water (left ear): cold water (cooler than body temperature), a right-beating nystagmus (directed toward the opposite ear) result...
Article

Ostiomeatal complex parts (mnemonic)

A useful mnemonic to remember the five parts of the ostiomeatal complex is: HI EMU Mnemonic H: hiatus semilunaris I: infundibulum E: ethmoidal bulla M: maxillary ostium U: uncinate process Emus have large beaks, and hence could have large ostiomeatal complexes (if they had paranasal sinu...
Article

Pediatric posterior fossa tumors (mnemonic)

Tumors of the posterior fossa in children can be remembered using the mnemonic: BEAM Mnemonic The mnemonic is not in order of prevalence; pilocytic astrocytomas are most common. B: brainstem glioma E: ependymoma A: astrocytoma (pilocytic) (85%) M: medulloblastoma
Article

Pituitary region mass (mnemonic)

A useful mnemonic for remembering the differentials for pituitary region masses is: SATCHMO 1,2 MOuSTACHE Mnemonics SATCHMO S: sarcoid, sellar tumor (pituitary adenoma) A: aneurysm T: teratoma or tuberculosis (and other granulomatous diseases)  C: craniopharyngioma, cleft cyst (Rathke), ...
Article

Skull vault bones (mnemonic)

A useful mnemonic to remember the six skull vault bones is: STEP OF 6 Mnemonic S: sphenoid T: temporal E: ethmoid P: parietal O: occipital F: frontal 6: number of skull bones
Article

Temporal bone fracture complications (mnemonic)

A helpful mnemonic for remembering the complications of temporal bone fractures that may require early intervention is:  CLONE Mnemonic C: carotid artery injury L: leakage of CSF O: other intracranial complications, e.g. hematoma N: nerve injury leading to complete facial paralysis E: ext...
Article

Thyroid mass (mnemonic)

A mnemonic for thyroidal mass differential diagnosis is: CATCH Mnemonic C: carcinoma A: adenoma  T: thyroiditis C: colloid cyst H: hyperplasia (parathyroid gland)
Article

Trigeminal nerve branches (mnemonic)

A mnemonic for remembering the names of the skull foramina that the division of the trigeminal nerve (CN V) pass through is: Standing Room Only Mnemonic standing: superior orbital fissure (ophthalmic division of trigeminal nerve) room: foramen rotundum (maxillary division of trigeminal nerve...

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