Articles

Articles are a collaborative effort to provide a single canonical page on all topics relevant to the practice of radiology. As such, articles are written and edited by countless contributing members over a period of time. A global group of dedicated editors oversee accuracy, consulting with expert advisers, and constantly reviewing additions.

21 results found
Article

Abdominal distension (mnemonic)

A mnemonic for causes of abdominal distension (6 Fs) is: F: fat F: fluid  F: flatus F: feces  F: fetus F: fulminant mass
Article

Bony sequestrum (mnemonic)

Mnemonics to help remember common causes of bony sequestrum include: E-FILM LIFE FILE Mnemonics E-FILM E: eosinophilic granuloma  F: fibrosarcoma I: infection (Brodie abscess) L: lymphoma (skeletal)  M: malignant fibrous histiocytoma or metastasis (especially from breast carcinoma) LI...
Article

Bronchovascular spread (mnemonic)

A mnemonic to remember diseases that undergo bronchovascular spread is: SKILL Mnemonic S: sarcoidosis K: Kaposi sarcoma I: infection (e.g. pneumocystis pneumonia, tuberculosis) L: lymphoma L: lymphangitis carcinomatosis
Article

Calcified glial tumors (mnemonic)

In order of decreasing frequency, a useful mnemonic to remember glial tumors which calcify is: Old Elephants Age Gracefully Mnemonic O: oligodendroglioma E: ependymoma A: astrocytoma G: glioblastoma
Article

Calcifying pulmonary metastases (mnemonic)

A useful mnemonic to remember the causes of calcifying pulmonary metastases is: BOBCAT Mnemonic B: bone (chondrosarcoma, osteosarcoma) O: ovary B: breast C: colon A: any primary post-chemotherapy T: thyroid
Article

Cerebral ring enhancing lesions (mnemonic)

Convenient mnemonics for the causes of cerebral ring enhancing lesions are: MAGIC DR or DR MAGIC DR MAGIC L MAGICAL DR Mnemonics MAGIC DR or DR MAGIC M: metastasis A: abscess G: glioblastoma I: infarct (subacute phase), inflammatory - neurocysticercosis (NCC), tuberculoma C: contusion ...
Article

Cortically-based brain tumors (mnemonic)

A handy mnemonic to recall cortically-based brain tumors is: PDOG DOG Pee Mnemonic P: pleomorphic xanthoastrocytoma D: dysembryoplastic neuroepithelial tumor (DNET); desmoplastic infantile astrocytoma and ganglioglioma O: oligodendroglioma G: ganglioglioma
Article

Diffuse bony sclerosis (mnemonic)

Useful mnemonics for remembering causes of diffuse bony sclerosis include: 3 M's PROOF Regular Sex Makes Occasional Perversions Much More Pleasurable And Fantastic 1 Mnemonics 3 M's PROOF M: malignancy metastases (osteoblastic metastases) lymphoma leukemia M: myelofibrosis M: mastocyto...
Article

Dural tail sign (mnemonic)

A useful mnemonic to remember differential diagnoses associated with a dural tail sign is: My Scary Dog Likes To Stand Guard Mnemonic M: meningioma S: sarcoidosis D: dural metastases L: lymphoma T: tuberculoma S: schwannoma G: glioma
Article

Endobronchial metastases (mnemonic)

Primary neoplasms which may result in endobronchial metastases may be memorized by utilizing the following mnemonic: Kiss My RBC 1  Mnemonic K: Kaposi sarcoma M: melanoma R: renal cell carcinoma B: breast cancer C: colorectal carcinoma, cervical carcinoma, carcinoid See also endobronchi...
Article

Focal sclerotic bony lesions (mnemonic)

A popular mnemonic to help remember causes of focal sclerotic bony lesions is: HOME LIFE Mnemonic H: healed non-ossifying fibroma (NOF) O: osteoma M: metastasis E: Ewing sarcoma L: lymphoma I: infection or infarct F: fibrous dysplasia E: enchondroma
Article

Germ cell tumors (mnemonic)

A mnemonic for the differential diagnosis for germ cell tumors is: SECTE Mnemonic S: seminoma E: embryonal cell carcinoma C: choriocarcinoma T: teratoma E: endodermal sinus tumor (yolk sac tumor)
Article

Hemorrhagic intracranial metastases (mnemonic)

A mnemonic for primary malignancies responsible for hemorrhagic intracranial metastases is: MR CT BB Mnemonic M: melanoma R: renal cell carcinoma C: choriocarcinoma T: thyroid carcinoma, teratoma B: bronchogenic carcinoma B: breast carcinoma
Article

Hypervascular metastases (mnemonic)

A useful mnemonic for remembering the tumors which cause hypervascular metastases is: MR CT PET Mnemonic M: melanoma R: renal cell carcinoma C: choriocarcinoma T: thyroid carcinoma PET: (pancreatic) neuroendocrine tumor
Article

Intradural extramedullary spinal tumors (mnemonic)

Useful mnemonics to remember the differential diagnoses for intradural extramedullary spinal neoplasms include the following: No More Spinal Masses MnM Mnemonics No More Spinal Masses N: neurofibroma M: meningioma S: schwannoma M: metastasis MnM This simplified mnemonic, as in M&M cand...
Article

Intramedullary spinal masses (mnemonic)

A useful mnemonic to remember the differential diagnoses of intramedullary spinal masses is: I HEAL Mnemonic I: infarction H: hemangioblastoma E: ependymoma A: astrocytoma L: lipoma
Article

Lucent/lytic bone lesion - differential diagnosis (mnemonic)

Mnemonics for the differential diagnosis of lucent/lytic bone lesions include: FEGNOMASHIC FOG MACHINES They are anagrams of each other and therefore include the same components. They are by no means exhaustive lists, but are a good start for remembering a differential for a lucent/lytic bone...
Article

Esophageal mass (mnemonic)

A mnemonic to remember the causes of an esophageal mass is: CALL the MVP Mnemonic C: carcinoma A: adenoma L: lymphoma L: leiomyoma M: metastasis V: varices P: papilloma/polyp
Article

Permeative process in bone (mnemonic)

A mnemonic for permeative processes in bone is: FIRE MD Mnemonic F: fibrosarcoma I: infection R: round cell tumors (Ewing sarcoma) E: eosinophilic granuloma M: metastases/myeloma/malignant fibrous histiocytoma D: desmoid tumor See also permeative process in bone pseudopermeative proce...
Article

Soft tissue calcification (mnemonic)

Mnemonics to remember the causes of soft tissue calcification include: My GHOSTS 1 TIC MTV 2 Mnemonics My GHOSTS My: myositis ossificans G: gout H: hyperparathyroidism O: ochronosis S: scleroderma/connective tissue diseases T: tumoral calcinosis S: sarcoma (synovial cell) TIC MTV T:...
Article

Von Hippel-Lindau disease (mnemonic)

Features of von Hippel-Lindau disease can be remembered by the mnemonic: HIPPEL Mnemonic H: hemangioblastoma I: increased risk of renal cell cancer P: pheochromocytoma P: pancreatic lesions (cyst, cystadenoma, cystadenocarcinoma) E: eye dysfunction (retinal hemangioblastoma), endolymphati...

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